93 relations: Alps, Alsace, Anjou, Ardres, Balmaclellan, Bergfried, Berkhamsted Castle, Bretèche, Bronze Age, Cadwgan ap Bleddyn, Calais, Cambridge, Carolingian Empire, Castles in Great Britain and Ireland, Catalonia, Chalk, Château de Langeais, Chemise (wall), Clay, Clones, County Monaghan, Concentric objects, Counterscarp, Counts and dukes of Anjou, Courtyard, Cymmer, Rhondda Cynon Taf, David I of Scotland, Denmark, Duke of Normandy, Durham Castle, England, Feudalism, Fifth Crusade, Flanders, Flood, France, Friesland, Fulk III, Count of Anjou, Gaer Penrhôs, Galloway, Gatehouse, Geoffrey II, Count of Anjou, Gord (archaeology), Gravel, Henry II of England, Hide (skin), Holy Roman Empire, Inner bailey, Inverurie, Ireland, Keep, ..., Les Rues-des-Vignes, Lincoln Castle, Lincoln, England, List of castles and châteaux in Belgium, List of castles and palaces in Denmark, List of castles in France, List of castles in Germany, List of castles in the Netherlands, List of motte-and-bailey castles, Llanarmon-yn-Iâl, Low Countries, Lower Rhine, Masonry, Mueang, Netherlands, Norman conquest of southern Italy, Normandy, Normans, Norwich, Oslo, Outer bailey, Palisade, Rampart (fortification), Refuge castle, Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, Ringwork, Royal Archives, Scotland, Shell keep, Sod, Subsidence, Terp, Thetford Castle, Tumulus, Unfree labour, Wales, Warkworth Castle, Welsh Marches, William the Conqueror, Windsor Castle, Wood, World War II, Zeeland. Expand index (43 more) » « Shrink index
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
Anjou (Andegavia) is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River.
Ardres is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Balmaclellan (Scottish Gaelic: Baile MhicIllFhaolain, meaning town of the MacLellans) is a small hillside village of stone houses with slate roofs in a fold of the Galloway hills in south-west Scotland.
A bergfried (plural: bergfrieds or bergfriede) is a tall tower that is typically found in castles of the Middle Ages in German-speaking countries and in countries under German influence.
Berkhamsted Castle is a Norman motte-and-bailey castle in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire.
In medieval fortresses, a bretèche or brattice is a small balcony with machicolations, usually built over a gate and sometimes in the corners of the fortress' wall, with the purpose of enabling defenders to shoot or throw objects at the attackers huddled under the wall.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Cadwgan ap Bleddyn (1051–1111) was a prince of the Kingdom of Powys (Teyrnas Powys) in eastern Wales.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
Castles have played an important military, economic and social role in Great Britain and Ireland since their introduction following the Norman invasion of England in 1066.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
The Château de Langeais is a medieval castle in Indre-et-Loire, France, built on a promontory created by the small valley of the Roumer River at the opening to the Loire Valley.
In medieval castles the chemise (French: "shirt") was typically a low wall encircling the keep, protecting the base of the tower.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Clones is a small town in western County Monaghan, Ireland.
In geometry, two or more objects are said to be concentric, coaxal, or coaxial when they share the same center or axis.
A scarp and a counterscarp are the inner and outer sides of a ditch or moat used in fortifications.
The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the county of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong.
A courtyard or court is a circumscribed area, often surrounded by a building or complex, that is open to the sky.
Cymmer (Cymer) is a village and community in the Rhondda Valley, Wales.
David I or Dauíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern: Daibhidh I mac Chaluim; – 24 May 1153) was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians from 1113 to 1124 and later King of the Scots from 1124 to 1153.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France.
Durham Castle is a Norman castle in the city of Durham, England, which has been wholly occupied since 1840 by University College, Durham.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Friesland (official, Fryslân), also historically known as Frisia, is a province of the Netherlands located in the northern part of the country.
Fulk III, the Black (970–1040; Foulque Nerra) was an early Count of Anjou celebrated as one of the first great builders of medieval castles.
Gaer Penrhôs, in Ceredigion, Wales, was a ringwork castle at the summit of a steep hill near the village of Llanrhystud; now all that remains are the outlines of its ringworks.
Galloway (Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire.
A gatehouse is a building enclosing or accompanying a gateway for a town, religious house, castle, manor house, or other buildings of importance.
Geoffrey II, called Martel ("the Hammer"), was Count of Anjou from 1040 to 1060.
A gord is a medieval Slavic fortified wooden settlement, sometimes known as a burgwall after the German term for such sites.
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
A hide or skin is an animal skin treated for human use.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The inner bailey or inner ward of a castle is the strongly fortified enclosure at the heart of a medieval castle.
Inverurie (Scottish Gaelic: Inbhir Uraidh or Inbhir Uaraidh, "mouth of the River Ury") is a Royal Burgh and town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland at the confluence of the rivers Ury and Don, about north west of Aberdeen on the A96 road and is served by Inverurie railway station on the Aberdeen to Inverness Line.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
A keep (from the Middle English kype) is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility.
Les Rues-des-Vignes (called Vinchy in the Middle Ages) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Lincoln Castle is a major Norman castle constructed in Lincoln, England during the late 11th century by William the Conqueror on the site of a pre-existing Roman fortress.
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.
This is an incomplete list of châteaus and castles in Belgium.
This is a consolidated list of castles and palaces in Denmark.
This is a list of castles in France, arranged by Region and Department.
This is a list of Castles and other such fortifications and palaces or country homes in Germany.
This is a list of castles in the Netherlands per province.
A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle, with a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised earthwork called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade.
Llanarmon-yn-Iâl is a village, and local government community, in Denbighshire, Wales, lying in limestone country in the valley of the River Alyn.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
The Lower Rhine (Niederrhein; kilometres 660 to 1,033 of the river Rhine) flows from Bonn, Germany, to the North Sea at Hoek van Holland, Netherlands (including the Nederrijn or "Nether Rhine" within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta); alternatively, Lower Rhine may be refer to the part upstream of Pannerdens Kop, excluding the Nederrijn.
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.
Mueang (เมือง mɯ̄ang), Muang (ເມືອງ mɯ́ang), Mường or Mong (မိူင်း mə́ŋ) were pre-modern semi-independent city-states or principalities in Indochina, adjacent regions of Northeast India and Southern China, including what is now Thailand, Laos, Burma, Cambodia, parts of northern Vietnam, southern Yunnan, western Guangxi and Assam.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Norwich (also) is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies approximately north-east of London.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
An outer bailey or outer ward is the defended outer enclosure of a castle.
A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is typically a fence or wall made from wooden stakes or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure.
In fortification architecture, a rampart is a length of bank or wall forming part of the defensive boundary of a castle, hillfort, settlement or other fortified site.
A refuge castle or refuge fort (Fliehburg, also Fluchtburg, Volksburg, Bauernburg or Vryburg) is a castle-like defensive location, usually surrounded by ramparts, that is not permanently occupied but acts as a temporary retreat for the local population when threatened by war or attack.
Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, The family name ‘de Clare’ was also rendered ‘of Clare’ in contemporary sources.
A ringwork is a form of fortified defensive structure, usually circular or oval in shape.
The Royal Archives, also known as the Queen's Archives, is a division of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
A shell keep is a style of medieval fortification, best described as a stone structure circling the top of a motte.
Sod or turf is grass and the part of the soil beneath it held together by its roots or another piece of thin material.
Subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea level.
A terp, also known as a wierde, woerd, warf, warft, werf, wurt or værft, is an artificial dwelling mound found on the North European Plain that has been created to provide safe ground during storm surges, high tides and sea or river flooding.
Thetford Castle is a medieval motte and bailey castle in the market town of Thetford in the Breckland area of Norfolk, England.
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Warkworth Castle is a ruined medieval building in the village of the same name in the English county of Northumberland.
The Welsh Marches (Y Mers) is an imprecisely defined area along and around the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zeeland (Zeelandic: Zeêland, historical English exonym Zealand) is the westernmost and least populous province of the Netherlands.