331 relations: A Journey to Arzrum, Ağrı, Ağrı Province, Aerial photography, Aleksandras Štromas, Alexander Pushkin, Alexander Tamanian, American Oriental Society, American University of Armenia, Anatoly Novoseltsev, Ancient Greek, Andesite, Ani, Ani Plaza Hotel, Antoine Augustin Calmet, Aralık, Ararad (daily), Ararat (brandy), Ararat (film), Ararat (village), Armenia, Ararat anomaly, Ararat Plain, Ararat Province, Ararat Quarterly, Ararat rebellion, Ararat River, Ararat Township, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania, Ararat, Armenia, Ararat, North Carolina, Ararat, Victoria, Aras (river), Ari L. Goldman, Armavia, Armenia, Armenian alphabet, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian art, Armenian diaspora, Armenian dram, Armenian General Benevolent Union, Armenian Genocide, Armenian Highlands, Armenian literature, Armenian mythology, Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Weekly, Armenians, ..., Armenpress, Arto Tunçboyacıyan, Asian Affairs, Asian Educational Services, Asteroid, Atom Egoyan, Avetik Isahakyan, Azerbaijan, Azg (daily), Babylon, Baltic Germans, Basalt, Bel (mythology), Belarusian State University, Biblical Hebrew, Blackie and Son, Book of Genesis, Brand, Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, Canadians, Capture of Erivan, Caucasus, Charles Kegan Paul, Charles Olson, Chiswick Press, Christie's, Classical antiquity, Coat of arms of Armenia, Collins English Dictionary, Complex volcano, Continental crust, Cultural property, Dacite, Debris flow, Der Spiegel, Eastern Anatolia Region, Edwin Mellen Press, Emblem of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Enclave and exclave, Encyclopaedia Judaica, Encyclopædia Iranica, Eocene, Epic of Gilgamesh, Epoch (geology), Escutcheon (heraldry), Etchmiadzin Cathedral, European route E99, Evangelicalism, Exonym and endonym, Fault (geology), FC Ararat Yerevan, Financial Times, First Republic of Armenia, Fissure vent, Flag carrier, Football Federation of Armenia, František Mikloško, Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, Friedrich Parrot, Genesis flood narrative, Genius (website), Geographica, Geological Society of America, Geological Society of London, Geophysical Journal International, Gevorg Bashinjaghian, Glacier, Gomidas Institute, Greater Armenia, H. F. B. Lynch, Hakob Kojoyan, Harrison Gray Otis Dwight, Hayk, Hürriyet Daily News, Hebrew language, Hebrew Union College Annual, Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, HEC Lausanne, Henry Danby Seymour, History of Armenia (book), Holocene, Holy See, Hovhannes Shiraz, Hypnotize (album), I.B. Tauris, Iğdır, Iğdır Province, Ice cap, In Search of Noah's Ark, International Journal of Middle East Studies, International Space Station, Iran, Ivan Aivazovsky, James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary, Japheth, Jewish Encyclopedia, John Mandeville, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, Journal of Social Issues, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Journey to Ararat, Julius Fürst, Kenneth Feder, Khachatur Abovian, Khor Virap, Kozma Spassky-Avtonomov, Kura–Araxes culture, Kurdish languages, Kurds, Lake Balık, Landslide, Last Glacial Maximum, Late Middle Ages, Latin, Laurasia, Lava, Lava dome, Lava tube, Le Figaro, Leipzig University, Lenta.ru, Licancabur, List of elevation extremes by country, List of minor planets: 96001–97000, List of national founders, List of peaks by prominence, Little Ararat, Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri, Luigi Villari, Marshall Cavendish, Martiros Saryan, Mashu, Masis (village), Masis, Armenia, Massif, Massis (weekly), Material culture, McFarland & Company, Meanings of minor planet names, Merriam-Webster, Middle Persian, Millenarianism, Ministry of Forest and Water Management (Turkey), Miocene, Moraine, Mount Aragats, Mount Ararat (disambiguation), Mount Ararat (Pennsylvania), Mountains of Ararat, Movses Khorenatsi, Murat River, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, NASA, National Geographic, National symbol, New York Review Books, News24, Nicholas Adontz, Noah's Ark, Nova Science Publishers, Obverse and reverse, Oceanic basin, Origin myth, Osip Mandelstam, Otto Wilhelm Hermann von Abich, Oxford University Press, PanARMENIAN.Net, Panos Terlemezian, Parasitic cone, Paruyr Sevak, Patma-Banasirakan Handes, Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, Persian language, Phreatic eruption, Pleistocene, Plinian eruption, Pliocene, Pope John Paul II, Proto-Indo-European language, Pseudoarchaeology, Pull-apart basin, Pulpit Commentary, Pyroclastic flow, Pyroclastic rock, Quadripoint, Quaternary, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Radiometric dating, Radisson Blu Hotel, Yerevan, Razmik Panossian, Remote sensing, Rhyolite, Riho Västrik, Robert Ker Porter, Romantic nationalism, Rouben Paul Adalian, Routledge, Rowman & Littlefield, Royal Geographical Society, Royal Society for Asian Affairs, Rudaw Media Network, Rural City of Ararat, Russia Beyond, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian symbolism, Russo-Persian War (1826–1828), Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829), Sacred mountains, Saint Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral, Yerevan, Saint Hakob of Akori monastery, Sanskrit, Searches for Noah's Ark, Serzh Sargsyan, Silva Kaputikyan, Skyhorse Publishing, Snow, Snow line, SOAS, University of London, Social Democrat Hunchakian Party, Southwestern Adventist University, Space Shuttle, St. Martin's Press, Strabo, Stratovolcano, Summit, Sunn Classic Pictures, Surmalinsky Uyezd, Suture (geology), System of a Down, T. Fisher Unwin, Tectonics, Tectonophysics (journal), Tessa Hofmann, Tethys Ocean, The Geographical Journal, The Journal of Religion, The National (Abu Dhabi), The New York Times, The Spectator, Thomas Stackhouse, Time immemorial, Treaty of Kars, Treaty of Moscow (1921), Treaty of Turkmenchay, Tripoint, Tsypylma Darieva, Turkey, Turkish lira, Turkish–Armenian War, Ultra-prominent peak, United Armenia, United States Geological Survey, University of Amsterdam, University of Bergen, University of Tartu, Urartu, Vahan Kurkjian, Valery Bryusov, Vasily Grossman, Victoria (Australia), Vladimir Minorsky, Volcanic cone, Vulgate, Western Armenia, Western Christianity, Wilhelm Gesenius, William of Rubruck, William Wordsworth, Wisconsin glaciation, Worcester, Massachusetts, Writers Union of Armenia, Yeghishe Charents, Yeghishe Tadevosyan, Yenidoğan, Aralık, Yerevan, Yerevan Brandy Company, Yerevan History Museum, Yerevan International Film Festival, Yerevan State University. 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A Journey to Arzrum («Путешествие в Арзрум»; full title: A Journey to Arzrum during the Campaign of 1829, «Путешествие в Арзрум во время похода 1829 года») is a work of travel literature by Alexander Pushkin.
Ağrı, formerly known as Karaköse (Qerekose) from the early Turkish republican period until 1946, and before that as Karakilise (Karakilisa), is the capital of Ağrı Province at the eastern end of Turkey, near the border with Iran.
The Ağrı Province (Turkish: Ağrı ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the north, Erzurum to the northwest, Muş and Bitlis to the southwest, Van to the south, and Iğdır to the northeast. It has an area of 11,376 km² and a population of 542,022 (2010 est). A majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The region also has got a sizeable Azerbaijani (Qarapapak) minority. The provincial capital is Ağrı, situated on a 1,650 m. high plateau.
Aerial photography (or airborne imagery) is the taking of photographs from an aircraft or other flying object.
Alexander Shtromas (Aleksandras Štromas, 4 April 1931 in Kaunas, Lithuania – 12 June 1999 in Chicago) was a prominent Lithuanian political scientist, dissident, professor and author.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Alexander Tamanian (March 4, 1878 – February 20, 1936) was a Russian-born Armenian neoclassical architect, well known for his work in the city of Yerevan.
The American Oriental Society was chartered under the laws of Massachusetts on September 7, 1842.
The American University of Armenia (AUA) (Հայաստանի ամերիկյան համալսարան, ՀԱՀ; Hayastani amerikyan hamalsaran, HAH) is a private independent university in Yerevan, Armenia.
Anatoly Petrovich Novoseltsev (Анатолий Петрович Новосельцев; 1933, Irkutsk – 1995) was a Russian orientalist who brought to light and translated into Russian a slew of obscure Persian and Arab documents relating to the early history of Kievan Rus'.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
Ani (Անի; Ἄνιον, Ánion; Abnicum; ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi; Ani) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.
Ani Plaza Hotel (Անի Պլազա Հյուրանոց), is a 4-star hotel at the central Kentron District of Yerevan, Armenia.
Antoine Augustin Calmet, O.S.B. (26 February 167225 October 1757), a French Benedictine monk, was born at Ménil-la-Horgne, then in the Duchy of Bar, part of the Holy Roman Empire (now the French department of Meuse, located in the region of Lorraine).
Aralık (Başan; Aralıq; Արալիխ Aralikh; Аралык) is a town and district of the Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
Ararad (Արարատ Օրաթերթ) is a daily Lebanese Armenian newspaper and the official organ of the Armenian Social Democrat Hunchakian Party (Henchak) in Lebanon.
Ararat (stylized as ArArAt), is a brand of Armenian brandy (cognac-style) that has been produced by the Yerevan Brandy Company since 1887.
Ararat is a 2002 Canadian-French historical-drama film written and directed by Atom Egoyan and starring Charles Aznavour, Christopher Plummer, David Alpay, Arsinée Khanjian, Eric Bogosian, Bruce Greenwood and Elias Koteas.
Ararat (Արարատ, is a major village in the Ararat Province of Armenia, located 14 km south of the provincial centre Artashat. It was founded in 1828 and known as Davalu until 1935. In the 2011 census, the village had a population of 7,609. It hosted to the first CYMA – Canadian Youth Mission to Armenia led by Ronald Alepian in 1993. The village is home to the Vazgen Sargsyan House-Museum.
The Ararat anomaly is an object appearing on photographs of the snowfields near the summit of Mount Ararat, Turkey and advanced by some Christian believers as the remains of Noah's Ark.
The Ararat plain (Արարատյան դաշտ Araratyan dašt) is one of the largest of the Armenian Plateau.
Ararat (Արարատ), is a province (marz) of Armenia.
Ararat Quarterly (1959–2008) is an international quarterly of literature, history, popular culture and the arts published in English The quarterly is published by the Armenian General Benevolent Union (AGBU) in New York, NY.
The Ararat rebellion, also known as the Ağrı rebellion (Ağrı ayaklanmaları or Ağrı isyanı), was an uprising amongst the Kurdish inhabitants of the province of Ağrı in eastern Turkey against the Turkish government that took place in 1930.
The Ararat River is a tributary of the Yadkin River in southwestern Virginia and northwestern North Carolina in the United States.
Ararat Township is a township in Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania, United States.
Ararat (Արարատ), is a town and urban municipal community in the Ararat Province of Armenia, located on the Yerevan-Nakhchivan highway, southeast of the capital Yerevan and south of the provincial centre Artashat.
Ararat is an unincorporated community in the Long Hill Township of Surry County, North Carolina.
Ararat is a city in south-west Victoria, Australia, about west of Melbourne, on the Western Highway on the eastern slopes of the Ararat Hills and Cemetery Creek valley between Victoria's Western District and the Wimmera.
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
Ari L. Goldman (born September 22, 1949) is a Professor of Journalism at Columbia University and a former reporter for The New York Times.
Armavia (Արմավիա) was an airline which existed between 1996 and 2013.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
Armenian art is the unique form of art developed over the last five millennia in which the Armenian people lived on the Armenian Highland.
The Armenian diaspora refers to the communities of Armenians outside Armenia and other locations where Armenians are considered an indigenous population.
The dram (դրամ; sign: ֏; code: AMD) is the monetary unit of Armenia and the neighboring unrecognized Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh).
The Armenian General Benevolent Union (AGBU, Հայկական Բարեգործական Ընդհանուր Միություն, ՀԲԸՄ, Haykakan Baregortsakan Endhanur Miutyun) is a non-profit Armenian organization established in Cairo, Egypt, in 1906.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenian Highlands (Haykakan leṙnašxarh; also known as the Armenian Upland, Armenian plateau, Armenian tableland,Hewsen, Robert H. "The Geography of Armenia" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Richard G. Hovannisian (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997, pp. 1-17 or simply Armenia) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East.
Armenian literature begins around AD 400 with the invention of the Armenian alphabet by Mesrop Mashtots.
Armenian mythology began with ancient Indo-European and Urartian origins, gradually incorporating Mesopotamian, Iranian, and Greek ideas and deities.
The National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA) (Հայաստանի Հանրապետության գիտությունների ազգային ակադեմիա, ՀՀ ԳԱԱ, Hayastani Hanrapetut’yan gitut’yunneri azgayin akademia) is the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Armenia.
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (classical Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն, ՀՅԴ), also known as Dashnaktsutyun (in a short form, Dashnak), is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire (now Tbilisi, Georgia) by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian.
The Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia (Հայկական սովետական հանրագիտարան, Haykakan sovetakan hanragitaran; ASE) publishing house was established in 1967 as a department of the Institute of History of the Armenian Academy of Sciences under the presidency of Viktor Hambardzumyan (1908–1996), co-edited by Abel Simonyan (1922–1994) and Makich Arzumanyan (1919–1988).
Armenia (translit,; Армения; Armeniya), officially the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian SSR; translit; translit), also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenian Weekly (originally Hairenik Weekly) is an English Armenian publication published by Hairenik Association, Inc.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Armenpress (Armenian Press; Արմենպրես) is the oldest and the main state news agency in Armenia.
Arto Tunçboyacıyan (Արտո Թունջբոյաջյան) (born 4 August 1957) is a Grammy winning American musician of Armenian descent.
Asian Affairs, the journal of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs, has been published continuously since 1914 (originally as the Journal of the Central Asian Society, and from 1931 to 1969 as the Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society).
Asian Educational Services (AES) is a New Delhi, India-based publishing house that specialises in antiquarian reprints of books that were originally published between the 17th and early 20th centuries.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
Atom Egoyan, (born July 19, 1960) is a Canadian stage and film director, writer, and producer.
Avetik Isahakyan (Ավետիք Իսահակյան; October 30, 1875 – October 17, 1957) was a prominent Armenian lyric poet, writer and public activist.
Azg (Ազգ, "Nation") is a daily newspaper published in Yerevan, Armenia since 1991.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
Bel (from Akkadian bēlu), signifying "lord" or "master", is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in the Mesopotamian religion of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
Belarusian State University (BSU) (Белару́скі дзяржа́ўны ўніверсітэ́т,; Белору́сский госуда́рственный университе́т) is a university in Minsk, Belarus.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
Blackie and Son was a publishing house in Glasgow, Scotland and London, England from 1890 to 1991.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (Russian: Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона, abbr. ЭСБЕ; 35 volumes, small; 86 volumes, large) is a comprehensive multi-volume encyclopedia in Russian.
Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.
The capture of Erivan (گرفتن ایروان – Gereftan e Iravān; Взятие Эривани – Vzyatiye Erivani) took place on 1 October 1827, during the Russo-Persian War of 1826–28.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Charles Kegan Paul (1828 – 19 July 1902) was an English publisher and author.
Charles Olson (27 December 1910 – 10 January 1970) was a second generation American poet who was a link between earlier figures such as Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams and the New American poets, which includes the New York School, the Black Mountain School, the Beat poets, and the San Francisco Renaissance.
The Chiswick Press was founded by Charles Whittingham I (1767–1840) in 1811.
Christie's is a British auction house.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
The national coat of arms of Armenia (Հայաստանի զինանշանը) was adopted on April 19, 1992, by resolution of the Armenian Supreme Council.
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.
A complex volcano, also called a compound volcano, is mixed landform consisting of related volcanic centers and their associated lava flows and pyroclastic rock.
Continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.
Cultural property are physical items that are part of the cultural heritage of a group or society.
Dacite is an igneous, volcanic rock.
Debris flows are geological phenomena in which water-laden masses of soil and fragmented rock rush down mountainsides, funnel into stream channels, entrain objects in their paths, and form thick, muddy deposits on valley floors.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
The Edwin Mellen Press is a scholarly publishing house with offices in Lewiston, New York, and Lampeter, Wales.
The emblem of the Armenian SSR was devised from an initial prototype sketch by Martiros Saryan, a famous Armenian painter, and was adopted in 1937 by the government of the Armenian SSR.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and of Judaism.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period.
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.
Etchmiadzin Cathedral (Էջմիածնի մայր տաճար, Ēǰmiatsni mayr tačar) is the mother church of the Armenian Apostolic Church, located in the city of Vagharshapat (Etchmiadzin), Armenia.
The European route E99 or E99 is a European road running from Dəmirçi, Azerbaijan to Akçakale in Turkey on Syrian border.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Football Club Ararat Yerevan (Ֆուտբոլային Ակումբ Արարատ Երևան), commonly known as Ararat Yerevan, is an Armenian football club based in Yerevan.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The First Republic of Armenia, officially known at the time of its existence as the Republic of Armenia (classical Հայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն), was the first modern Armenian state since the loss of Armenian statehood in the Middle Ages.
A fissure vent, also known as a volcanic fissure or eruption fissure, is a linear volcanic vent through which lava erupts, usually without any explosive activity.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
The Football Federation of Armenia (FFA) (Հայաստանի Ֆուտբոլի Ֆեդերացիա) is the governing body of association football in Armenia.
František Mikloško (born 2 June 1947) is a Slovak politician.
Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, FBA (14 September 1856 – 9 January 1924) was a British orientalist, Fellow of University College, Oxford, and Professor of Theology at the University of Oxford.
Johann Jacob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot (25 October 179115 January 1841) was a Baltic German naturalist, explorer, and mountaineer, who lived and worked in Dorpat (today Tartu, Estonia) in what was then the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire.
The Genesis flood narrative is a flood myth found in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis).
Genius (formerly Rap Genius) is an American digital media company.
The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.
The Geological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences.
The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society based in the United Kingdom.
Geophysical Journal International is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (German Geophysical Society).
Gevorg Bashinjaghian (Գևորգ Բաշինջաղյան; – 4 October 1925) was an Armenian painter who had significant influence on Armenian landscape painting.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
The Gomidas Institute (GI; ԿԻ) is an independent academic institution "dedicated to modern Armenian and regional studies." Its activities include research, publications and educational programmes.
Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք, Mets Hayk') is the name given to the state of Armenia that emerged on the Armenian Highlands under the reign of King Artaxias I at the turn of the second century BC.
Henry Finnis Blosse Lynch, MA, FRGS (18 April 1862 – 24 November 1913) was a British traveller, businessman, and Liberal Member of Parliament.
Hakob Kojoyan (Հակոբ Կոջոյան; December 13, 1883 – April 24, 1959) was an Armenian artist.
Harrison Gray Otis Dwight (1803–1862) was an American Congregational missionary.
Hayk the Great (Հայկ),, or The Great Hayk, also known as Hayk Nahapet (Հայկ Նահապետ,, Hayk the "head of family" or patriarch), is the legendary patriarch and founder of the Armenian nation.
The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.
The Hebrew Union College Annual is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of Jewish studies.
The Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (also known as HUC, HUC-JIR, and The College-Institute) is a Jewish seminary with several locations in the United States and one location in Jerusalem.
HEC Lausanne (standing for Faculté des hautes études commerciales), also called the Faculty of Business and Economics of the University of Lausanne, is the affiliated business school of the University of Lausanne.
Henry Danby Seymour (1 July 1820 – 4 August 1877) was a British gentleman and Liberal Party politician.
The History of Armenia (Պատմություն Հայոց, Patmut'yun Hayots) attributed to Movses Khorenatsi is an early account of Armenia, covering the origins of the Armenian people as well as Armenia's interaction with Sassanid, Byzantine and Arsacid empires down to the 5th century.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Hovhannes Shiraz (Հովհաննես Շիրազ) (April 27, 1915 – March 14, 1984) was an Armenian poet.
Hypnotize is the fifth studio album by Armenian American heavy metal band System of a Down.
I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.
Iğdır (Turkish; Իգդիր Igdir, also Ցոլակերտ, Tsolakert, after an ancient settlement nearby), is the capital of Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey.
Iğdır Province (Iğdır ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the borders with Armenia, Azerbaijan (the area of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic), and Iran. Its adjacent provinces are Kars to the northwest and Ağrı to the west and south. It occupies an area of 3,587 km² and population of 184,418 (2010 est.), it was 168,634 in 2000 (up from 142,601 in 1990). It was created from southeastern part of former Kars Province in 1993. Turkey's highest mountain, Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı) is in Iğdır, but much of the land is a wide plain far below the mountain. The climate is the warmest in this part of Turkey, cotton can be grown in Iğdır. Iğdır is where Noah is said to have thrived following the flood. The closed border with Armenia follows the Aras River. The provincial capital is the city of Iğdır. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish, with Azerbaijanis making up the remainder.
An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).
In Search of Noah's Ark is a 1977 documentary film released by Sunn Classic Pictures that explores the alleged final resting place of Noah's Ark.
The International Journal of Middle East Studies is a scholarly journal published by the Middle East Studies Association of North America (MESA), a learned society.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Ива́н Константи́нович Айвазо́вский; 29 July 18172 May 1900) was an Armenian-Russian Romantic painter who is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art.
James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, (10 May 1838 – 22 January 1922) was a British academic, jurist, historian and Liberal politician.
The Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary refers to a biblical commentary entitled a Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, prepared by Robert Jamieson, Andrew Robert Fausset and David Brown and published in 1871; and derived works from this initial publication, in differing numbers of volumes and abridgements.
Japheth (Ἰάφεθ; Iafeth, Iapheth, Iaphethus, Iapetus), is one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis, where he plays a role in the story of Noah's drunkenness and the curse of Ham, and subsequently in the Table of Nations as the ancestor of the peoples of Europe and Anatolia.
The Jewish Encyclopedia is an English encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history, culture, and state of Judaism and the Jews up to the early 20th century.
Sir John Mandeville is the supposed author of The Travels of Sir John Mandeville, a travel memoir which first circulated between 1357 and 1371.
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (5 June 1656 – 28 December 1708) was a French botanist, notable as the first to make a clear definition of the concept of genus for plants.
The Journal of Social Issues is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues along with Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy and Social Issues and Policy Review.
The Journal of the American Oriental Society is a quarterly academic journal published by the American Oriental Society since 1843.
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research is a scientific journal that publishes recent research on the fields of volcanology and geothermal activity.
Journey to Ararat (Teekond Araratile) is a 2011 Estonian documentary film directed, written, and produced by Riho Västrik.
Julius Fürst (12 May 1805, Żerków, South Prussia – 9 February 1873, Leipzig), was a Jewish German orientalist.
Kenneth L. "Kenny" Feder (born August 1, 1952) is a professor of archaeology at Central Connecticut State University and the author of several books on archaeology and criticism of pseudoarchaeology such as Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology.
Khachatur Abovian (or Abovyan; Խաչատուր Աբովյան; (disappeared)) was an Armenian writer and national public figure of the early 19th century who mysteriously vanished in 1848 and was eventually presumed dead.
The Khor Virap (Խոր Վիրապ, meaning "deep dungeon") is an Armenian monastery located in the Ararat plain in Armenia, near the closed border with Turkey, about south of Artashat, Ararat Province, within the territory of ancient Artaxata.
Kozma Fyodorovich Spassky-Avtonomov (Козьма Фёдорович Спасский-Автономов) was born in 1807, in Zakharovka, now Lipetsk Oblast and died in 1890.
The Kura–Araxes culture or the early trans-Caucasian culture was a civilization that existed from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC, which has traditionally been regarded as the date of its end; in some locations it may have disappeared as early as 2600 or 2700 BC.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Lake Balık (Balık Gölü) is a lava-dammed freshwater lake in Ağrı Province, eastern Turkey.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Laurasia was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around (Mya).
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
In volcanology, a lava dome or volcanic dome is a roughly circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano.
A lava tube is a natural conduit formed by flowing lava which moves beneath the hardened surface of a lava flow.
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.
Leipzig University (Universität Leipzig), in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the world's oldest universities and the second-oldest university (by consecutive years of existence) in Germany.
Lenta.ru (Лента.Ру; stylised as LƐNTA·RU) is a Moscow-based online newspaper in Russian language, owned by Rambler Media Group which belongs to Prof-Media.
Licancabur is a stratovolcano on the border between Bolivia and Chile, south of the Sairecabur volcano and west of Juriques.
The following sortable table lists land surface elevation extremes by country.
The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation.
This is a list of mountain peaks ordered by their topographic prominence.
Little Ararat, also known as Mount Sis or Lesser Ararat (translit or Սիս, Sis, Azerbaijani: Küçük Ağrı, Küçük Ağrı, Agiriyê biçûk), is the sixth tallest peak in Turkey.
Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri (Լրաբեր հասարակական գիտությունների "Bulletin/Review of Social Sciences") is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Armenian Academy of Sciences covering Armenian studies.
Luigi Villari (1876–1959) was an Italian historian, traveler and diplomat.
Marshall Cavendish is a subsidiary company of Times Publishing Group, the printing and publishing subsidiary of Singapore-based conglomerate Fraser and Neave (which in turn currently owned by ThaiBev) and at present is a publisher of books, business directories and magazines.
Martiros Saryan (Մարտիրոս Սարյան; Мартиро́с Сарья́н; – 5 May 1972) was an Armenian painter, the founder of a modern Armenian national school of painting.
Mashu, as described in the Epic of Gilgamesh of Mesopotamian mythology, is a great cedar mountain through which the hero-king Gilgamesh passes via a tunnel on his journey to Dilmun after leaving the Cedar Forest, a forest of ten thousand leagues span.
Masis (Մասիս; until 1945, Tokhanshalu and Takhanshalu) is a village in the Ararat Province of Armenia.
Masis (Մասիս), is a town and urban municipal community in the Ararat Province of Armenia, located on the left bank of the Hrazdan River, 9 km southwest of Yerevan towards Mount Ararat.
In geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures.
Massis (in Armenian Մասիս) is bilingual (published in Armenian and English) since 1980.
Material culture is the physical aspect of culture in the objects and architecture that surround people.
McFarland & Company, Inc. is an independent book publisher based in Jefferson, North Carolina that specializes in academic and reference works, as well as general interest adult nonfiction.
This is a list of minor planets which have been officially named by the Minor Planet Center (MPC).
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed.
The Ministry of Forest and Water Management (Orman ve Su İşleri Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for environmental and forestry related affairs in Turkey.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.
Mount Aragats (Արագած,; formerly Ալագյազ, Alagyaz via Alagöz) is an isolated four-peaked volcano massif in Armenia.
Mount Ararat and similar may mean.
Mount Ararat is a mountain located in the Pennsylvania villages of Belmont Corners and Orson.
In the Book of Genesis, the mountains of Ararat (Biblical Hebrew, Tiberian hārēy Ǎrārāṭ, Septuagint: ὄρη τὰ Ἀραράτ) is the term used to designate the region in which Noah's Ark comes to rest after the Great Flood.
Movses Khorenatsi (ca. 410–490s AD; Խորենացի,, also written as Movsēs Xorenac‘i and Moses of Khoren, Moses of Chorene, and Moses Chorenensis in Latin sources) was a prominent Armenian historian from the period of Late Antiquity and the author of the History of Armenia.
The Murat River or Eastern Euphrates (Murat Nehri, Արածանի Aratsani) is the major source of the Euphrates River.
The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
A national symbol is a symbol of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community: the sovereign states but also nations and countries in a state of colonial or other dependence, (con)federal integration, or even an ethnocultural community considered a 'nationality' despite having no political autonomy.
New York Review Books (NYRB) is the publishing house of The New York Review of Books.
News24.com is an English-language South African online news publication created in October 1998 by the multinational media company, Naspers.
Nicholas Adontz (Nikoġayos Adonc’, also spelled Adonts;; January 10, 1871 – January 27, 1942) was an Armenian historian, specialist of Byzantine and Armenian studies, and philologist.
Noah's Ark (תיבת נח; Biblical Hebrew: Tevat Noaḥ) is the vessel in the Genesis flood narrative (Genesis chapters 6–9) by which God spares Noah, his family, and a remnant of all the world's animals from a world-engulfing flood.
Nova Science Publishers is an academic publisher of books, encyclopedias, handbooks, e-books and journals, based in Hauppauge, New York.
Obverse and its opposite, reverse, refer to the two flat faces of coins and some other two-sided objects, including paper money, flags, seals, medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art, and printed fabrics.
In hydrology, an oceanic basin may be anywhere on Earth that is covered by seawater but geologically ocean basins are large geologic basins that are below sea level.
An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world.
Osip Emilyevich Mandelstam (p; – 27 December 1938) was a Russian Jewish poet and essayist.
Otto Wilhelm Hermann von Abich (December 11, 1806July 1, 1886) was a German mineralogist and geologist.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
PanARMENIAN.Net is the first Armenian online news agency, an internet portal based in Yerevan, Armenia.
Panos Terlemezian (classical reformed: Փանոս Թերլեմեզյան; 3 March 186530 April 1941) was an Armenian painter, a People's Artist of Armenian SSR (1935).
A parasitic cone (also adventive cone or satellite cone) is the cone-shaped accumulation of volcanic material not part of the central vent of a volcano.
Paruyr Sevak (Պարույր Սևակ) (January 24, 1924 – June 17, 1971) was an Armenian poet, translator and literary critic.
Patma-Banasirakan Handes (Պատմա-Բանասիրական Հանդես (ՊԲՀ, PBH); Историко-филологический журнал, Istoriko-Filologicheskii Zhurnal; "Historical-Philological Journal") is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Armenian National Academy of Sciences.
Kirill or Cyril (Кирилл, Ст҃ѣ́йшїй патрїа́рхъ кѷрі́ллъ, secular name Vladimir Mikhailovich Gundyayev, Владимир Михайлович Гундяев; born 20 November 1946) is a Russian Orthodox bishop.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A phreatic eruption, also called a phreatic explosion, ultravulcanian eruption or steam-blast eruption, occurs when magma heats ground or surface water.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Plinian eruptions or Vesuvian eruptions are volcanic eruptions marked by their similarity to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD, which destroyed the ancient Roman cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Pseudoarchaeology—also known as alternative archaeology, fringe archaeology, fantastic archaeology, or cult archaeology—refers to interpretations of the past from outside of the archaeological science community, which reject the accepted datagathering and analytical methods of the discipline.
In geology, a basin is a region where subsidence generates accommodation space for the deposition of sediments.
The Pulpit Commentary is a homiletic commentary on the Bible created during the nineteenth century under the direction of Rev.
A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic density current or a pyroclastic cloud) is a fast-moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter (collectively known as tephra) that moves away from a volcano reaching speeds of up to.
Pyroclastic rocks or pyroclastics (derived from the πῦρ, meaning fire; and κλαστός, meaning broken) are clastic rocks composed solely or primarily of volcanic materials.
A quadripoint is a point on the Earth that touches the border of four distinct territories.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
Radisson Blu Hotel (Ռեդիսոն Բլու Հոթել Երևան), is a 5-star superior luxury hotel in Yerevan, Armenia.
Razmik Panossian (Ռազմիկ Փանոսեան, born 1964) is a Canadian-Armenian historian and political scientist.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 – see the TAS classification).
Riho Västrik (born August 4, 1965) is an Estonian filmmaker, producer, screenwriter, journalist, and historian.
Sir Robert Ker Porter, KCH (1777–1842) was a British artist, author, diplomat and traveller.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Rouben Paul Adalian is the Director of the Armenian National Institute in Washington, D.C. Adalian received his PhD in history from the University of California, Los Angeles.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) is the UK's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences.
The Royal Society for Asian Affairs is a learned society based in London (United Kingdom) that was founded in 1901 as the Central Asian Society to "promote greater knowledge and understanding of Central Asia and surrounding countries".
Rudaw Media Network (تۆڕی میدیایی ڕووداو), also known as Rudaw (Rûdaw ڕووداو), is a KDP-affiliated media group in Iraqi Kurdistan.
The Rural City of Ararat is a local government area in Victoria, Australia, located in the western part of the state.
Russia Beyond, previously branded as Russia Beyond the Headlines or the RBTH, is a project/brand started by the TV-Novosti company owned by the Rossiya Segodnya which is a state news agency wholly owned and operated by the Russian government, created by an Executive Order of the President of Russia on December 9, 2013.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
Russian symbolism was an intellectual and artistic movement predominant at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century.
The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829 was sparked by the Greek War of Independence.
Sacred mountains are central to certain religions and are the subjects of many legends.
The Saint Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral (Սուրբ Գրիգոր Լուսավորիչ մայր եկեղեցի, Surb Grigor Lusavorich mayr yekeghetsi), also known as the Cathedral of Yerevan is currently the largest cathedral of the Armenian Apostolic Church in the world, effectively making it the current largest Armenian cathedral.
Saint Hakob of Akori Monastery (pronounced Akori Surb Hakob Vank; also sometimes referred to as Saint James), was an Armenian monastery located in the southeastern part of the historic region of Surmali (today the Iğdır Province of modern Turkey).
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Searches for Noah's Ark have been made from at least the time of Eusebius (c.275–339) to the present day.
Serzh Sargsyan (Սերժ Սարգսյան,; born 30 June 1954).
Silva Kaputikyan (help); 20 January 1919 – 25 August 2006) was an Armenian poet and political activist. One of the best-known Armenian writers of the twentieth century, she is recognized as "the leading poetess of Armenia" and "the grand lady of twentieth century Armenian poetry". Although a member of the Communist Party, she was a noted advocate of Armenian national causes. Her first collection of poems were published in the mid-1940s. By the 1950s she had established herself as a significant literary figure in Soviet Armenia. Besides Armenian she also wrote in Russian and many of her works were translated to other languages. In the later Soviet period she frequently addressed political and other issues.
Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. is an American independent book publishing company founded in 2006 and headquartered in New York City.
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.
The climatic snow line is the boundary between a snow-covered and snow-free surface.
SOAS University of London (the School of Oriental and African Studies), is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The Social Democrat Party (SDHP) (Սոցիալ Դեմոկրատ Հնչակյան Կուսակցություն; ՍԴՀԿ), is the first Armenian political party, founded in 1887 by a group of students in Geneva, Switzerland.
Southwestern Adventist University is one of 13 colleges and universities in the United States affiliated with the Seventh-day Adventist Church.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash.
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it.
Sunn Classic Pictures, also known as Schick Sunn Classic Pictures was an independent U.S.-based film distributor, founded in 1971.
The Surmalinsky Uyezd (Сурмалинский уезд) or Surmali (Սուրմալու Surmalu; Sürməli; Sûrmelî; Сурмали) was a county of the Erivan Governorate of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire.
In structural geology, a suture is a joining together along a major fault zone, of separate terranes, tectonic units that have different plate tectonic, metamorphic and paleogeographic histories.
System of a Down, sometimes abbreviated as SOAD or colloquially referred to as System, is an heavy metal band from Glendale, California, formed in 1994.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
Tectonophysics, The International Journal of Geotectonics and the Geology and Physics of the Interior of the Earth is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
Tessa Hofmann (Savvidis) (born 15 December 1949, Bassum, Lower Saxony) is a scholar of Armenian studies and sociology, PhD, research scholar at the Free University of Berlin.
The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.
The Geographical Journal is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).
The Journal of Religion is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press founded in 1882 as The American Journal of Theology.
The National is a private English-language daily newspaper published in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Spectator is a weekly British magazine on politics, culture, and current affairs.
Thomas Stackhouse (1677–1752) was an English theologian and controversialist.
Time immemorial (temps immémorial) is a phrase meaning time extending beyond the reach of memory, record, or tradition, indefinitely ancient, "ancient beyond memory or record".
The Treaty of Kars (Kars Antlaşması, Карсский договор / Karskii dogovor, ყარსის ხელშეკრულება, Կարսի պայմանագիր, Qars müqaviləsi) was a peace treaty that established the common borders between Turkey and the three Transcaucasian republics of the Soviet Union (today the independent republics of Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan).
The Treaty of Moscow or Treaty of Brotherhood (Moskova Antlaşması, Московский договор) was a peace treaty between the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM), under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and the Russian SFSR, under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, signed on 16 March 1921.
The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор, عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. By the treaty, Persia ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus: the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia was set at the Aras River. These territories comprise modern-day Armenia, the southern parts of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan, as well as Iğdır Province (now part of Turkey). The treaty was signed for Persia by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Allah-Yar Khan Asaf al-Daula, chancellor to Shah Fath Ali (of the Qajar Dynasty), and for Russia by General Ivan Paskievich. Like the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, this treaty was imposed by Russia, following military victory over Persia. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed. By this final treaty of 1828 and the 1813 Gulistan treaty, Russia had finalised conquering all the Caucasus territories from Iran, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, all which had formed part of its very concept for centuries. The area to the North of the river Aras, amongst which the territory of the contemporary nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the North Caucasian Republic of Dagestan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century. As a further direct result and consequence of the two treaties, the formerly Iranian territories became now part of Russia for around the next 180 years, except Dagestan, which has remained a Russian possession ever since. Out of the greater part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
A tripoint, trijunction, triple point or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet.
Tsypylma Darieva (Цыпылма Дариева; born 1967) is an anthropologist and ethnographer.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkish lira (Türk lirası; sign: ₺; code: TRY; usually abbreviated as TL) is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
The Turkish–Armenian war, known in Turkey as the Eastern Operation or Eastern Front (Doğu Cephesi) of the Turkish War of Independence, refers to a conflict in the autumn of 1920 between the First Republic of Armenia and the Turkish nationalists, following the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres.
An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is defined as a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of or more.
United Armenia (classical Միացեալ Հայաստան, reformed: Միացյալ Հայաստան, translit. Miatsyal Hayastan), also known as Greater Armenia or Great Armenia, is an Armenian ethno-nationalist irredentist concept referring to areas within the traditional Armenian homeland—the Armenian Highland—which are currently or have historically been mostly populated by Armenians.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The University of Amsterdam (abbreviated as UvA, Universiteit van Amsterdam) is a public university located in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
The University of Bergen (Universitetet i Bergen) is a public university located in Bergen, Norway.
The University of Tartu (UT; Tartu Ülikool, Universitas Tartuensis) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia.
Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.
Vahan M. Kurkjian (Վահան Մ. Քուրքջյան; 1863–1961) was an Armenian author, historian, teacher, and community leader.
Valery Yakovlevich Bryusov (a; – 9 October 1924) was a Russian poet, prose writer, dramatist, translator, critic and historian.
Vasily Semyonovich Grossman (Васи́лий Семёнович Гро́ссман, Василь Семенович Гроссман; 12 December (29 November, Julian calendar) 1905 – 14 September 1964) was a Jewish Russian writer and journalist, who lived the bulk of his life under the Soviet regime.
Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.
Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky (Владимир Фёдорович Минорский; – March 25, 1966) was a Russian Orientalist best known for his contributions to the study of Kurdish (as one of the foremost Kurdologists of his time) and Persian history, geography, literature, and culture.
Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcanic landforms.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
Western Armenia (Western Armenian: Արեւմտեան Հայաստան, Arevmdian Hayasdan) is a term used to refer to eastern parts of Turkey (formerly the Ottoman Empire) that were part of the historical homeland of Armenians.
Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (3 February 1786 – 23 October 1842) was a German orientalist, Lutheran, and Biblical critic.
William of Rubruck (c. 1220 – c. 1293) was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex.
Worcester is a city and the county seat of Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States.
The Writers' Union of Armenia was founded in August 1934, simultaneously with the USSR Union of Writers and as a component part of the USSR Union.
Yeghishe Charents (March 13, 1897 – November 27, 1937) was an Armenian poet, writer and public activist.
Yeghishe Martirosi Tadevosyan (Եղիշե Թադևոսյան, September 24, 1870, Etchmiadzin — January 22 1936, Tbilisi) was an Armenian painter associated with the Peredvizhniki and Mir Iskusstva movements.
Yenidoğan (Ակոռի Akoři; Axurî; Ахури) is a village in eastern Turkey, on the northeastern slope of Mount Ararat, adjacent to the point where the borders of Turkey, Iran, and Armenia meet.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Yerevan Brandy Company ((Yerevani Konyaki Gortsaran)), commonly known with its famous brand "ArArAt", is the leading enterprise of Armenia for the production of cognac.
The Yerevan History Museum (Երևանի Պատմության Թանգարան (Yerevani Patmut'yan T'angaran)) is the history museum of Yerevan, the capital city of Armenia.
The Golden Apricot Yerevan International Film Festival (GAIFF) («Ոսկե Ծիրան» Երևանի միջազգային կինոփառատոն) is an annual film festival held in Yerevan, Armenia.
Yerevan State University (YSU; Երևանի Պետական Համալսարան, ԵՊՀ, Yerevani Petakan Hamalsaran), also simply University of Yerevan, is the oldest continuously operating public university in Armenia.