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Mount Everest

Index Mount Everest

Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. [1]

392 relations: Abseiling, Acetazolamide, Adrian Ballinger, Aerial photography, Alaska, Alcohol, Alpine chough, Alpine Club (UK), Altitude, Altitude sickness, Amphetamine, Anatoli Boukreev, Andrew Irvine (mountaineer), Andrew Scott Waugh, Andrzej Zawada, Angel Falls, Annapurna Circuit, Annapurna Massif, Apa Sherpa, April 2015 Nepal earthquake, Arenaria (plant), Argillaceous minerals, Armstrong limit, Arunima Sinha, Atmospheric pressure, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Avalanche, Background radiation, Baltasar Kormákur, Bar-headed goose, BASE jumping, Battle of Chamdo, Beck Weathers, Ben Fogle, Bengal, Bernoulli's principle, Bill Tilman, Biotite, Bottled oxygen (climbing), Bradford Washburn, Breccia, Buddhism, Burçak Özoğlu Poçan, Cambrian, Cartography, Cerebral hypoxia, Changtse, Charles Evans (mountaineer), Charles Granville Bruce, Charles Snead Houston, ..., Chimborazo, China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chough, Christian Stangl, Classical Tibetan, Clinton Thomas Dent, Commercialization, Coronation, Crampons, Crevasse, Crinoid, Cyanobacteria, Cystic fibrosis, Daily Mail, Daniel Mazur, Darjeeling, Dave Hahn, David Breashears, David Liaño Gonzalez, David Sharp (mountaineer), Davo Karničar, Dead Sea, Dehradun, Dementia with Lewy bodies, Denali, Denver Broncos, Detachment fault, Dexamethasone, Dhaulagiri, Didier Delsalle, Dike (geology), Diopside, Discovery Channel, Dolomite, Domestic yak, Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 14th Duke of Hamilton, Dzo, Earth, Eddie Bauer, Edmund Hillary, Edouard Wyss-Dunant, Edward F. Norton, Effects of high altitude on humans, Eiger, Eight-thousander, Elizabeth Hawley, Elizabeth II, Epidote, Erik Weihenmayer, Euophrys omnisuperstes, Eurocopter AS350 Écureuil, Everest (2015 film), Everest Base Camp, Everest: Beyond the Limit, Expedition 8, Exposure (heights), Fault (geology), Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Fixed rope, Flysch, Francys Arsentiev, Frostbite, Ganges, Gaurishankar, Geneva Spur, Geoffrey Bruce (Indian Army officer), Geoid, Geological formation, Geology of the Himalaya, George Everest, George Finch (chemist), George Mallory, George Medal, Global Positioning System, Gneiss, Gongbu (mountaineer), Granite, Great Trigonometrical Survey, Green Boots, Greywacke, Griffith Pugh, Guy Bullock, Haiti, Hang gliding, Hans Kammerlander, Hellas Planitia, Herald Sun, High-altitude cerebral edema, Hillary Step, Himalayan black bear, Himalayan tahr, Himalayas, Himex, Hindi, Hot air balloon, Hugh Ruttledge, Hypoxia (medical), International Space Station, Into Thin Air, Island Arc (journal), Jamling Tenzing Norgay, Jürg Marmet, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville, Jean-Marc Boivin, Jet stream, Jim Whittaker, John Hunt, Baron Hunt, Jon Krakauer, Jordan Romero, Jumping spider, Junko Tabei, K2, Kami Rita Sherpa, Kangchenjunga, Kangshung Face, Karl Gordon Henize, Karma, Kathmandu, Kathmandu Valley, Kayaking, Kazi Sherpa, Kechana Kawal, Kenton Cool, Khumbu, Khumbu Glacier, Khumbu Icefall, Khumbutse, Kirata Kingdom, Kirati people, Knight, Kodachrome, Kolkata, Krzysztof Wielicki, Leszek Cichy, Lhakpa Sherpa, Lhasa, Lhotse, Life peer, Limestone, Lincoln Hall (climber), List of aftershocks of April 2015 Nepal earthquake, List of elevation extremes by country, List of highest mountains on Earth, List of Mount Everest records, List of past presumed highest mountains, List of peaks by prominence, List of people who died climbing Mount Everest, List of ski descents of Eight-Thousanders, List of tallest mountains in the Solar System, Lotus birth, Lucy, Lady Houston, Lukla, Lydia Bradey, Mahalangur Himal, Makalu, Malaria, Malavath Purna, Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition, Marble, Mark Inglis, Mars, Matt Dickinson, Mauna Kea, Maxime Chaya, Medical evacuation, Melissa Arnot, Millionaire, Ming Kipa, Miocene, Miyolangsangma, Moment magnitude scale, Monsoon, Mont Blanc, Moss, Mount Everest, Mount Everest in 2012, Mount Everest in 2013, Mount Everest in 2017, Mount Everest webcam, Mountaineering, Mudstone, Muscovite, Myanmar, Namche Bazaar, Nanga Parbat, Nangpa La, National Geographic, National Geographic Society, Nawang Gombu, Neal Beidleman, Nepal, Nepali language, New Scientist, Nightline, North Col, North Face (Everest), Nuptse, Oligocene, Olympus Mons, Order of New Zealand, Order of the British Empire, Ordovician, Orthoclase, Ostracod, Outside (magazine), Oxygen mask, Padmasambhava, Paleoproterozoic, Paragliding, Partial pressure, Pascal (unit), Patna, Pavel Kalný, Pemba Dorje, People's Daily, Peter Habeler, Phanthog, Photogrammetry, Phurba Tashi, Phyllite, Pika, Pinyin, Plate tectonics, Popular Science, Porter (carrier), Pounds per square inch, Prostitution in Tibet, Province No. 1, Pumori, Qing dynasty, Qomolangma National Park, Quartz, Radhanath Sikdar, Raymond Lambert, Red Bull, Red panda, Refraction, Reinhold Messner, Retinal haemorrhage, Richard Bass, Rob Hall, Rock art, Roman numerals, Rongbuk Glacier, Rongbuk Monastery, Rotorcraft, Royal Geographical Society, Russell Brice, Saburō Matsukata, Sagarmatha National Park, Sandstone, Santosh Yadav, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Schist, Scott Fischer, Scrambling, Sea level, Seattle Seahawks, Sediment, Serac, Sericite, Seven Summits, Shale, Sherpa people, Shigatse, Sill (geology), Sillimanite, Siltstone, Simplified Chinese characters, Sled, Smartphone, Snapchat, Snow leopard, Solar irradiance, Solukhumbu District, Sous-vide, South Col, South Summit (Mount Everest), Steve McKinney (skier), Subhash Pal, Sudarshan Gautam, Summit, Surveyor General of India, Tenzing Norgay, Terai, Thailand, The Climb (book), The Daily Telegraph, The Himalayan Database, The New Yorker, Theodolite, Three Steps, Thrombolite, Tibet, Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibetan pinyin, Tibetan Plateau, Tibetic languages, Timeline of Mount Everest expeditions, Tingri County, Tom Bourdillon, Tomas Olsson, Topography, Traditional Chinese characters, Transcription into Chinese characters, Trigonometry, Trilobite, Ueli Steck, Ultra-prominent peak, Union Jack, United States Geological Survey, University of Toronto, Valery Rozov, Venus, Victoria Pendleton, Virtual tour, Vitor Negrete, Wang Fuzhou, Wang Jing (mountaineer), West Bengal, Western Cwm, Westland Wallace, Wingsuit flying, World Geodetic System, Wylie transliteration, Yuichiro Miura, 1921 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition, 1922 British Mount Everest expedition, 1924 British Mount Everest expedition, 1933 British Mount Everest expedition, 1936 British Mount Everest expedition, 1952 Swiss Mount Everest expedition, 1953 British Mount Everest expedition, 1960 Chinese Mount Everest expedition, 1996 Mount Everest disaster, 2008 Summer Olympics, 2008 Summer Olympics summit of Mt. Everest, 2014 Mount Everest ice avalanche, 2014 Nepal snowstorm disaster, 2015 Mount Everest avalanches, 3G. Expand index (342 more) »


An abseil, also called a rappel after its French name, is a controlled descent off a vertical drop, such as a rock face, using a rope.

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Acetazolamide, sold under the trade name Diamox among others, is a medication used to treat glaucoma, epilepsy, altitude sickness, periodic paralysis, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and heart failure.

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Adrian Ballinger

Adrian Ballinger (born 1 January 1976) is a certified IFMGA/AMGA mountain guide, certified through the American Mountain Guides Association (AMGA Rock, Alpine, and Ski Certifications).

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Aerial photography

Aerial photography (or airborne imagery) is the taking of photographs from an aircraft or other flying object.

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Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alpine chough

The Alpine chough, or yellow-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus), is a bird in the crow family, one of only two species in the genus Pyrrhocorax.

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Alpine Club (UK)

The Alpine Club was founded in London in 1857 and is the world's first mountaineering club.

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Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).

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Altitude sickness

Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), is a negative health effect of high altitude, caused by acute exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high altitude.

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Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

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Anatoli Boukreev

Anatoli Nikolaevich Boukreev (Анато́лий Никола́евич Букре́ев; January 16, 1958 – December 25, 1997) was a Russian Kazakhstani mountaineer who made ascents of 10 of the 14 eight-thousander peaks, i.e., peaks above, without supplemental oxygen.

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Andrew Irvine (mountaineer)

Andrew Comyn "Sandy" Irvine (8 April 19028 June 1924) was an English mountaineer who took part in the 1924 British Everest Expedition, the third British expedition to the world's highest (8,848 m) mountain, Mount Everest.

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Andrew Scott Waugh

Major General Sir Andrew Scott Waugh (3 February 1810 – 21 February 1878) was a British army officer and Surveyor General of India who worked in the Great Trigonometrical Survey.

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Andrzej Zawada

Andrzej Zawada, born: Maria Andrzej Zawada, (16 July 1928 in Olsztyn – 21 August 2000 in Warsaw) was a Polish Alpinist and Tatra Mountains climber, pioneer of winter Himalayism.

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Angel Falls

Angel Falls (Salto Ángel; Pemon language: Kerepakupai Meru meaning "waterfall of the deepest place", or Parakupá Vená, meaning "the fall from the highest point") is a waterfall in Venezuela.

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Annapurna Circuit

The Annapurna Circuit is a trek within the Annapurna mountain range of central Nepal.

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Annapurna Massif

Annapurna (Sanskrit, Nepali, Newar: अन्नपूर्णा) is a massif in the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes one peak over, thirteen peaks over, and sixteen more over.

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Apa Sherpa

Apa (born Lhakpa Tenzing Sherpa; 20 January 1960), nicknamed "Super Sherpa", is a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer who, jointly with Phurba Tashi and Shishir Bhattarai, once held the record for reaching the summit of Mount Everest more times than any other person.

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April 2015 Nepal earthquake

The April 2015 Nepal earthquake (also known as the Gorkha earthquake) killed nearly 9,000 people and injured nearly 22,000.

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Arenaria (plant)

Arenaria is a genus of flowering plants, within the family Caryophyllaceae.

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Argillaceous minerals

Argillaceous minerals may appear silvery upon optical reflection and are minerals containing substantial amounts of clay-like components (ἄργιλλος.

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Armstrong limit

The Armstrong limit or Armstrong's line is a measure of altitude above which atmospheric pressure is sufficiently low that water boils at the normal temperature of the human body.

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Arunima Sinha

Arunima Sinha (was born in 1988) is the first Female amputee to climb Mount Everest.

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Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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Australian Broadcasting Corporation

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.

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An avalanche (also called a snowslide) is a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of snow in the snowpack that fractures and slides down a steep slope when triggered.

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Background radiation

Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.

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Baltasar Kormákur

Baltasar Kormákur Samper (born 27 February 1966) is an Icelandic actor, theater and film director, and film producer.

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Bar-headed goose

The bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) is a goose that breeds in Central Asia in colonies of thousands near mountain lakes and winters in South Asia, as far south as peninsular India.

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BASE jumping

BASE jumping, also sometimes written as B.A.S.E. jumping, is parachuting or wingsuit flying from a fixed structure or cliff.

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Battle of Chamdo

The Battle of Chamdo occurred from 6 through 19 October 1950.

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Beck Weathers

Seaborn Beck Weathers (born December 16, 1946) is an American pathologist from Texas.

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Ben Fogle

Benjamin Myer Fogle, (born 3 November 1973 in Westminster, London) is an English broadcaster and writer, best known for his presenting roles with British television channels Channel 5, BBC and ITV.

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Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.

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Bernoulli's principle

In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.

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Bill Tilman

For the 1800s US Western lawman that became a movie actor see Bill Tilghman.

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Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula.

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Bottled oxygen (climbing)

Bottled oxygen is oxygen in bottles, a terminology especially for high-altitude climbing.

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Bradford Washburn

Henry Bradford Washburn, Jr. (June 7, 1910 – January 10, 2007) was an American explorer, mountaineer, photographer, and cartographer.

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Breccia is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Burçak Özoğlu Poçan

Burçak Poçan, née Özoğlu, (1970) is a female mountaineer and one of the first Turkish women to climb over 8,000 m. Burçak was born on January 4, 1970 in Ankara.

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The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Cerebral hypoxia

Cerebral hypoxia is a form of hypoxia (reduced supply of oxygen), specifically involving the brain; when the brain is completely deprived of oxygen, it is called cerebral anoxia.

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Changtse (Tibetan: "north peak") is a mountain situated between the Main Rongbuk and East Rongbuk Glaciers in Tibet, China, immediately north of Mount Everest.

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Charles Evans (mountaineer)

Sir Robert Charles Evans M.D., DSc, (19 October 1918 – 5 December 1995), was a British mountaineer, surgeon, and educator.

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Charles Granville Bruce

Brigadier-General The Honourable Charles Granville Bruce, CB, MVO (7 April 1866 – 12 July 1939) was a Himalayan veteran and leader of the second and third British expeditions to Mount Everest in 1922 and 1924.

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Charles Snead Houston

Charles Snead Houston (August 24, 1913 – September 27, 2009) was an American physician, mountaineer, high-altitude investigator, inventor, author, film-maker, and former Peace Corps administrator.

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Chimborazo is a currently inactive stratovolcano in the Cordillera Occidental range of the Andes.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese Academy of Sciences

The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), with historical origins in the Academia Sinica during the Republic of China era, is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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There are two species of passerine birds commonly called chough that constitute the genus Pyrrhocorax of the Corvidae (crow) family of birds.

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Christian Stangl

Christian Stangl (born on July 10, 1966 in Landl, Austria) is an Austrian alpine style mountaineer and mountain guide.

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Classical Tibetan

Classical Tibetan refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic after the Old Tibetan period; though it extends from the 7th century until the modern day, it particularly refers to the language of early canonical texts translated from other languages, especially Sanskrit.

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Clinton Thomas Dent

Clinton Thomas Dent FRCS (7 December 1850 – 26 August 1912) was an English surgeon, author and mountaineer.

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Commercialization or commercialisation is the process of introducing a new product or production method into commerce—making it available on the market.

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A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head.

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A crampon is a traction device that is attached to footwear to improve mobility on snow and ice during ice climbing.

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A crevasse is a deep crack, or fracture, found in an ice sheet or glacier, as opposed to a crevice that forms in rock.

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Crinoids are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata).

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Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.

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Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.

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Daily Mail

The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.

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Daniel Mazur

Dan Mazur is a contemporary mountain climber most widely known for the rescue of Lincoln Hall, an Australia climber on Mount Everest on May 25, 2006.

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Darjeeling is a town and a municipality in the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Dave Hahn

David Allen Hahn (November 3, 1961, Okinawa, Japan) is a professional mountain guide, ski patroller, journalist and lecturer.

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David Breashears

David Finlay Breashears (born December 20, 1955) is an American mountaineer, filmmaker, author, and motivational speaker.

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David Liaño Gonzalez

David Liaño González (born December 19, 1979) is the first mountaineer to double summit on Mount Everest from both the Nepal and Tibet sides, which he has climbed six times so far.

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David Sharp (mountaineer)

David Sharp (15 February 1972 – 15 May 2006) was an English mountaineer who died near the summit of Mount Everest.

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Davo Karničar

Davorin "Davo" Karničar (born October 26, 1962) is a Slovene alpinist and extreme skier.

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Dead Sea

The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.

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Dehradun or Dehra Dun is the interim capital city of Uttarakhand, a state in the northern part of India.

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Dementia with Lewy bodies

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a type of dementia accompanied by changes in behavior, cognition and movement.

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Denali (also known as Mount McKinley, its former official name) is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of above sea level.

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Denver Broncos

The Denver Broncos are a professional American football club based in Denver, Colorado.

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Detachment fault

Detachment faulting is associated with large-scale extensional tectonics.

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Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.

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The Dhaulagiri massif in Nepal extends from the Kaligandaki River west to the Bheri.

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Didier Delsalle

Didier Delsalle (born May 6, 1957, in Aix-en-Provence, France) is a fighter pilot and helicopter test pilot.

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Dike (geology)

A dike or dyke, in geological usage, is a sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body.

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Diopside is a monoclinic pyroxene mineral with composition MgCaSi2O6.

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Discovery Channel

Discovery Channel (known as The Discovery Channel from 1985 to 1995, and often referred to as simply Discovery) is an American pay television channel that is the flagship television property of Discovery Inc., a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav.

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Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.

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Domestic yak

The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.

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Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 14th Duke of Hamilton

Air Commodore Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 14th Duke of Hamilton and 11th Duke of Brandon, (3 February 1903 – 30 March 1973) was a Scottish nobleman and pioneering aviator who, together with D.F. McIntyre, was the first man to fly over Mount Everest.

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A dzo (Tibetan མཛོ་ mdzo) (also spelled zo, zho and dzho) is a hybrid between the yak and domestic cattle.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Eddie Bauer

Eddie Bauer, LLC is an American limited liability company, headquartered in Bellevue, Washington, which operates the Eddie Bauer clothing store chain.

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Edmund Hillary

Sir Edmund Percival Hillary OSN (20 July 1919 – 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer, explorer, and philanthropist.

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Edouard Wyss-Dunant

Edouard Wyss-Dunant (17 April 1897 – 30 April 1983) was a Swiss physician and alpinist.

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Edward F. Norton

Lieutenant General Edward Felix Norton DSO MC (21 February 1884 – 3 November 1954) was a British army officer and mountaineer.

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Effects of high altitude on humans

The effects of high altitude on humans are considerable.

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The Eiger is a mountain of the Bernese Alps, overlooking Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland, just north of the main watershed and border with Valais.

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The eight-thousanders are the 14 independentIn making any "highest mountains" list, one needs to use a criterion to exclude subpeaks and only list independent mountains.

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Elizabeth Hawley

Elizabeth Ann Hawley (November 9, 1923 – January 26, 2018) was an American journalist and chronicler of Himalayan expeditions.

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Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

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Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral.

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Erik Weihenmayer

Erik Weihenmayer (born September 23, 1968) is an American athlete, adventurer, author, activist and motivational speaker, and the first blind person to reach the summit of Mount Everest, on May 25, 2001.

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Euophrys omnisuperstes

Euophrys omnisuperstes (the species name means standing above everything), the Himalayan jumping spider, is a small jumping spider that lives at elevations of up to in the Himalayas, including Mount Everest, making it a candidate for the highest known permanent resident on Earth.

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Eurocopter AS350 Écureuil

The Eurocopter (now Airbus Helicopters) AS350 Écureuil (Squirrel) (now H125) is a single-engine light utility helicopter originally designed and manufactured in France by Aérospatiale and Eurocopter (now Airbus Helicopters).

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Everest (2015 film)

Everest is a 2015 biographical adventure film directed and produced by Baltasar Kormákur and written by William Nicholson and Simon Beaufoy, adapted from Beck Weathers' memoir Left for Dead: My Journey Home from Everest (2000).

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Everest Base Camp

Everest Base Camp is either one of two base camps on opposite sides of Mount Everest (It could also be any Everest base camp on a given route, but this is less common since the two main routes became standardized).

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Everest: Beyond the Limit

Everest: Beyond the Limit is a Discovery Channel reality television series about yearly attempts to summit Mount Everest organized and led by New Zealander Russell Brice.

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Expedition 8

Expedition 8 was the eighth expedition to the International Space Station.

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Exposure (heights)

Exposure is a climbing and hiking term.

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Fault (geology)

In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.

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Fédération Aéronautique Internationale

The Fédération aéronautique internationale (FAI; The World Air Sports Federation), is the world governing body for air sports.

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Fixed rope

In mountaineering, a fixed rope or fixed line is the practice of fixing in place bolted ropes to assist climbers and walkers in exposed mountain locations.

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Flysch is a sequence of sedimentary rock layers that progress from deep-water and turbidity flow deposits to shallow-water shales and sandstones.

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Francys Arsentiev

Francys Arsentiev (January 18, 1958 – May 24, 1998) became the first woman from the United States to reach the summit of Mount Everest without the aid of bottled oxygen, on May 22, 1998.

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Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues.

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The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.

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Gaurishankar (also Gauri Sankar or Gauri Shankar; Devanagari गौरीशंकर; Tibetan: Jomo Tseringma) is a mountain in the Himalayas, the second highest peak of the Rolwaling Himal, behind Melungtse (7,181m).

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Geneva Spur

The Geneva Spur, named Eperon des Genevois and has also been called the Saddle Rib "Chapter Two Saddle Rib" is a geological feature on Mount Everestit is a large rock buttress near the summits of Everest and Lhotse.

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Geoffrey Bruce (Indian Army officer)

Major General John Geoffrey Bruce (4 December 1896 – 31 January 1972) was an officer in the British Indian Army, eventually becoming Deputy Chief of General Staff, who participated in the 1922 British Mount Everest expedition.

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The geoid is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides.

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Geological formation

A formation or geological formation is the fundamental unit of lithostratigraphy.

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Geology of the Himalaya

The geology of the Himalaya is a record of the most dramatic and visible creations of modern plate tectonic forces.

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George Everest

Colonel Sir George Everest CB FRS FRAS FRGS (4 July 1790 – 1 December 1866) was a British surveyor and geographer who served as Surveyor General of India from 1830 to 1843.

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George Finch (chemist)

George Ingle Finch (4 August 1888 – 22 November 1970) was an Australian chemist, mountaineer and the first known human to climb reaching a height exceeding 8,000 metres.

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George Mallory

George Herbert Leigh Mallory (18 June 1886 – 8 or 9 June 1924) was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest, in the early 1920s.

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George Medal

The George Medal (GM), instituted on 24 September 1940 by King George VI,British Gallantry Medals (Abbott and Tamplin), p.138 is a decoration of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth, awarded for gallantry "not in the face of the enemy" where the services were not so outstanding as to merit the George Cross.

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Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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Gneiss is a common distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.

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Gongbu (mountaineer)

Gongbu, also known as Konbu, Gonbu, or Gonpa (born 1933), was the 8th person and first Tibetan to summit Mount Everest.

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Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Great Trigonometrical Survey

The Great Trigonometrical Survey was a project which aimed to measure the entire Indian subcontinent with scientific precision.

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Green Boots

Green Boots is the name given to the unidentified corpse of a climber that became a landmark on the main Northeast ridge route of Mount Everest.

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Greywacke or Graywacke (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly sorted angular grains of quartz, feldspar, and small rock fragments or lithic fragments set in a compact, clay-fine matrix.

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Griffith Pugh

Lewis Griffith Cresswell Evans Pugh (29 October 1909 – 22 December 1994), generally known as Griffith Pugh, was a British physiologist and mountaineer.

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Guy Bullock

Guy Henry Bullock (23 July 1887 – 1956) was a British diplomat who is best known for his participation in the 1921 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition.

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Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.

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Hang gliding

Hang gliding is an air sport or recreational activity in which a pilot flies a light, non-motorised foot-launched heavier-than-air aircraft called a hang glider.

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Hans Kammerlander

Hans Kammerlander (born 6 December 1956, Bolzano South Tyrol, Italy) is an Italian mountaineer.

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Hellas Planitia

Hellas Planitia is a plain located within the huge, roughly circular impact basin Hellas located in the southern hemisphere of the planet Mars.

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Herald Sun

The Herald Sun is a morning newspaper based in Melbourne, Australia published by The Herald and Weekly Times, a subsidiary of News Corp Australia, itself a subsidiary of News Corp. The Herald Sun primarily serves Victoria and shares many articles with other News Corporation daily newspapers, especially those from Australia. It is also available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales such as the Riverina and NSW South Coast, and is available digitally through its website and apps. In March 2009, the paper had a daily circulation of 530,000 from Monday to Friday.

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High-altitude cerebral edema

High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a medical condition in which the brain swells with fluid because of the physiological effects of traveling to a high altitude.

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Hillary Step

The Hillary Step is, or possibly was, a nearly vertical rock face with a height of around located high on Mount Everest at approximately above sea level.

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Himalayan black bear

The Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus laniger) is a subspecies of the Asian black bear found in the Himalayas of India, Tibet, Nepal, China and Pakistan.

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Himalayan tahr

The Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) is a large even-toed ungulate native to the Himalayas in southern Tibet, northern Pakistan, northern India and Nepal.

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The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

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Himex is a Mount Everest guiding company.

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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hot air balloon

A hot air balloon is a lighter-than-air aircraft consisting of a bag, called an envelope, which contains heated air.

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Hugh Ruttledge

Hugh Ruttledge (24 October 1884 – 7 November 1961) was an English civil servant and mountaineer who was the leader of two expeditions to Mount Everest in 1933 and 1936.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Into Thin Air

Into Thin Air: A Personal Account of the Mt.

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Island Arc (journal)

Island Arc (print:, online) is a peer-reviewed quarterly scientific journal that was established in 1992, covering "Earth Sciences of Convergent Plate Margins and Related Topics".

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Jamling Tenzing Norgay

Jamling Tenzing Norgay (जम्लिंग तेन्जिंग नोर्गे; born April 23, 1965) is an Nepali and Indian Sherpa mountain climber.

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Jürg Marmet

Jürg Marmet (September 14, 1927 – March 8, 2013) was a Swiss mountaineer.

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Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville

Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville (born in Paris July 11, 1697January 28, 1782) was a geographer and cartographer who greatly improved the standards of map-making.

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Jean-Marc Boivin

Jean-Marc Boivin (6 April 1951 – 17 February 1990) was a French mountaineer, extreme skier, hang glider and paraglider pilot, speleologist, BASE jumper, award-winning film maker, and author.

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Jet stream

Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow, meandering air currents in the atmospheres of some planets, including Earth.

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Jim Whittaker

James W. Whittaker (born February 10, 1929), also known as Jim Whittaker, is an American mountaineer from Seattle, As a member of the American Mount Everest Expedition led by Norman Dyhrenfurth in 1963, he was the first American to reach the summit of Mount Everest.

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John Hunt, Baron Hunt

Brigadier Henry Cecil John Hunt, Baron Hunt (22 June 1910 – 7 November 1998) was a British Army officer who is best known as the leader of the successful 1953 British Expedition to Mount Everest.

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Jon Krakauer

Jon Krakauer (born April 12, 1954) is an American writer and mountaineer, primarily known for his writings about the outdoors, especially mountain climbing.

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Jordan Romero

Jordan Romero (born July 12, 1996) is an American mountain climber who was 13 years old when he allegedly reached the summit of Mount Everest.

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Jumping spider

Jumping spiders are a group of spiders that constitute the family Salticidae.

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Junko Tabei

was a Japanese mountaineer.

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K2 (کے ٹو), also known as Mount Godwin-Austen or Chhogori (Balti and چھوغوری),, at above sea level, is the second highest mountain in the world, after Mount Everest, at.

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Kami Rita Sherpa

Kami Rita Sherpa is a Nepali Sherpa guide who achieved the record for most ascents to the summit of Mount Everest after reaching it for a 22nd time in May 2018 at the age of 48.

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Kangchenjunga (कञ्चनजङ्घा; कंचनजंघा; ཁང་ཅེན་ཛོཾག་), also spelled Kanchenjunga, is the third highest mountain in the world, and lies partly in Nepal and partly in Sikkim, India.

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Kangshung Face

The Kangshung Face or East Face is the eastern-facing side of Mount Everest, one of the Tibetan sides of the mountain.

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Karl Gordon Henize

Karl Gordon Henize, Ph.D. (2004 News Releases, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California (US), March 8, 2004 17 October 1926 – 5 October 1993) was an American astronomer, space scientist, NASA astronaut, and professor at Northwestern University.

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Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).

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Kathmandu (काठमाडौं, ये:. Yei, Nepali pronunciation) is the capital city of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.

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Kathmandu Valley

Population- 5 million The Kathmandu Valley (काठमाडौं उपत्यका, Nepalbhasa: स्वनिगः, नेपाः गाः), historically known as Nepal Valley or Nepa Valley, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several pilgrimage sites for Hindus and Buddhists.

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Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water.

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Kazi Sherpa

Kazi Sherpa (काजी शेर्पा) as confirmed by the Everest Summiteers Association, and as confirmed by Everest historian Elizabeth Hawley, holds the current speed climbing record on Mount Everest for the South Col Route, from basecamp to the summit, without oxygen from basecamp to the summit.

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Kechana Kawal

Kechana Kawal (केचना कवल) is a place located in Kachankawal Rural Municipality (previously, Kechana VDC) of Province No. 1 of Nepal.

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Kenton Cool

Kenton Cool (born 30 July 1973) is an English mountaineer, alpinist and IFMGA mountain guide.

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Khumbu (also known as the Everest Region) is a region of northeastern Nepal on the Nepalese side of Mount Everest.

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Khumbu Glacier

The Khumbu Glacier is located in the Khumbu region of northeastern Nepal between Mount Everest and the Lhotse-Nuptse ridge.

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Khumbu Icefall

The Khumbu Icefall is an icefall located at the head of the Khumbu Glacier and the foot of the Western Cwm, which lies at an altitude of on the Nepali slopes of Mount Everest, not far above Base Camp and southwest of the summit.

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Khumbutse is the first mountain west (6 km) of Mount Everest.

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Kirata Kingdom

Kirata Kingdom (Kirat) in Sanskrit literature and Hindu mythology refers to any kingdom of the Kirata people, who were dwellers mostly in the Himalayas (mostly eastern Himalaya).

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Kirati people

The Kirati people (Sanskrit: Kirāta) (also spelled as Kirant or Kiranti) are indigenous Kirat ethnic group of the Himalayas extending eastward from Nepal into India, Bangladesh, Burma and beyond.

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A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.

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Kodachrome is a brand name for a non-substantive, color reversal film introduced by Eastman Kodak in 1935.

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Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Krzysztof Wielicki

Krzysztof Wielicki (born January 5, 1950 in Szklarka Przygodzicka, municipality Ostrzeszów, Poland) is a Polish alpine and high-altitude climber, regarded as one of the greatest Polish climbers in history.

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Leszek Cichy

Leszek Cichy is a Polish mountaineer, geodesist, financier, and entrepreneur.

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Lhakpa Sherpa

Lhakpa Sherpa (also Lakpa) (born 1973) is a Nepalese Sherpa mountain climber.

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Lhasa is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.

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Lhotse (ल्होत्से;, lho rtse) is the fourth highest mountain in the world at, after Mount Everest, K2, and Kangchenjunga.

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Life peer

In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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Lincoln Hall (climber)

Lincoln Ross Hall OAM (19 December 195520 March 2012) was a veteran Australian mountain climber, adventurer, author and philanthropist.

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List of aftershocks of April 2015 Nepal earthquake

The following is a list of aftershocks that occurred after the earthquake in Nepal on 25 April 2015.

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List of elevation extremes by country

The following sortable table lists land surface elevation extremes by country.

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List of highest mountains on Earth

There are at least 109 mountains on Earth with elevations greater than above sea level.

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List of Mount Everest records

This article lists different records related to Mount Everest.

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List of past presumed highest mountains

The following is a list of mountains that have been presumed, at one time, to be the highest mountain in the world.

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List of peaks by prominence

This is a list of mountain peaks ordered by their topographic prominence.

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List of people who died climbing Mount Everest

Mount Everest, at is the world's highest mountain and a particularly desirable peak for mountaineers.

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List of ski descents of Eight-Thousanders

Albeit arbitrary, the mountaineering community groups Earth's 14 mountains with summits exceeding, referred to as eight-thousanders, as a special category of peaks defining the "top of the world." Only an elite group of mountaineers can claim to have summited all 14 peaks and many have perished trying.

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List of tallest mountains in the Solar System

This is a list of the tallest mountains in the Solar System.

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Lotus birth

Lotus birth (or umbilical nonseverance) is the practice of leaving the umbilical cord uncut after childbirth so that the baby is left attached to the placenta until the cord naturally separates at the umbilicus, usually 3-10 days after birth.

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Lucy, Lady Houston

Lucy, Lady Houston, DBE (8 April 1857 – 29 December 1936), born Fanny Lucy Radmall, was a British philanthropist, political activist, and suffragette.

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Lukla is a town in the Khumbu area of the Solukhumbu District in the Sagarmatha Zone of north-eastern Nepal.

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Lydia Bradey

Lydia Bradey is a New Zealand mountaineer.

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Mahalangur Himal

Mahālangūr Himāl (महालङ्गूर हिमाल, Mahālaṅgūra himāla) is a section of the Himalayas in northeast Nepal and south-central Tibet of China extending east from the pass Nangpa La between Rolwaling Himal and Cho Oyu, to the Arun River.

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Makalu is the fifth highest mountain in the world at.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Malavath Purna

Malavath Purna (also called Malavath Poorna, Purna Malavath, or Poorna Malavath; born 10 June 2000) is an Indian mountaineer from Nizamabad district, Telangana.

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Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition

The goal of the Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition of 1999 was to discover evidence of whether George Mallory and Andrew Irvine had been the first to summit Mount Everest in their attempt of 8–9 June 1924.

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Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.

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Mark Inglis

Mark Joseph Inglis, ONZM (born 27 September 1959) is a mountaineer, researcher, winemaker and motivational speaker.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Matt Dickinson

Matt Dickinson is a film-maker and writer who is best known for his award winning novels and his documentary work for National Geographic Television, Discovery Channel and the BBC.

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Mauna Kea

Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano on the island of Hawaii.

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Maxime Chaya

Maxime Edgard Chaya (born December 16, 1961) is a Lebanese sportsman, mountaineer and explorer.

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Medical evacuation

Medical evacuation, often shortened to medevac or medivac, is the timely and efficient movement and en route care provided by medical personnel to wounded being evacuated from a battlefield, to injured patients being evacuated from the scene of an accident to receiving medical facilities, or to patients at a rural hospital requiring urgent care at a better-equipped facility using medically equipped ground vehicles (ambulances) or aircraft (air ambulances).

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Melissa Arnot

Melissa Arnot Reid (born December 18, 1983) is an American mountaineer.

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A millionaire is an individual whose net worth or wealth is equal to or exceeds one million units of currency.

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Ming Kipa

Ming Kipa (मिङ किपा शेर्पा) (born 1988) is a Nepalese Sherpa girl who held the record as the youngest person to climb Mount Everest from 2003 to 2010.

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The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).

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Miyolangsangma is the Tibetan Buddhist goddess who lives at the top of Chomolungma (Mount Everest).

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Moment magnitude scale

The moment magnitude scale (MMS; denoted as Mw or M) is one of many seismic magnitude scales used to measure the size of earthquakes.

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Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Mont Blanc

Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco), meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia's Caucasus peaks.

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Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.

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Mount Everest

Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.

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Mount Everest in 2012

The Mount Everest climbing season of 2012 included several hundred summitings and the highest fatality total since 1996.

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Mount Everest in 2013

The Mount Everest climbing season of 2013 included 658 summits and 8 deaths.

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Mount Everest in 2017

The Mount Everest climbing season of 2017 began in spring with the first climbers reaching the top on May 11, from the north side.

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Mount Everest webcam

The Mount Everest webcam was a camera located on Kala Patthar, a mountain in the Nepalese Himalaya, at an altitude of.

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Mountaineering is the sport of mountain climbing.

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Mudstone, a type of mudrock, is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds.

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Muscovite (also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica) is a hydrated phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl2(AlSi3O10)(FOH)2, or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).

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Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Namche Bazaar

Namche Bazaar (also Nemche Bazaar or Namche Baza; नाम्चे बजार) is a town and (formally Namche Village Development Committee) in Khumbu Pasanglhamu Rural Municipality in Solukhumbu District of Province No. 1 of north-eastern Nepal.

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Nanga Parbat

Nanga Parbat (Urdu), locally known as Diamer, is the ninth highest mountain in the world at above sea level.

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Nangpa La

Nangpa La (el.) is a high mountain pass crossing the Himalayas and the Nepal-Tibet Autonomous Region border a few kilometres west of Cho Oyu and some northwest of Mount Everest.

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National Geographic

National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.

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National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.

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Nawang Gombu

Nawang Gombu (नवांग गोम्बु; May 1, 1936 – April 24, 2011) was an Indian and Nepali mountaineer of Nepalese Sherpa origin.

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Neal Beidleman

Neal Beidleman is a mountaineer and climbing guide, known for surviving the 1996 Mount Everest disaster.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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Nepali language

Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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Nightline (or ABC News Nightline) is ABC News' late-night news program broadcast on ABC in the United States with a franchised formula to other networks and stations elsewhere in the world.

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North Col

The North Col refers to the sharp-edged pass carved by glaciers in the ridge connecting Mount Everest and Changtse in Tibet, It forms the head of the East Rongbuk Glacier.

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North Face (Everest)

The North Face is the northern side of Mount Everest.

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Nuptse or Nubtse (Sherpa: नुबचे, Wylie: Nub rtse) is a mountain in the Khumbu region of the Mahalangur Himal, in the Nepalese Himalayas.

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The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.

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Olympus Mons

Olympus Mons (Latin for Mount Olympus) is a very large shield volcano on the planet Mars.

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Order of New Zealand

The Order of New Zealand is the highest honour in New Zealand's honours system, created "to recognise outstanding service to the Crown and people of New Zealand in a civil or military capacity".

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Order of the British Empire

The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.

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The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.

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Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar (endmember formula KAlSi3O8), is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock.

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Ostracods, or ostracodes, are a class of the Crustacea (class Ostracoda), sometimes known as seed shrimp.

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Outside (magazine)

Outside is an American magazine focused on the outdoors.

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Oxygen mask

An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs.

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Padmasambhava (lit. "Lotus-Born"), also known as Guru Rinpoche, was an 8th-century Indian Buddhist master.

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Paleoproterozoic Era, spanning the time period from (2.5–1.6 Ga), is the first of the three sub-divisions (eras) of the Proterozoic Eon.

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Paragliding is the recreational and competitive adventure sport of flying paragliders: lightweight, free-flying, foot-launched glider aircraft with no rigid primary structure.

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Partial pressure

In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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Patna is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India.

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Pavel Kalný

Pavel Kalný (14 May 1967 – 10 May 2006) was a Czech psychiatrist and mountaineer.

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Pemba Dorje

Pemba Dorje is a Sherpa from beding, Rolwaling Valley, Dolkha, Nepal.

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People's Daily

The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.

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Peter Habeler

Peter Habeler (born 22 July 1942) is an Austrian mountaineer.

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Phanthog, also known as Phantog and Pan Duo, was a Tibetan mountaineer.

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Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points.

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Phurba Tashi

Phurba Tashi Sherpa Mendewa (फूर्वा तासी शेर्पा, 1971) is a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer known for his numerous ascents of major Himalayan peaks.

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Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock created from slate that is further metamorphosed so that very fine grained white mica achieves a preferred orientation.

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Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Popular Science

Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.

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Porter (carrier)

A porter, also called a bearer, is a person who carries objects or cargoes for others.

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Pounds per square inch

The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2; abbreviation: psi) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units.

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Prostitution in Tibet

According to the Tibetan government in exile, prostitution as an industry was virtually non-existent before the Chinese occupation of Tibet.

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Province No. 1

Province No.

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Pumori (पुमोरि) (or Pumo Ri) is a mountain on the Nepal-Tibet border in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Qomolangma National Park

Qomolangma National Park is a national park located in Xigaze Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region, China.

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Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.

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Radhanath Sikdar

Radhanath Sikdar (Bengali: রাধানাথ শিকদার; October 1813 – 17 May 1870) was an Indian mathematician who is best known for calculating the height of Mount Everest.

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Raymond Lambert

Raymond Lambert (18 October 1914 – 24 February 1997) was a Swiss mountaineer who together with Sherpa Tenzing Norgay reached an altitude of 8611 metres (just 237 metres from the summit) of Mount Everest in May 1952.

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Red Bull

Red Bull is an energy drink sold by Red Bull GmbH, an Austrian company created in 1987.

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Red panda

The red panda (Ailurus fulgens), also called the lesser panda, the red bear-cat, and the red cat-bear, is a mammal native to the eastern Himalayas and southwestern China.

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Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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Reinhold Messner

Reinhold Messner (born 17 September 1944) is an Italian mountaineer, adventurer, explorer, and author from the bilingual Italian province of South Tyrol.

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Retinal haemorrhage

Retinal hemorrhage is a disorder of the eye in which bleeding occurs into the light sensitive tissue on the back wall of the eye.

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Richard Bass

Richard Daniel "Dick" Bass (December 21, 1929 – July 26, 2015) was an American businessman, rancher and mountaineer.

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Rob Hall

Robert Edwin Hall (14 January 1961 – 11 May 1996) was a New Zealand mountaineer best known for being the head guide of a 1996 Mount Everest expedition in which he died, along with a fellow guide and two clients.

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Rock art

In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art.

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Roman numerals

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.

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Rongbuk Glacier

The Rongbuk Glacier is located in the Himalaya of southern Tibet.

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Rongbuk Monastery

Rongbuk Monastery (other spellings include Rongpu, Rongphu, Rongphuk and Rong sbug), also known as Dzarongpu or Dzarong, is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery of the Nyingma sect in Basum Township, Dingri County, in Shigatse Prefecture of the Tibet Autonomous Region in China.

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A rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine that uses lift generated by wings, called rotary wings or rotor blades, that revolve around a mast.

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Royal Geographical Society

The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) is the UK's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences.

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Russell Brice

Russell Reginald Brice (born 3 July 1952) is a New Zealand mountaineer.

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Saburō Matsukata

of Japan, a journalist, businessman and mountaineer, served on the World Scout Committee of the World Organization of the Scout Movement and was the sixth President of the Boy Scouts of Japan, contributing to the success of the 13th World Scout Jamboree held August 2 to 10, 1971 on the western side of Mount Fuji.

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Sagarmatha National Park

The Sagarmāthā National Park (sagaramāthā rāṣṭriya nikuñja) is a protected area in the Himalayas of eastern Nepal that is dominated by Mount Everest.

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Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.

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Santosh Yadav

Santosh Yadav is an Indian mountaineer.

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Süddeutsche Zeitung

The Süddeutsche Zeitung (German for South German Newspaper), published in Munich, Bavaria, is one of the largest daily newspapers in Germany.

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Schist (pronounced) is a medium-grade metamorphic rock with medium to large, flat, sheet-like grains in a preferred orientation (nearby grains are roughly parallel).

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Scott Fischer

Scott Eugene Fischer (December 24, 1955 – May 11, 1996) was an American mountaineer and mountain guide.

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Scrambling (also known as alpine scrambling) is "a walk up steep terrain involving the use of one's hands".

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Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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Seattle Seahawks

The Seattle Seahawks are a professional American football franchise based in Seattle, Washington.

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Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.

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A serac (originally from Swiss French sérac) is a block or column of glacial ice, often formed by intersecting crevasses on a glacier.

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Sericite is a fine grained mica, similar to muscovite, illite, or paragonite.

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Seven Summits

The Seven Summits are the highest mountains of each of the seven continents.

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Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.

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Sherpa people

Sherpa is one of the major ethnic groups native to the most mountainous regions of Nepal, as well as certain areas of China, Bhutan, India, and the Himalayas.

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Shigatse, officially known as Xigazê (Nepali: सिगात्से), is a prefecture-level city of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, with an area of.

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Sill (geology)

In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock.

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Sillimanite is an aluminosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5.

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Siltstone is a sedimentary rock which has a grain size in the silt range, finer than sandstone and coarser than claystones.

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Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.

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A sled, sledge, or sleigh is a land vehicle with a smooth underside or possessing a separate body supported by two or more smooth, relatively narrow, longitudinal runners that travels by sliding across a surface.

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A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.

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Snapchat is a multimedia messaging app used globally, created by Evan Spiegel, Bobby Murphy, and Reggie Brown, former students at Stanford University, and developed by Snap Inc., originally Snapchat Inc.

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Snow leopard

The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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Solukhumbu District

Solukhumbu District (सोलुखुम्बु जिल्ला, Sherpa: Wylie: shar khum bu dzong kha), is one of 14 districts of Province No. 1 of eastern Nepal.

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Sous-vide (French for "under vacuum") is a method of cooking in which food is placed in a plastic pouch or a glass jar and then placed in a water bath or steam environment for longer than normal cooking times (usually 1 to 7 hours, up to 48 or more in some cases) at an accurately regulated temperature.

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South Col

The South Col is the sharp-edged notch or pass between Mount Everest and Lhotse, the highest and fourth highest mountains in the world, respectively.

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South Summit (Mount Everest)

The South Summit of Mount Everest in the Himalayas is the second-highest peak on Earth, and is a subsidiary peak to the primary peak of Mount Everest.

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Steve McKinney (skier)

Steve McKinney (1953 – November 10, 1990) was an American Alpine skier and mountaineer who is acknowledged as an early pioneer in the sport of extreme skiing.

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Subhash Pal

Subhash Pal was an Indian mountaineer, from Bankura, West Bengal.

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Sudarshan Gautam

Sudarshan Gautam (Nepali: सुदर्शन गौतम; born in Nepal, 1978) is the first person without arms to have reached the summit of Mount Everest without the use of prosthetics.

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A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it.

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Surveyor General of India

The Surveyor General of India is the Head of Department of Survey of India, a Department under the Ministry of Science and Technology of Government of India.

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Tenzing Norgay

Tenzing Norgay GM OSN (tendzin norgyé; 29 May 1914 – 9 May 1986), born Namgyal Wangdi and often referred to as Sherpa Tenzing, was a Nepali Sherpa mountaineer.

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The Terai (तराई तराइ) is a lowland region in southern Nepal and northern India that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas, the Siwalik Hills, and north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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The Climb (book)

The Climb (1997), republished as The Climb: Tragic Ambitions on Everest, is an account by Russian-Kazakhstani mountaineer Anatoli Boukreev of the 1996 Everest Disaster, during which eight climbers died on the mountain.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Himalayan Database

The Himalayan Database: The Expedition Archives of Elizabeth Hawley is a comprehensive digital and published record of mountaineering in the Nepalese Himalayas since 1903, maintained by Richard Sailsbury who is credited to be instrumental in creating the database.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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A theodolite is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes.

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Three Steps

The Three Steps are three prominent rocky steps on the northeast ridge of Mount Everest.

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Thrombolites are ancient forms of microbial communities that photosynthesize.

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Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.

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Tibet Autonomous Region

The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Tibetan pinyin

Pö yig Kigajor--> The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin, is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China for personal names and place names.

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Tibetan Plateau

The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Tibetic languages

The Tibetic languages are a cluster of Sino-Tibetan languages descended from Old Tibetan, spoken across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas in Baltistan, Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan.

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Timeline of Mount Everest expeditions

Mount Everest is the world's highest mountain, with a peak at 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) above sea level.

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Tingri County

Tingri County or Dhringgri County, is a county of Xigazê in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.

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Tom Bourdillon

Thomas Duncan Bourdillon (16 March 1924 in Kensington, London - 29 July 1956 in Bernese Oberland, Switzerland), known as Tom Bourdillon, was an English mountaineer, a member of the 1953 British Mount Everest Expedition which made the first ascent of Mount Everest.

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Tomas Olsson

Tomas Kenneth Olsson (March 18, 1976 – May 16, 2006) was a Swedish adventurer and extreme skier.

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Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.

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Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.

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Transcription into Chinese characters

Transcription into Chinese is the use of traditional or simplified characters to transcribe phonetically the sound of terms and names foreign to the Chinese language.

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Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.

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Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.

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Ueli Steck

Ueli Steck (4 October 1976 – 30 April 2017) was a Swiss rock climber and mountaineer.

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Ultra-prominent peak

An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is defined as a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of or more.

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Union Jack

The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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University of Toronto

The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.

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Valery Rozov

Valery Rozov (December 26, 1964 – November 11, 2017) was a Russian BASE jumper, who became known for jumping from the world's highest summits.

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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Victoria Pendleton

Victoria Louise Pendleton, CBE (born 24 September 1980) is a British jockey and former track cyclist who specialised in the sprint, team sprint and keirin disciplines.

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Virtual tour

A virtual tour is a simulation of an existing location, usually composed of a sequence of videos or still images.

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Vitor Negrete

Vítor Negrete (November 13, 1967 – May 19, 2006) was a mountaineer and the first Brazilian to reach the summit of Mount Everest without supplementary oxygen.

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Wang Fuzhou

Wang Fuzhou (1935 – 18 July 2015) was a Chinese mountain climber, born in Xihua County, Henan.

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Wang Jing (mountaineer)

Wang Jing (born March 29, 1975) is a Chinese mountaineer, author, entrepreneur and member of The Explorers Club.

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West Bengal

West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.

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Western Cwm

The Western Cwm is a broad, flat, gently undulating glacial valley basin terminating at the foot of the Lhotse Face of Mount Everest.

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Westland Wallace

The Westland Wallace was a British two-seat, general-purpose biplane of the Royal Air Force, developed by Westland as a follow-on to their successful Wapiti.

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Wingsuit flying

Wingsuit flying (or wingsuiting) is the sport of flying through the air using a wingsuit which adds surface area to the human body to enable a significant increase in lift.

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World Geodetic System

The World Geodetic System (WGS) is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and satellite navigation including GPS.

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Wylie transliteration

The Wylie transliteration scheme is a method for transliterating Tibetan script using only the letters available on a typical English language typewriter.

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Yuichiro Miura

is a Japanese alpinist who in 2003, at age 70, became the oldest person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.

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1921 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition

The 1921 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition set off to explore how it might be possible to get to the vicinity of Mount Everest, to reconnoitre possible routes for ascending the mountain, and – if possible – make the first ascent of the highest mountain in the world.

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1922 British Mount Everest expedition

The 1922 British Mount Everest expedition was the first mountaineering expedition with the express aim of making the first ascent of Mount Everest.

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1924 British Mount Everest expedition

The 1924 British Mount Everest expedition was—after the 1922 British Mount Everest expedition—the second expedition with the goal of achieving the first ascent of Mount Everest.

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1933 British Mount Everest expedition

The 1933 British Mount Everest expedition was, after the reconnaissance expedition of 1921, and the 1922 and 1924 expeditions, the fourth British expedition to Mount Everest and the third with the intention of making the first ascent.

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1936 British Mount Everest expedition

The 1936 British Mount Everest expedition was a complete failure, and raised questions concerning the planning of such expeditions.

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1952 Swiss Mount Everest expedition

Led by Edouard Wyss-Dunant, the 1952 Swiss Mount Everest expedition saw Raymond Lambert and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay reach a height of about on the southeast ridge, setting a new climbing altitude record, opening up a new route to Mount Everest and paving the way for further successes by other expeditions.

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1953 British Mount Everest expedition

The 1953 British Mount Everest expedition was the ninth mountaineering expedition to attempt the first ascent of Mount Everest, and the first confirmed to have succeeded when Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reached the summit on Friday, 1953.

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1960 Chinese Mount Everest expedition

The 1960 Chinese Mount Everest expedition was the first to successfully climb Mount Everest by the North Ridge.

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1996 Mount Everest disaster

The 1996 Mount Everest disaster occurred on 10–11 May 1996, when eight people caught in a blizzard died on Mount Everest during attempts to descend from the summit.

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2008 Summer Olympics

The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.

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2008 Summer Olympics summit of Mt. Everest

The 2008 Summer Olympics summit of Mt.

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2014 Mount Everest ice avalanche

On 18 April 2014, seracs on the western spur of Mount Everest failed, resulting in an ice avalanche that killed sixteen climbing Sherpas in the Khumbu Icefall.

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2014 Nepal snowstorm disaster

The 2014 Nepal snowstorm disaster occurred in central Nepal during the month of October and resulted in the deaths of at least 43 people of various nationalities, including at least 21 trekkers.

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2015 Mount Everest avalanches

During the afternoon of 25 April 2015, a MW 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal and surrounding countries.

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3G, short for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Everest

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