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Mountain warfare

Index Mountain warfare

Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains or similarly rough terrain. [1]

183 relations: Afghanistan, Alaska, Alpenkorps (German Empire), Alpine Brigade Julia, Alpine Brigade Taurinense, Alpini, Alpinist Unit, Alps, Amphibious warfare, Aosta, Apennine Mountains, Armenia, Army Mountain Warfare School, Army of the Andes, Arunachal Pradesh, Arvidsjaur, Attack helicopter, Austria-Hungary, Avalanche, Bad Reichenhall, Battle of Monte Castello, Battle of San Matteo, Battle of Sarikamish, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of the Caucasus, Battles of Narvik, Bavaria, Bharat Rakshak, Boden, Sweden, Bolu, Brazilian Armed Forces, British Army, Cappello Alpino, Caucasus, Cazadores de Montaña (Argentine Army), Chasseurs Alpins, Chechnya, China, Cold War, Cold-weather warfare, Colorado, Comando Truppe Alpine, Commando, Counter-insurgency, County of Tyrol, Crevasse, Crossing of the Andes, Dawn (newspaper), Dehradun, Dolomites, ..., Eastern Front (World War II), Enver Pasha, Europe, Evzones, Falkland Islands, Falklands War, Fort Carson, Friedrich Engels, Frostbite, Garhwal division, Gebirgsjäger, Georgian independence referendum, 1991, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, Georgian Special Operations Forces, Gilgit-Baltistan, Glacier, Golan Heights, Guerrilla warfare, Gulmarg, Gunship, Gurkha, Hakkari, Helicopter, Himalayas, Hindi, India, Indian Army, Indian Military Academy, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Israel Defense Forces, Italian Army, Italian Campaign (World War II), Italian Front (World War I), Italian participation in the Eastern Front, Italian unification, Jammu and Kashmir, Jericho, Vermont, José de San Martín, Juiz de Fora, Julian Alps, Kaiserschützen, Kargil War, Kashmir, Khevsurians, Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, Kokoda Track campaign, Korps Commandotroepen, Kumaon division, Kunar Province, Leontopodium nivale, Lesser Caucasus, Lightning, Line of Control, List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands, Medical evacuation, Middle Ages, Military Firefighters Corps, Military history of Italy during World War I, Military history of Italy during World War II, Military Police (Brazil), Minas Gerais, Montese, Mortar (weapon), Mosin–Nagant, Mountain, Mountain Leader Training Cadre, Mountain warfare, Mountain Warfare Training Center, Multinational Centre of Excellence for Mountain Warfare, NATO, Natural border, Netherlands Marine Corps, Nordic countries, Norrbotten Regiment, Northern Warfare Training Center, Nuristan Province, Operation Gauntlet, Operation Paraquet, Operation Rentier, Order of battle, Ottoman Empire, Pack animal, Pakistan, Pakistan Army, Partisan (military), Partition of India, Podhale Rifles, Rattu, Rhodope Mountains, RIA Novosti, Royal Marines, Russia, Sachkhere, São João del Rei, Siachen conflict, Siachen Glacier, Siege of Sevastopol (1941–42), Sino-Indian War, Smolyan, South Georgia Island, Soviet Union, Special Air Service, Special forces, Switzerland, Tawang, The Hindu, The New York Times, Train Advise Assist Command – East, Tyrolean Rebellion, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti, United States Armed Forces, United States Army Rangers, Utility helicopter, Vânători de munte, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Water conflict, Winning hearts and minds, World War I, World War II, 10th Mountain Division, 1st Mountain Division (Bundeswehr), 1st Raider/Paratrooper Brigade (Greece), 27th Mountain Infantry Brigade (France), 2nd Foreign Engineer Regiment, 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment, 3 Commando Brigade, 4th Alpini Paratroopers Regiment, 6th Mountain Infantry Brigade (Argentina), 86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 8th Mountain Infantry Brigade (Argentina). Expand index (133 more) »

Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Alaska

Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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Alpenkorps (German Empire)

The Alpenkorps was a provisional mountain formation of division size formed by the Imperial German Army during World War I. It was considered by the Allies to be one of the best in the German Army.

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Alpine Brigade Julia

The Alpini Brigade Julia is a light Infantry brigade of the Italian Army, specializing in Mountain Combat.

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Alpine Brigade Taurinense

The Alpine Brigade Taurinense is a light Infantry brigade of the Italian Army, specializing in Mountain Combat.

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Alpini

The Alpini (Italian for "alpines"), are an elite mountain warfare military corps of the Italian Army.

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Alpinist Unit

The Alpinist Unit יחידת האלפיניסטים, Yehidat Ha'Alpinistim) is a special Israeli Defence Force infantry reserve unit, under the command of the Israeli Northern Command, specializing in mountain warfare, snow warfare and difficult terrain warfare in the northern front, especially Mt. Hermon. The Alpinists are proficient in many aspects of snow warfare, among them shooting and attacking while sliding on skis and custom-made Snowcats, defensive tactics, and more. The unit was established in 1983. The unit's training is usually conducted by elements of Indian MARCOS, Special Frontier Force/Gorkhas, and the Nepalese Special Army Rangers/No. 10 Brigade. Their standard equipment includes M4 Carbine assault rifles, the new Israeli TAR-21 Tavor assault rifle, "Negev" light machine gun and sniper rifles, mostly M24 and SR-25.

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Alps

The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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Amphibious warfare

Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.

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Aosta

Aosta (Aoste; Aoûta; Augusta Praetoria Salassorum; Augschtal; Osta) is the principal city of Aosta Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps, north-northwest of Turin.

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Apennine Mountains

The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.

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Armenia

Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Army Mountain Warfare School

The Army Mountain Warfare School (AMWS) is a United States Army school located at the Camp Ethan Allen Training Site, Jericho, Vermont to train soldiers in mountain warfare, the specialized skills required for operating in mountainous terrain.

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Army of the Andes

The Army of the Andes (Ejército de los Andes) was a military force created by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (Argentina) and mustered by general José de San Martín in his campaign to free Chile from the Spanish Empire.

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Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh ("the land of dawn-lit mountains") is one of the 29 states of India and is the northeastern-most state of the country.

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Arvidsjaur

Arvidsjaur (Árviesjávrrie) is a locality and the seat of Arvidsjaur Municipality in Norrbotten County, province of Lapland, Sweden with 4,635 inhabitants in 2010.

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Attack helicopter

An attack helicopter is an armed helicopter with the primary role of an attack aircraft, with the capability of engaging targets on the ground, such as enemy infantry and armored fighting vehicles.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Avalanche

An avalanche (also called a snowslide) is a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of snow in the snowpack that fractures and slides down a steep slope when triggered.

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Bad Reichenhall

Bad Reichenhall is a spa town, and administrative center of the Berchtesgadener Land district in Upper Bavaria, Germany.

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Battle of Monte Castello

The Battle of Monte Castello (also called Operation Encore) was an engagement that took place from 25 November 1944 to 21 February 1945 during the Italian campaign of World War II.

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Battle of San Matteo

The Battle of San Matteo took place in the late summer of 1918 on the Punta San Matteo (3678 m) during World War I. It was regarded as the highest battle in history until it was surpassed in 1999 by the Kargil Conflict at 5600m.

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Battle of Sarikamish

The Battle of Sarikamish (Սարիղամիշի ճակատամարտ (Sarighamishi chakatamart), Сражение при Сарыкамыше; Sarıkamış Harekatı) was an engagement between the Russian and Ottoman empires during World War I. It took place from December 22, 1914, to January 17, 1915, as part of the Caucasus Campaign.

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Battle of Stalingrad

The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.

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Battle of the Caucasus

The Battle of the Caucasus is a name given to a series of Axis and Soviet operations in the Caucasus area on the Eastern Front of World War II.

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Battles of Narvik

The Battles of Narvik were fought from 9 April to 8 June 1940 as a naval battle in the Ofotfjord and as a land battle in the mountains surrounding the north Norwegian city of Narvik as part of the Norwegian Campaign of the Second World War.

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Bavaria

Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Bharat Rakshak

Bharat Rakshak ("Defenders of India") is a website devoted to discussing India's military affairs.

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Boden, Sweden

Boden is a locality and the seat of Boden Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden with 18,277 inhabitants in 2010.

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Bolu

Bolu is a city in Turkey, and administrative center of the Bolu Province.

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Brazilian Armed Forces

The Brazilian Armed Forces (Forças Armadas Brasileiras) is the unified military organization comprising the Brazilian Army (including the Brazilian Army Aviation), the Brazilian Navy (including the Brazilian Marine Corps and Brazilian Naval Aviation) and the Brazilian Air Force.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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Cappello Alpino

The Cappello Alpino is the most distinctive feature of the Italian Army's Alpini troops uniform.

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Caucasus

The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Cazadores de Montaña (Argentine Army)

Cazadores de Montaña should not be confused with Cazadores de Monte The Cazadores de Montaña (Spanish for Mountain Huntsmen), are special Mountain troops of the Argentine Army.

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Chasseurs Alpins

The Chasseurs alpins (Hunters) are the elite mountain infantry of the French Army.

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Chechnya

The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Cold-weather warfare

Cold-weather warfare, also known as Arctic warfare or winter warfare, encompasses military operations affected by snow, ice, thawing conditions or cold, both on land and at sea.

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Colorado

Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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Comando Truppe Alpine

The Comando Truppe Alpine (Alpine Troops Command) or COMTA (formerly also COMALP) commands the Mountain Troops of the Italian Army, called Alpini and various support and training units.

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Commando

A commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force often specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling.

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Counter-insurgency

A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".

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County of Tyrol

The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.

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Crevasse

A crevasse is a deep crack, or fracture, found in an ice sheet or glacier, as opposed to a crevice that forms in rock.

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Crossing of the Andes

The Crossing of the Andes (Cruce de los Andes) was one of the most important feats in the Argentine and Chilean wars of independence, in which a combined army of Argentine soldiers and Chilean exiles invaded Chile leading to Chile's liberation from Spanish rule.

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Dawn (newspaper)

DAWN is Pakistan's oldest, leading and most widely read English-language newspaper.

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Dehradun

Dehradun or Dehra Dun is the interim capital city of Uttarakhand, a state in the northern part of India.

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Dolomites

The Dolomites (Dolomiti; Ladin: Dolomites; Dolomiten; Dołomiti: Dolomitis) are a mountain range located in northeastern Italy.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Enver Pasha

Ismail Enver Pasha (اسماعیل انور پاشا; İsmail Enver Paşa; 22 November 1881 – 4 August 1922) was an Ottoman military officer and a leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Evzones

The Evzones or Evzonoi (Εύζωνες, Εύζωνοι), is the name of several historical elite light infantry and mountain units of the Greek Army.

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Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.

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Falklands War

The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

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Fort Carson

Fort Carson is a United States Army installation located in unincorporated El Paso County, Colorado, near the city of Colorado Springs.

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Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.

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Frostbite

Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues.

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Garhwal division

Garhwal (IPA: /ɡəɽʋːɔɭ/) is the western region and administrative division of the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand which is home to the Garhwali people.

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Gebirgsjäger

Gebirgsjäger are the light infantry part of the alpine or mountain troops (Gebirgstruppe) of Germany and Austria.

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Georgian independence referendum, 1991

An independence referendum was held in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic on 31 March 1991.

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Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Georgia, formally the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR; tr; Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.

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Georgian Special Operations Forces

The GSOF (სპეციალური ოპერაციების ძალები) are the elite Georgian Armed Forces components.

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Gilgit-Baltistan

Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.

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Glacier

A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Golan Heights

The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.

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Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.

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Gulmarg

Gulmarg is a town, a hill station, a popular skiing destination and a notified area committee in the Baramula district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Gunship

A gunship is a military aircraft armed with heavy guns, primarily intended for attacking ground targets.

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Gurkha

The Gurkhas or Gorkhas with endonym Gorkhali (गोरखाली) are the soldiers of Nepalese nationality and ethnic Indian Gorkhas recruited in the British Army, Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Gurkha Contingent Singapore, Gurkha Reserve Unit Brunei, UN Peace Keeping force, and war zones around the world.

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Hakkari

Hakkari (ܚܟܐܪܝ, or ܗܟܐܪܝ, Colemêrg), was a historical mountainous region lying between the plains of Nineveh to the south of Lake Van, encompassing parts of the modern provinces of Hakkâri, Şırnak, Van in Turkey and Dohuk in Iraq.

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Helicopter

A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.

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Himalayas

The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

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Hindi

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Army

The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.

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Indian Military Academy

The Indian Military Academy, Dehradun (also known as IMA) is the officer training Academy of the Indian Army.

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Indo-Pakistani War of 1947

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.

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Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".

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Israel Defense Forces

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.

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Italian Army

The Italian Army (Italian: Esercito Italiano) is the land defence force of the Italian Armed Forces of the Italian Republic.

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Italian Campaign (World War II)

The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.

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Italian Front (World War I)

The Italian Front (Fronte italiano; in Gebirgskrieg, "Mountain war") was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Following the secret promises made by the Allies in the Treaty of London, Italy entered the war in order to annex the Austrian Littoral and northern Dalmatia, and the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol.

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Italian participation in the Eastern Front

The Italian participation in the Eastern Front during World War II began after the launch of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, on 22 June 1941.

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Italian unification

Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.

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Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.

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Jericho, Vermont

Jericho is a town in Chittenden County, Vermont, United States.

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José de San Martín

José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín or El Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru, was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru.

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Juiz de Fora

Juiz de Fora (Outsider Judge), also known as J.F., is a city in the southeastern Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, approximately from the state border with Rio de Janeiro.

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Julian Alps

The Julian Alps (Julijske Alpe, Alpi Giulie) are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps that stretch from northeastern Italy to Slovenia, where they rise to 2,864 m at Mount Triglav, the highest peak in Slovenia and of the former Yugoslavia.

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Kaiserschützen

Mountain infantry battle-dress after 1907 The k.k. Landesschützen (literal: Imperial-Royal country shooters) - from January 16, 1917 Kaiserschützen (literal: Imperial rifles) - has been three regiments of Austro-Hungarian mountain infantry during the kaiserliche und königliche Monarchie (literal: k.u.k. Monarchy).

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Kargil War

The Kargil War (करगिल युद्ध, kargil yuddh, کرگل جنگ kargil jang), also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC).

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Kashmir

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

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Khevsurians

Khevsurians in traditional dress (apr. 1900) Khevsurians (ხევსურები) are an ethnographical group of Georgians, mainly living in Khevsureti, on both sides of the Caucasus Mountain Chain in the watersheds of the rivers Aragvi and Argun.

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Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross

The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes), or simply the Knight's Cross (Ritterkreuz), and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Kokoda Track campaign

The Kokoda Track campaign or Kokoda Trail campaign was part of the Pacific War of World War II.

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Korps Commandotroepen

The Korps Commandotroepen (KCT) are the special forces of the Royal Netherlands Army.

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Kumaon division

For Kumaoni people see Kumaoni people Kumaon or Kumaun is one of the two regions and administrative divisions of Uttarakhand, a mountainous state of northern India, the other being Garhwal.

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Kunar Province

Kunar (کونړ, کنر) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country.

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Leontopodium nivale

Leontopodium nivale, commonly called edelweiss (English pronunciation), is a well-known mountain flower, belonging to the daisy or sunflower family, Asteraceae.

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Lesser Caucasus

Lesser Caucasus (Փոքր Կովկաս Pʿokʿr Kovkas, Azerbaijani: Kiçik Qafqaz Dağları, მცირე კავკასიონი, Малый Кавказ, Persian: Arankuh, Küçük Kafkasya, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Minor") is second of the two main mountain ranges of Caucasus mountains, of length about.

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Lightning

Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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Line of Control

The term Line of Control (LoC) refers to the military control line between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which does not constitute a legally recognized international boundary, but is the de facto border.

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List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands

This is a list of Antarctic and subantarctic islands.

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Medical evacuation

Medical evacuation, often shortened to medevac or medivac, is the timely and efficient movement and en route care provided by medical personnel to wounded being evacuated from a battlefield, to injured patients being evacuated from the scene of an accident to receiving medical facilities, or to patients at a rural hospital requiring urgent care at a better-equipped facility using medically equipped ground vehicles (ambulances) or aircraft (air ambulances).

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Military Firefighters Corps

In Brazil, the Military Firefighters Corps (Port:Corpo de Bombeiros Militar) is a military organization with the mission of civil defense, firefighting, and search and rescue inside the States of the Federation.

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Military history of Italy during World War I

This article is about Italian military operations in World War I. Although member of the Triple Alliance, the Kingdom of Italy did not join the Central Powers, the German Empire and the Empire of Austria-Hungary, when the war started on 28 July 1914.

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Military history of Italy during World War II

The participation of Italy in the Second World War was characterized by a complex framework of ideology, politics, and diplomacy, while its military actions were often heavily influenced by external factors.

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Military Police (Brazil)

Military Police (Polícia Militar,, also known as PM) are a type of preventive state police in every state of Brazil.

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Minas Gerais

Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil.

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Montese

Montese (Frignanese: Muntês) is a town in the province of Modena, Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

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Mortar (weapon)

A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.

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Mosin–Nagant

The 3-line rifle M1891 (трёхлинейная винтовка образца 1891 года, tryokhlineynaya vintovka obraztsa 1891 goda), colloquially known as Mosin–Nagant (винтовка Мосина, ISO 9) is a five-shot, bolt-action, internal magazine–fed, military rifle developed from 1882 to 1891, and used by the armed forces of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and various other nations.

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Mountain

A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.

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Mountain Leader Training Cadre

The Mountain Leader Training Cadre is a training element of the British Royal Marines which provides instruction in mountain warfare, arctic warfare, cold weather survival and operations, and cliff assault.

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Mountain warfare

Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains or similarly rough terrain.

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Mountain Warfare Training Center

The Mountain Warfare Training Center (MWTC) is a United States Marine Corps installation located in Pickel Meadows on California State Route 108 at above sea level in the Toiyabe National Forest, northwest of Bridgeport, California.

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Multinational Centre of Excellence for Mountain Warfare

Multinational Centre of Excellence for Mountain Warfare (MN COEMW; Večnacionalni center odličnosti za gorsko bojevanje) is one of NATO Centres of Excellence, located in Bohinjska Bela, Slovenia.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Natural border

A natural border is a border between states or their subdivisions which is concomitant with natural formations such as rivers, mountain ranges, or deserts.

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Netherlands Marine Corps

The Korps Mariniers is the elite amphibious infantry component of the Royal Netherlands Navy.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").

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Norrbotten Regiment

The Norrbotten Regiment (Norrbottens regemente), designation I 19, is a Swedish Army arctic armoured, light infantry and ranger regiment that traces its origins back to the 19th century.

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Northern Warfare Training Center

The Northern Warfare Training Center (NWTC) is a United States Army Alaska installation located in Black Rapids, Alaska.

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Nuristan Province

Nuristan, also spelled Nurestan or Nooristan, (Nuristani: نورستان) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country.

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Operation Gauntlet

Operation Gauntlet (25 August – 3 September 1941) was an Allied Combined Operation during the Second World War.

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Operation Paraquet

Operation Paraquet was the code name for the British military operation to recapture the island of South Georgia from Argentine military control in April 1982 at the start of the Falklands War.

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Operation Rentier

Operation Rentier (Reindeer) was a German operation during World War II intended to secure the nickel mines around Petsamo in Finland, against a Soviet attack in the event of a renewed war between Finland and the Soviet Union.

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Order of battle

In modern use, the order of battle of an armed force participating in a military operation or campaign shows the hierarchical organization, command structure, strength, disposition of personnel, and equipment of units and formations of the armed force.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Pack animal

A pack animal or beast of burden is an individual or type of working animal used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weight bears on the animal's back, in contrast to draft animals which pull loads but do not carry them.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pakistan Army

Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.

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Partisan (military)

A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity.

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Partition of India

The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.

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Podhale Rifles

Podhale Rifles (Strzelcy podhalańscy) is the traditional name of the mountain infantry units of the Polish Army.

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Rattu

Rattu is a small village town located at the Astore district in the Northern Areas now known as Gilgit Baltistan of Pakistan.

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Rhodope Mountains

The Rhodopes (Родопи, Rodopi; Ροδόπη, Rodopi; Rodoplar) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece.

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RIA Novosti

RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.

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Royal Marines

The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Sachkhere

Sachkhere (საჩხერე) is a town at the northern edge of the Imereti Province in Western Georgia.

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São João del Rei

São João del Rei, also spelled São João del Rey or São João del-Rei, is a Brazilian municipality in the state of Minas Gerais.

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Siachen conflict

The Siachen conflict, sometimes referred to as the Siachen War, was a military conflict between India and Pakistan over the disputed Siachen Glacier region in Kashmir.

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Siachen Glacier

The Siachen Glacier (Hindi: सियाचिन ग्लेशियर, Urdu: سیاچن گلیشیر) is a glacier located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalayas at about, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends.

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Siege of Sevastopol (1941–42)

The Siege of Sevastopol also known as the Defence of Sevastopol (Оборона Севастополя, transliteration: Oborona Sevastopolya) or the Battle of Sevastopol (German: Schlacht um Sewastopol) was a military battle that took place on the Eastern Front of the Second World War.

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Sino-Indian War

The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.

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Smolyan

Smolyan (Смолян) is a town and ski resort in the far south of Bulgaria near the border with Greece.

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South Georgia Island

South Georgia is an island in the southern Atlantic Ocean that is part of the British Overseas territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Special Air Service

The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army.

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Special forces

Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Tawang

Tawang is a town situated at an elevation of approximately to the east of Bhutan.

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The Hindu

The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Train Advise Assist Command – East

Train Advise Assist Command – East (TAAC – East) is a multinational military formation, part of NATO's Resolute Support Mission within Afghanistan.

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Tyrolean Rebellion

The Tyrolean Rebellion of 1809 (German: Tiroler Volksaufstand) was a rebellion of peasants in the County of Tyrol led by Andreas Hofer against the occupation of their homeland by the French and Bavarian troops within the context of the War of the Fifth Coalition against Napoleon I.

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Ukraine

Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti

The United Nations Stabilization Mission In Haiti (UNSTAMIH) (Mission des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en Haïti), also known as MINUSTAH, an acronym of the French name, was a United Nations peacekeeping mission in Haiti that was in operation from 2004 to 2017.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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United States Army Rangers

The United States Army Rangers are designated U.S. Army Ranger units, past or present, or are graduates of the U.S. Army Ranger School.

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Utility helicopter

A utility helicopter is a multi-purpose helicopter.

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Vânători de munte

The vânători de munte (English translation: Mountain Huntsmen) are the elite mountain troops of the Romanian Land Forces.

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War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.

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Water conflict

Water conflict is a term describing a conflict between countries, states, or groups over an access to water resources.

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Winning hearts and minds

Winning hearts and minds is a concept occasionally expressed in the resolution of war, insurgency, and other conflicts, in which one side seeks to prevail not by the use of superior force, but by making emotional or intellectual appeals to sway supporters of the other side.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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10th Mountain Division

The 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) is a light infantry division in the United States Army based at Fort Drum, New York.

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1st Mountain Division (Bundeswehr)

The 1st Mountain Division (1. Gebirgsdivision) was a West German mountain infantry formation.

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1st Raider/Paratrooper Brigade (Greece)

The 1st Raider/Paratrooper Brigade (translit), is a brigade-sized formation of elite Greek light infantry and special operations forces.

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27th Mountain Infantry Brigade (France)

The 27th Mountain Infantry Brigade (e Brigade d'Infanterie de Montagne, 27 BIM) is a mountain infantry formation of the French Army.

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2nd Foreign Engineer Regiment

The 2nd Foreign Engineer Regiment (2e Régiment Etranger de Génie, 2e REG) is one of two combat engineer regiments in the French Foreign Legion.

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2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment

The 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment (2e Régiment étranger de parachutistes, 2e REP) is the only airborne regiment of the French Foreign Legion.

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3 Commando Brigade

3 Commando Brigade is a commando formation of the British Armed Forces and the main manoeuvre formation of the Royal Marines.

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4th Alpini Paratroopers Regiment

The 4th Alpini Paratroopers Regiment (4° Reggimento Alpini Paracadutisti) is a Ranger type infantry regiment of the Italian Army, specializing in mountain combat.

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6th Mountain Infantry Brigade (Argentina)

The 6th Mountain Infantry Brigade is a unit of the Argentine Army specialised in mountain warfare.

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86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team

The 86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Mountain) ("The Vermont Brigade") is an Army National Guard light infantry brigade headquartered in Vermont and is subordinate to the 10th Mountain Division (Regular Army), as part of the U.S. Army's Associated Units pilot.

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8th Mountain Infantry Brigade (Argentina)

The 8th Mountain Infantry Brigade (Spanish: Brigada de Montaña 8/VIII) is a unit of the Argentine Army specialised in Mountain warfare.

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Redirects here:

Alpine Infantry, Alpine Warfare, Alpine regiment, Alpine troops, Mountain Infantry, Mountain Troops, Mountain Warfare, Mountain infantry, Mountain troops, Mountain unit.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mountain_warfare

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