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Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed al-Megrahi (عبد الباسط محمد علي المقرحي,; 1 April 1952 – 20 May 2012) was a Libyan who was head of security for Libyan Arab Airlines, director of the Centre for Strategic Studies in Tripoli, Libya, and an alleged Libyan intelligence officer.
Abdessalam Jalloud (عبد السلام جلود) (born 15 December 1944) was Prime Minister of Libya from 16 July 1972 to 2 March 1977, during the government of Muammar Gaddafi.
Abdul Ati al-Obeidi (عبد العاطي العبيدي; born 10 October 1939) is a Libyan politician and diplomat.
Abdul Majid al-Qaʿud (عبد المجيد القعود) (born 1943) was General Secretary of the People's Committee in Libya (prime minister) from 29 January 1994 to 1 March 1997.
Abdul Razzaq as-Sawsa (عبد الرزاق الصوصاع) was a former Head of State of Libya from 7 October 1990 to 18 November 1992.
Abdullah (al) Senussi (born 5 December 1949) is a Libyan national who was the intelligence chief and brother-in-law of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Sabri Khalil al-Banna (May 1937 – 16 August 2002), known as Abu Nidal, was the founder of Fatah: The Revolutionary Council, a militant Palestinian splinter group more commonly known as the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO).
Abu Salim prison (سجن أبو سليم) is a maximum security prison in Tripoli, Libya.
Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr (أبو بكر يونس جابر, 1940/1952 – 20 October 2011) was the Libyan Minister of Defence during the period of Muammar Gaddafi.
Abuzed Omar Dorda (أبو زيد عمر دوردة) (born 4 April 1944) was General Secretary of the People's Committee (Prime Minister) of Libya from 7 October 1990 to 29 January 1994, and as Libya's Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 1997 to 2003.
Action directe (AD) was a French far-left terrorist group which committed a series of assassinations and violent attacks in France between 1979 and 1987.
In the Action in the Gulf of Sidra, the United States Navy deployed aircraft carrier groups in the disputed Gulf of Sidra in the Mediterranean Sea.
Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Afriqiyah Airways Flight 209 was a domestic passenger flight from Sabha to Tripoli, Libya that was hijacked on 23 December 2016 and made a forced landing in Luqa, Malta.
The Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (ANSA) is the leading wire service in Italy, and one of the leaders among world news agencies.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
The Al-Gaddafi International Prize for Human Rights was an annual human rights prize founded by the Libyan People's Congress in late 1988, in "indebtedness and gratitude for Muammar Gaddafi and in appreciation for his role in firmly establishing the principle of direct democracy, his persistent struggle, his distinctive inspiration and continuous instigation for the consolidation of human liberty and for issuing the Great Green Document in the era of the masses, for the purpose of bestowing tribute upon symbolic figures of struggle and faith in the values of freedom to all humans, nations, groups and individuals".
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Al-Saadi Muammar Gaddafi (الساعدي معمر القذافي; born 25 May 1973), is the third son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.
ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe.
The Amazonian Guard (also "the Amazons") was an unofficial name given by Western journalists to an all-female elite cadre of bodyguards officially known as الراهبات الثوريات (al-rāhibāt al-thawriyyāt) "The Revolutionary Nuns", tasked with protecting the late, former leader of Libya, Muammar Gaddafi.
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Andrew Lycett is an English biographer and journalist.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
The Aouzou Strip (Arabic قطاع أوزو Qiṭāʿ Awzū, Bande d'Aozou) is a strip of land in northern Chad which lies along the border with Libya, extending south to a depth of about 100 kilometers into Chad's Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region for an area of 114,000 km² and is named after the small town and oasis Aouzou.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
The Arab Islamic Republic (الجمهورية العربية الإسلامية) was a proposed unification of Tunisia and Libya in 1974, agreed upon by Libyan head of state Muammar Gaddafi and Tunisian President Habib Bourguiba.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab Maghreb Union (AMU); اتحاد المغرب العربي) is a trade agreement aiming for economic and future political unity among Arab countries of the Maghreb in North Africa. Its members are the nations of Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. The Union has been unable to achieve tangible progress on its goals due to deep economic and political disagreements between Morocco and Algeria regarding, among others, the issue of Western Sahara. No high level meetings have taken place since 3 July 2008 and commentators regard the Union as largely dormant.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
The Arab Nationalist Movement (حركة القوميين العرب, Harakat al-Qawmiyyin al-Arab), also known as the Movement of Arab Nationalists and the Harakiyyin, was a pan-Arab nationalist organization influential in much of the Arab world, most famously so within the Palestinian movement.
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.
Arab socialism (Al-Ishtirākīya Al-‘Arabīya) is a political ideology based on an amalgamation of Pan-Arabism and socialism.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arabized Berber denotes an inhabitant of the Maghreb region in northwestern Africa, whose native language is a local dialect of Arabic and whose origins are Berber.
The Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) (Հայաստանի Ազատագրութեան Հայ Գաղտնի Բանակ, ՀԱՀԳԲ, Hayasdani Azadakrut'ean Hay Kaghdni Panag, HAHKP) was an Armenian militant organization, that operated from 1975 to the early 1990s.
The Army Air Corps (AAC) is a component of the British Army, first formed in 1942 during the Second World War by grouping the various airborne units of the British Army (which are no longer part of the AAC).
For the Libyan Special Forces see: Al-Saiqa (Libya) As-Sa'iqa (also transliterated as al-Saika, Saeqa, etc., from الصاعقة (lit. storm or thunderbolt (meaning “shock troops”); also known as the Vanguard for the Popular Liberation War) is a Palestinian Ba'athist political and military faction created and controlled by Syria. It is linked to the Palestinian branch of the Syrian-led Ba'ath Party, and is a member of the broader Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), although it is no longer active in the organization. Its Secretary-General is and the president of the political wing of the organization is Dr Mohammed Qais.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
An asylum seeker (also rarely called an asylee) is a person who flees his or her home country, 'spontaneously' enters another country and applies for asylum, i.e. the right to international protection, in this other country.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Ayesha Gaddafi (or Aisha, عائشة القذافي, born 1976), also known as Aicha Al-Kadhafi, is a former Libyan mediator and military official, former UN Goodwill Ambassador, and lawyer by profession.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was a political party founded in Syria by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, and associates of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
Ba'athism (البعثية, al-Ba'athiyah, from بعث ba'ath, meaning "renaissance" or "resurrection") is an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary government.
Bab al-Azizia, "The Splendid Gate", is a military barracks and compound situated in the southern suburbs of Tripoli, the capital of Libya.
Baghdadi Ali Mahmudi (البغدادي علي المحمودي) was Secretary of the General People's Committee (prime minister) of Libya from 5 March 2006 to as late as 1 September 2011, when he acknowledged the collapse of the GPCO and the ascendance of the National Transitional Council as a result of the Libyan Civil War. He has a medical degree, specialising in obstetrics and gynecology, and had served as Deputy Prime Minister to Prime Minister Shukri Ghanem since 2003 at the time he was appointed to replace him. He was a part of Gaddafi's inner circle at least prior to his escape in mid-2011. He was arrested in Tunisia for illegal border entry and jailed for six months, although this was later overruled on appeal, however a Tunisian court decided to extradite Mahmoudi to Libya under a request from Libya's Transitional Council.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
In Islam, Barakah or Baraka (بركة) is a kind of continuity of spiritual presence and revelation that begins with God and flows through that and those closest to God.
The Basic Peoples Congress, or Fundamental Popular Council (translit), was the smallest unit of government in Libya under Muammar Gaddafi's Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
The Battle of Tripoli (ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ) was a military confrontation in Tripoli, Libya, between loyalists of Muammar Gaddafi, the longtime leader of Libya, and the National Transitional Council, which was attempting to overthrow Gaddafi and take control of the capital.
Bayda, or Elbeida (or; البيضاء) (also spelt az-Zāwiyat al-Bayḑā’, Zāwiyat al-Bayḑā’, Beida and El Beida; known as Beda Littoria under Italian colonial rule), is a commercial and industrial city in eastern Libya.
Beaconsfield is a market town and civil parish within the South Bucks district in Buckinghamshire centred WNW of London and SSE of the county's administrative town, Aylesbury.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Benghazi (بنغازي) is the second-most populous city in Libya and the largest in Cyrenaica.
Benghazi Military University Academy is a military academy in Benghazi in Libya.
Berberism (Berber: Timmuzɣa or Tamaziɣiẓri) or Amazighism is a Berber political-cultural movement of ethnic, geographic, or cultural nationalism, started mainly in Kabylia, Algeria, and in Morocco and later spreading to the rest of the Berber communities in North Africa.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
William Alton Carter (March 29, 1937 – September 25, 1988) was an American farmer, businessman, brewer, and politician, and the younger brother of U.S. President Jimmy Carter.
Bingu wa Mutharika (born Brightson Webster Ryson Thom; 24 February 1934 – 5 April 2012) was a Malawian politician and economist who was President of Malawi from May 2004 until his death in April 2012.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
The Black Panther Party or the BPP (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a political organization founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton in October 1966.
The Black September Organization (BSO) (منظمة أيلول الأسود, Munaẓẓamat Aylūl al-aswad) was a Palestinian terrorist organization founded in 1970.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Bovington Camp is a British Army military base in Dorset, England.
BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.
The Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution (الأخ القائد ومرشد الثورة) was an unofficial title held by former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, who claimed to be merely a symbolic figurehead of the country's official governance structure.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Buckinghamshire, abbreviated Bucks, is a county in South East England which borders Greater London to the south east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the west, Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire to the north east and Hertfordshire to the east.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Chadian–Libyan conflict was a series of sporadic clashes in Chad between 1978 and 1987 between Libyan and Chadian forces.
The Chairperson of the African Union is the ceremonial head of the African Union elected by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government for a one-year term.
Charismatic authority is a concept about leadership that was developed in 1922 (he died in 1920) by the German sociologist Max Weber.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
A clandestine cell system is a method for organizing a group of people such as resistance fighters, sleeper agents, or terrorists so that such people can more effectively resist penetration by an opposing organization (such as law enforcement).
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
A cold war is a state of conflict between nations that does not involve direct military action but is pursued primarily through economic and political actions, propaganda, acts of espionage or proxy wars waged by surrogates.
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) is a free trade area with nineteen member states stretching from Libya to Swaziland.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD; Arabic:; French: Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens; Portuguese: Comunidade dos Estados Sahelo-Saarianos) aims to create a free trade area within Africa.
Cooperation (sometimes written as co-operation) is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for common, mutual, or some underlying benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head.
Criticisms of Marxism have come from various political ideologies and academic disciplines.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
The Cultural Revolution (or People's Revolution) in Libya was a period of political and social change in Libya.
The Dailytimes Nigeria is a newspaper with headquarters in Lagos.
Daniel Robert Kawczynski (born 24 January 1972) is a British Conservative Party politician and Member of Parliament (MP) for Shrewsbury and Atcham in Shropshire, England.
David Michael Blundy (21 March 1945 – 17 November 1989), was a British journalist and war correspondent killed by a sniper at the age 44 in El Salvador.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
Muammar Gaddafi, the deposed leader of Libya, was captured and killed on 20 October 2011 during the Battle of Sirte.
The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الديموقراطية لتحرير فلسطين, al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiya li-Tahrir Filastin) is a Palestinian Marxist–Leninist–Maoist, secular political and militant organization.
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power.
DIN 31635 is a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) standard for the transliteration of the Arabic alphabet adopted in 1982.
The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries which were formerly territories of the Ottoman Empire, and was used historically in several more.
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
Domenico Mintoff (Duminku Mintoff; often called il-Perit, "the Architect"; 6 August 1916 – 20 August 2012) was a Maltese politician, architect, anti-colonialist revolutionary and civil engineer who was leader of the Labour Party from 1949 to 1984, and was 8th Prime Minister of Malta from 1955 to 1958, when Malta was still a British colony, and again, following independence, from 1971 to 1984.
Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian coup d'etat of 1952 (ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), also known as the July 23 revolution, began on July 23, 1952, by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.
The Eritrean War of Independence was a conflict fought between the Ethiopian government and Eritrean separatists, both before and during the Ethiopian Civil War.
ETA, an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna ("Basque Homeland and Liberty"), was an armed leftist Basque nationalist and separatist organization in the Basque Country (in northern Spain and southwestern France).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Fashion is a popular style, especially in clothing, footwear, lifestyle products, accessories, makeup, hairstyle and body.
Fataḥ (فتح), formerly the Palestinian National Liberation Movement, is a Palestinian nationalist political party and the largest faction of the confederated multi-party Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the second-largest party in the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC).
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Federation of Arab Republics (اتحاد الجمهوريات العربية) was an attempt by Muammar Gaddafi to merge Libya, Egypt and Syria in order to create a United Arab state.
Fezzan (ⴼⴻⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; فزان, Fizzān; Fizan; Phasania) or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya.
Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (originally FIAT, lit) is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (previously Fiat S.p.A.). Fiat Automobiles was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, and traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
Flagellation (Latin flagellum, "whip"), flogging, whipping or lashing is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, lashes, rods, switches, the cat o' nine tails, the sjambok, etc.
The Free Aceh Movement (Gerakan Aceh Merdeka or simply GAM, Geurakan Acèh Meurdèka, also: Gěrakan Aceh Měrdeka) was a separatist group seeking independence for the Aceh region of Sumatra from Indonesia.
The Free Officers (حركة الضباط الأحرار) were a group of Egyptian nationalist officers in the armed forces of Egypt and Sudan that instigated the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
FROLINAT (Front de Libération Nationale du Tchad; National Liberation Front of Chad) was an insurgent rebel group that was active in Chad between 1966 and 1993.
Gaafar Muhammad an-Nimeiry (otherwise spelled in English as Jaafar Nimeiry, Gaafar Nimeiry or Ga'far Muhammad Numayri; جعفر محمد نميري; 1 January 193030 May 2009) was the President of Sudan from 1969 to 1985.
Gaddafi loyalism after the Libyan Civil War refers to sympathetic sentiment towards the overthrown government of Muammar Gaddafi, who was killed in October 2011.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
The General National Congress (المؤتمر الوطني العام, Berber: Agraw Amuran Amatay) was the legislative authority of Libya for two years following the end of the Libyan Civil War.
The General People's Committee (اللجنة الشعبية العامة, al-lajna ash-sha'bēya al-'āmma), often abbreviated as the GPCO, was the executive branch of government during the era of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
The General People's Congress of Libya (Mu'tammar al-sha'ab al 'âmm) (مؤتمر الشعب العام الليبي) was the national legislature of Muammar Gaddafi's Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya governance structure.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
The Google Ngram Viewer or Google Books Ngram Viewer is an online search engine that charts the frequencies of any set of comma-delimited search strings using a yearly count of n-grams found in sources printed between 1500 and 2008 in Google's text corpora in English, Chinese (simplified), French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Russian, or Spanish.
The Great Man-Made River (GMR, النهر الصناعي العظيم) is a network of pipes that supplies water to the Sahara in Libya, from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System fossil aquifer.
In the first Gulf of Sidra incident, 19 August 1981, two Russian made Libyan Su-22 Fitter fired upon and were subsequently shot down by two U.S. F-14 Tomcats off the Libyan coast.
A gunshot wound (GSW), also known as ballistic trauma, is a form of physical trauma sustained from the discharge of arms or munitions.
Habib Ben Ali Bourguiba (الحبيب بورقيبة al-Ḥabīb Būrqībah; 3 August 1903 – 6 April 2000) was a Tunisian lawyer, nationalist leader and statesman who served as the country's leader from independence in 1956 to 1987.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Hana Moammar Gaddafi was allegedly the adopted daughter of Muammar Gaddafi.
Hannibal Muammar Gaddafi (هانيبال معمر القذافي born) is the fifth son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and his second wife, Safia Farkash.
The Hans Wehr transliteration system is a system for transliteration of the Arabic alphabet into the Latin alphabet used in the Hans Wehr dictionary (1952; in English 1961).
Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi as-Senussi (1928 – 28 April 1992) was the crown prince of the Kingdom of Libya from 26 October 1956 to 1 September 1969, when the monarchy was abolished.
King Hassan II (الحسن الثاني, MSA: (a)l-ḥasan aṯ-ṯānī, Darija: el-ḥasan ett(s)âni); 9 July 1929 – 23 July 1999) was King of Morocco from 1961 until his death in 1999. He was the eldest son of Mohammed V, Sultan, then King of Morocco (1909–1961), and his second wife, Lalla Abla bint Tahar (1909–1992). Hassan was known to be one of the most severe rulers of Morocco.
Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état.
The history of the Jews in Libya stretches back to the 3rd century BCE, when Cyrenaica was under Greek rule.
The HIV trial in Libya (or Bulgarian nurses affair) concerns the trials, appeals and eventual release of six foreign medical workers charged with conspiring to deliberately infect over 400 children with HIV in 1998, causing an epidemic at El-Fatih Children's Hospital in Benghazi, Libya.
Homeschooling, also known as home education, is the education of children inside the home.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human rights in Libya is the record of human rights upheld and violated in various stages of Libya's history.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Hythe is a small coastal market town on the edge of Romney Marsh, in the district of Folkestone and Hythe on the south coast of Kent.
Idi Amin Dada (2816 August 2003) was a Ugandan politician and military officer.
Idris, GBE (إدريس الأول; El Sayyid Prince Muhammad Idris bin Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi; 12 March 1889 – 25 May 1983), was a Libyan political and religious leader who served as the Emir of Cyrenaica and then as the King of Libya from 1951 to 1969.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
Imbarek Shamekh (امبارك عبدالله الشامخ) (sometimes Mubarak Abdallah al-Shamikh or Embarek Shamekh) (born 15 May 1952) is a Libyan politician and bureaucrat.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States of America.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
Islamic Modernism, also sometimes referred to as Modernist Salafism, is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim ideological response" attempting to reconcile Islamic faith with modern Western values such as nationalism, democracy, civil rights, rationality, equality, and progress.
Islamic revival (تجديد, lit. "regeneration, renewal"; also الصحوة الإسلامية, "Islamic awakening") refers to a revival of the Islamic religion.
Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to describe a more spiritual form of socialism.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
The international standard ISO 233 establishes a system for Arabic and Syriac transliteration (Romanization).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.
Isratin (ישרטין,; إسراطين), also known as the bi-national state (מדינה דו-לאומית), is a proposed unitary, federal or confederate Israeli-Palestinian state encompassing the present territory of Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.
The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.
Italian settlers in Libya (Italo-libici, also called Italian Libyans) typically refers to Italians, and their descendants, who resided or were born in Italian Libya, in the colonial period preceding independent Libya.
The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, "Libyan War") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912.
Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi (جاد الله عزوز الطلحي) is a Libyan diplomat and politician who served as prime minister of Libya for two terms.
Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete (born 7 October 1951) was the fourth President of Tanzania, in office from 2005 to 2015.
The was a communist armed group founded by Fusako Shigenobu early in 1971 in Lebanon.
Jean-Bédel Bokassa (22 February 1921 – 3 November 1996), also known as Bokassa I of Central Africa and Salah Eddine Ahmed Bokassa, was the ruler of the Central African Republic and its successor state, the Central African Empire, from his coup d'état on 1 January 1966 until overthrown in a subsequent coup (supported by France) on 20 September 1979.
Jiang Zemin (born 17 August 1926) is a retired Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2004, and as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Khamis Gaddafi (27 May 1983 – 29 August 2011) was the seventh and youngest son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, and the military commander in charge of the Khamis Brigade of the Libyan Army.
The genitive phrase King of Kings (Assyrian šar šarrāni, Hebrew מֶלֶךְ מְלָכִים melek mĕlakîm, Persian شاهنشاه) is a superlative expression for "great king" or high king; it is probably originally of Semitic origins (compare the superlatives Lord of Lords, Song of Songs or Holy of Holies), but from there was also adopted in Persian (Shahanshah), Hellenistic and Christian traditions.
The Kingdom of Libya (المملكة الليبية; Libyan Kingdom; Regno di Libia), originally called the United Kingdom of Libya, came into existence upon independence on 24 December 1951 and lasted until a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 overthrew King Idris and established the Libyan Arab Republic.
Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary.
la Repubblica (the Republic) is an Italian daily general-interest newspaper.
Lamin Khalifa Fhimah (الأمين خليفة فحيمة, al-Amīn Khalīfah Faḥīmah; born 4 April 1956) is a former station manager for Libyan Arab Airlines at Luqa Airport, Malta.
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
Leadership is a daily national newspaper established in October 2004 and is published by Leadership Newspaper Group based in Abuja, Nigeria.
The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.
The Lebanese National Movement (LNM) (Arabic: الحركة الوطنية اللبنانية, Al-Harakat al-Wataniyya al-Lubnaniyya) or Mouvement National Libanais (MNL) in French, was a front of leftist, pan-Arabist and Syrian nationalist parties and organizations active during the early years of the Lebanese Civil War, which supported the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
A liberation movement is an organization or political movement leading a rebellion, or a non-violent social movement, against a colonial power or national government, often seeking independence based on a nationalist identity and an anti-imperialist outlook.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Libya pursued programs to develop or acquire weapons of mass destruction from when Muammar Gaddafi seized control of Libya in 1969 until he announced on 19 December 2003 that Libya would voluntarily eliminate all materials, equipment and programs that could lead to internationally proscribed weapons, including weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical and biological weapons) and long-range ballistic missiles.
Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 (LN 114) was a regularly scheduled flight from Tripoli to Cairo via Benghazi.
The Arab Socialist Union of Libya (ASU; الاتحاد الاشتراكي العربي الليبي, Al-Ittiḥād Al-Ištirākī Al-ʿArabī Al-Liby; Unione Socialista Araba Libica) was a political party in Libya from 1971 to 1977 led by Muammar Gaddafi.
Libyan Arabic (ليبي Lībī; also known as Sulaimitian Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken in Libya and neighboring countries.
The Libyan Army was the branch of the Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, the Libyan Arab Republic and the Libyan Kingdom responsible for ground warfare.
The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.
The Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG), also known as Al-Jama'a al-Islamiyyah al-Muqatilah bi-Libya (الجماعة الإسلامية المقاتلة بليبيا), was an armed Islamist group.
Elections for a General National Congress (GNC) were held in Libya on 7 July 2012, having been postponed from 19 June.
The Libyan Popular National Movement (الحركة الوطنية الشعبية الليبية) is a political movement established by former Libyan officials on 15 February 2012.
The Libyan Revolutionary Command Council was the twelve-person governing body that ruled the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977.
The Libyan–Egyptian War was a short border war between Libya and Egypt in July 1977.
This article lists the heads of government of Libya since the country's independence in 1951.
This article lists the heads of state of Libya since the country's independence in 1951.
This list details national leaders since 1900 who ruled for 30 years or more, and were not self-described members of a royal family.
Lockerbie (Locarbaidh) is a town in Dumfries and Galloway, southwestern Scotland.
Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Mahmoud Jibril el-Warfally (محمود جبريل الورفلي), also transcribed Jabril or Jebril or Gebril, (born 28 May 1952) is a Libyan politician who served as the interim Prime Minister of Libya for seven and a half months during the Libyan Civil War, chairing the executive board of the National Transitional Council from 5 March to 23 October 2011.
Mahmood Suleiman Maghribi (محمود سليمان المغربي) (29 November 1935 - 17 July 2009) was Prime Minister of Libya from 8 September 1969 to 16 January 1970.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Michel Aflaq (ميشيل عفلق‎,, 9 January 1910 – 23 June 1989) was a Syrian philosopher, sociologist and Arab nationalist.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mifta al-Usta Umar (مفتاح الاسطى عمر) (1935-22 March 2010) was the General Secretary of Libya's General People's Congress from 15 February 1984 to 7 October 1990.
Miftah Muhammed K'eba (Arabic:مفتاح محمد كعيبة), also translated as Miftah Muhammad Kuayba, was the Secretary-General of the General People's Congress of Libya from 3 March 2008 to 5 March 2009 and as such head of state.
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.
Misurata (مصراته, Misurata, ⵎⵉⵙⵓⵔⴰⵜⴰ) is a city in the Misrata District in northwestern Libya, situated to the east of Tripoli and west of Benghazi on the Mediterranean coast near Cape Misurata.
Mohamed Abu al-Qasim al-Zwai (born 14 May 1952) was the last Secretary General of Libya's General People's Congress and thus the country's nominal head of state of Libya from 2010 until 2011.
Mohammed Yousef el-Magariaf, (also written as Magariaf, Elmegaryaf or Almegaryaf) or, as he writes on his official website, Dr.
The Montreal Convention (formally, the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air) is a multilateral treaty adopted by a diplomatic meeting of ICAO member states in 1999.
The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) is a political organization in the Philippines that was founded in 1972.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Muhammad Ahmad al-Mangoush (محمد أحمد المنقوش) was General Secretary of the People's Committee in Libya (prime minister) from 29 December 1997 to 1 March 2000.
Muhammad al-Zanati was the head of state of Libya from 18 November 1992 until 3 March 2008.
Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab (محمد الزروق رجب) (born 1940) was a former Head of State and General Secretary of the People's Committee (Prime Minister) in Libya.
Muhammad Muammar Gaddafi (born 1970; محمد القذافي) is the eldest son of the former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988) was a Pakistani four-star general who served as the 6th President of Pakistan from 1978 until his death in 1988, after declaring martial law in 1977.
The Munich massacre was an attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, in which the Palestinian terrorist group Black September took eleven Israeli Olympic team members hostage and killed them along with a German police officer.
The murder of Yvonne Fletcher, a Metropolitan Police officer, occurred on 17 April 1984, when she was fatally wounded by a shot fired from the Libyan embassy on St James's Square, London, by an unknown gunman.
Musa al-Sadr (سید موسى صدر; 4 June 1928 – disappeared in Libya on 31 August 1978) is a Lebanese-Iranian philosopher and Shi'a religious leader from a long line of distinguished clerics tracing their ancestry back to Jabal Amel. Born in the Cheharmardan neighbourhood of Qom, Iran, he underwent both seminary and secular studies in Iran. He left Qom for Najaf to study theology and returned to Iran after the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état. He belongs to the Sadr family from Jabal Amel in Lebanon, a branch of Musawi family tracing to Musa Ibn Jaafar, the seventh Shia Imam and ultimately to the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima. Therefore Musa al-Sadr is often styled with the honorific title Sayyid. Some years later, Sadr went to Tyre, Lebanon as the emissary of Ayatollahs Borujerdi and Hakim. Fouad Ajami called him a "towering figure in modern Shi'i political thought and praxis"., chapter 26 He gave the Shia population of Lebanon "a sense of community". In Lebanon, he founded and revived many organizations including schools, charities, and the Amal Movement. On 25 August 1978, Sadr and two companions departed for Libya to meet with government officials at the invitation of Muammar Gaddafi. The three were last seen on 31 August. They were never heard from again. Many theories exist around the circumstances of Sadr's disappearance, none of which have been proven.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
Mustafa A.G. Abushagur (Arabic: مصطفى ابوشاقور غيت ابوشاقور; born 15 February 1951) is a Libyan politician, professor of electrical engineering, university president and entrepreneur.
Mustafa Abdul Jalil (مصطفى عبد الجليل, also transcribed Abdul-Jelil, Abd-al-Jalil, Abdel-Jalil, Abdeljalil or Abdu Al Jeleil) (born 1952) is a Libyan politician who was the Chairman of the National Transitional Council from 5 March 2011 until its dissolution on 8 August 2012.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
Al-Mutassim-Billah Muammar al-Gaddafi (مُعْتَصِمٌ بِٱللهِ ٱلْقَذَّافِيّ., also transliterated as Al-Moa'tassem Bellah or Al-Mutasim-bi-'llah; 18 December 1974 – 20 October 2011) was a Libyan Army officer, and the National Security Advisor of Libya from 2008 until 2011.
The Nafusa Mountains (Berber: Adrar n Infusen (Nafusa Mountain), (Western mountain)) are a mountain range in the western Tripolitania region of northwestern Libya.
Nasserism (at-Tayyār an-Nāṣṣarī) is a socialist Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the two principal leaders of the Egyptian revolution of 1952 and Egypt's second President.
The Nation of Islam, abbreviated as NOI, is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, Michigan, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930.
The National Front (NF) is a racist far-right and fascist political party in the United Kingdom.
The National Front for the Salvation of Libya (NFSL) was a political opposition group active during the rule of the Gaddafi regime in Libya.
National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service.
The National Transitional Council of Libya (المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the de facto government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War, in which rebel forces overthrew the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya of Muammar Gaddafi.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Nativism is the political policy of promoting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba (born Albert-Bernard Bongo; 30 December 1935 – 8 June 2009) was a Gabonese politician who was President of Gabon for 42 years from 1967 until his death in 2009 Omar Bongo was promoted to key positions as a young official under Gabon's first President Léon M'ba in the 1960s, before being elected Vice-President in his own right in 1966.
‘Omar al-Mukhṫār Muḥammad bin Farḥāṫ al-Manifī (عُمَرْ الْمُخْتَارْ مُحَمَّدْ بِنْ فَرْحَاتْ الْمَنِفِي; 20 August 1858 – 16 September 1931), called The Lion of the Desert, known among the colonial Italians as Matari of the Mnifa, was the leader of native resistance in Eastern Libya under the Senussids, against the Italian colonization of Libya.
The one-state solution and the similar binational solution are proposed approaches to resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
The Order of Good Hope or Order of the Cape of Good Hope has been a knighthood order of the Republic of South Africa.
The Order of Lenin (Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930.
The Organisation of African Unity (OAU; Organisation de l'unité africaine (OUA)) was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with 32 signatory governments.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Palestinian Popular Struggle Front (PPSF, occasionally abbr. PSF), (Arabic: جبهة النضال الشعبي الفلسطيني, Jabhet Al-Nedal Al-Sha'abi Al-Falestini), is a Palestinian political party.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
Pan Am Flight 103 was a regularly scheduled Pan Am transatlantic flight from Frankfurt to Detroit via London and New York.
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent.
Pan-Arabism, or simply Arabism, is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world.
The University of Paris VIII or University of Vincennes in Saint-Denis (French: Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis or Université de Vincennes à Saint-Denis) is a public university in Paris.
Participatory democracy emphasizes the broad participation of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems.
Peking University (abbreviated PKU or Beida; Chinese: 北京大学, pinyin: běi jīng dà xué) is a major Chinese research university located in Beijing and a member of the C9 League.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Piccadilly is a road in the City of Westminster, London to the south of Mayfair, between Hyde Park Corner in the west and Piccadilly Circus in the east.
Police state is a term denoting a government that exercises power arbitrarily through the power of the police force.
The Polisario Front, Frente Polisario, FRELISARIO or simply POLISARIO, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro ("Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro" الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير ساقية الحمراء و وادي الذهب Al-Jabhat Al-Sha'abiyah Li-Tahrir Saqiya Al-Hamra'a wa Wadi Al-Dhahab, Front populaire de Libération de la Seguia el Hamra et du Rivière d'or), is a Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement aiming to end Moroccan presence in the Western Sahara.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين, al-Jabhah al-Sha`biyyah li-Taḥrīr Filasṭīn) is a secular Palestinian Marxist–Leninist and revolutionary socialist organization founded in 1967 by George Habash.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command (الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين – القيادة العامة) or PFLP-GC is a Palestinian nationalist militant organisation based in Syria.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.
A public holiday, national holiday or legal holiday is a holiday generally established by law and is usually a non-working day during the year.
The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
The Qadhadhfa (also al-Qaddafa, Gaddadfa, Qaddadfa, Gaddafa; القذاذفـة) is one of the branches of the Houara tribe, living in the Sirte District in present-day northwestern Libya as one of the greatest and powerful tribes in the country itself.
Qasr Abu Hadi (قصر ابو هادي) is a village with estimated 4,890 inhabitants in the Sirte District of Libya.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Red Army Faction (RAF; German),See the section ''Faction'' versus ''Fraktion'' also known as the Baader-Meinhof Group or Baader-Meinhof Gang, was a West German far-left militant organization founded in 1970.
The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse, often abbreviated BR) was a left-wing terrorist organization, based in Italy, responsible for numerous violent incidents, including assassinations, kidnapping and robberies during the so-called "Years of Lead".
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Roots: The Saga of an American Family is a novel written by Alex Haley and first published in 1976.
The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS or RMA Sandhurst), commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is one of several military academies of the United Kingdom and is the British Army's initial officer training centre.
Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators, absolute monarchs and military leaders.
Ruth First (4 May 1925 – 17 August 1982) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and scholar born in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Sabha, or Sebha (سبها Sabhā), is an oasis city in southwestern Libya, approximately south of Tripoli.
Safia Farkash El Hadad (born 1952) is the former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi widow and former First Lady of Libya, and mother of seven of his eight biological children.
Saif al-Arab Gaddafi (سيف العرب القذافي, lit. Sword of the Arabs; of the Gaddafa; 1982 – 30 April 2011) was the sixth son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.
Saif al-Islam Gaddafi (سيف الإسلام معمر القذافي; born 25 June 1972) is a Libyan political figure.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.
The Scottish court in the Netherlands was a special sitting of the High Court of Justiciary set up under Scots law in a former United States Air Force base called Camp Zeist in Utrecht, in the Netherlands, for the trial of two Libyans charged with 270 counts of murder in connection with the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, on 21 December 1988.
The Second Africa-South America Summit took place in September 2009 on Margarita Island, Venezuela, with the participation of Heads of state from 61 countries (49 from Africa and 12 from South America).
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
The Senussi, or Sanussi (السنوسية), are a Muslim political-religious tariqa (Sufi order) and clan in colonial Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi (السنوسي الكبير), the Algerian Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
A shanty town or squatter area is a settlement of improvised housing which is known as shanties or shacks, made of plywood, corrugated metal, sheets of plastic, and cardboard boxes.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
In Islam, shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah.
Shukri Mohammed Ghanem (شكري محمد إمحمد غانم October 1942 – 29 April 2012) was a Libyan politician who was the General Secretary of the General People's Committee of Libya (prime minister) from June 2003 until March 2006 when, in the first major government re-shuffle in over a decade, he was replaced by his deputy, Baghdadi Mahmudi.
Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian media tycoon and politician who has served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments.
Sirte (سرت,; from Σύρτις), also spelled Sirt, Surt, Sert or Syrte, is a city in Libya.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Social conservatism is the belief that society is built upon a fragile network of relationships which need to be upheld through duty, traditional values and established institutions.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The South Sudanese People's Defence Forces (SSPDF), formerly the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) until 2017, is the army of the Republic of South Sudan.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
State capitalism is an economic system in which the state undertakes commercial (i.e. for-profit) economic activity and where the means of production are organized and managed as state-owned business enterprises (including the processes of capital accumulation, wage labor and centralized management), or where there is otherwise a dominance of corporatized government agencies (agencies organized along business-management practices) or of publicly listed corporations in which the state has controlling shares.
"State Sponsors of Terrorism" is a designation applied by the United States Department of State to countries which the Department alleges to have "repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism".
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
The Sukhoi Su-17 (NATO reporting name: Fitter) is a Soviet variable-sweep wing fighter-bomber developed from the Sukhoi Su-7.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942) is a South African politician who served as the second President of South Africa from 14 June 1999 to 24 September 2008.
The Green Book (الكتاب الأخضر) is a short book setting out the political philosophy of Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Outsider is a non-fiction book by English writer Colin Wilson, first published in 1956.
"The Straight Dope" was an online question-and-answer newspaper column published from 1973 to 2018 in the Chicago Reader and syndicated in eight newspapers in the United States.
The Third International Theory, also known as the Third Universal Theory (نظرية عالمية ثالثة), was the style of government proposed by Col.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
The Three Worlds Theory, by Mao Zedong, is a theory of international relations, which proposes three politico-economic worlds: the first world consisting of superpowers, the second world of developing powers, and the third world of exploited nations.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
Trachoma is an infectious disease caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The Transitional Government of National Unity (Gouvernement d'Union Nationale de Transition or GUNT) was the coalition government of armed groups that nominally ruled Chad from 1979 to 1982, during the most chaotic phase of the long-running civil war that began in 1965.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations taking place in Tunisia, and led to the ousting of longtime president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011.
Tupamaros, also known as the MLN-T (Movimiento de Liberación Nacional-Tupamaros or Tupamaros National Liberation Movement), was a left-wing urban guerrilla group in Uruguay in the 1960s and 1970s.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
The Uganda–Tanzania war (commonly known in Uganda as the Liberation War) was fought between Uganda and Tanzania in 1978–1979, and led to the overthrow of Idi Amin's regime.
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly, is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was, between 1958 and 1971, a sovereign state in the Middle East, and between 1958 and 1961, a short-lived political union consisting of Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 was a measure adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on 26 February 2011.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, on the situation in Libya, is a measure that was adopted on 17 March 2011.
The United States of Africa is a proposed concept for a federation of some or all of the 55 sovereign states on the African continent.
University of Benghazi (جامعة بنغازي), formerly known as Garyounis University, is a public university in Benghazi, Libya and one of the most important institutes of higher education in Libya.
The University of Libya (الجامعة الليبية) was a public university based in Tripoli and Benghazi, Libya.
The University of Tripoli (UOT) (Arabic: جامعة طرابلس), is the largest university in Libya and is located in the capital Tripoli.
Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.
In the context of the theory of Marxist–Leninist revolutionary struggle, vanguardism is a strategy whereby the most class-conscious and politically advanced sections of the proletariat or working class, described as the revolutionary vanguard, form organizations in order to draw larger sections of the working class towards revolutionary politics and serve as manifestations of proletarian political power against its class enemies.
Voice of the Arabs or Sawt al-Arab (صوت العرب)‎ (621 kHz on Mediumwave to Egypt, 9800 kHz, and many other frequencies on Shortwave to the Middle East, the rest of Europe and North America) was one of the first and most prominent Egyptian transnational Arabic-language radio services.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
A worker cooperative, is a cooperative that is owned and self-managed by its workers.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yashpal Tandon (born 21 June 1939) is a Ugandan policymaker, political activist, professor, author and public intellectual.
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (زين العابدين بن علي,; born 3 September 1936) is a Tunisian former politician who served as President of Tunisia from 1987 until his ousting in 2011.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
Zliten (زليتن) is a town in Murqub District of Libya.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
Zuwarah, or Zuwara or Zwara, is a port city in northwestern Libya, with a population of around 350,000 (2013), famous for its beaches and seafood.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1969 Libyan coup d'état, also known as the al-Fateh Revolution or the 1 September Revolution, was a military coup d'état in Libya carried out by the Free Officers Movement, a group of military officers led by Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, which led to the overthrow of King Idris I.
On 2 December 1979, the U.S. Embassy in Tripoli, Libya, was burned during protests over allegations that the United States was involved in the Grand Mosque Seizure in Mecca.
The 1986 United States bombing of Libya, code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon, comprised air strikes by the United States against Libya on Tuesday, 15 April 1986.
On 5 April 1986, three people were killed and 229 injured when La Belle discothèque was bombed in the Friedenau district of West Berlin.
On 4 January 1989, two United States Navy F-14 Tomcats shot down two Soviet manufactured Libyan MiG-23 Floggers which the Americans believed were attempting to engage them, as had happened eight years prior during the Gulf of Sidra incident, in 1981.
The 19th of April Movement (in Spanish: Movimiento 19 de Abril) or M-19, was a Colombian guerrilla movement.
On 19 March 2011, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973.
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