105 relations: 'Amr ibn al-'As, Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abu Hurairah, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Abu'l-Fida, Aegean Sea, Al-Dhahabi, Al-Mada'ini, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Al-Masudi, Ali, Ammar ibn Yasir, Arab culture, Arab–Byzantine wars, Arabian Peninsula, Asmā' bint Abi Bakr, Banu Abd-Shams, Banu Umayya, Barid, Battle of Karbala, Battle of Siffin, Battle of the Camel, Battle of the Masts, Battle of Yarmouk, Bayt al-mal, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine navy, Caesarea, Caliphate, Chancellor, Chinese language, Christian, Common Era, Concise History of Humanity, Conquest of Mecca, Constantinople, Copts, Cyzicus, Damascus, Divan, First Fitna, Fordham University, Friedrich Hirth, Governor, Greek fire, Hadith, Hasan ibn Ali, Hasan–Muawiya treaty, ..., Hegira, Heraclius, Hijri year, Hind bint Utbah, Hujr ibn 'Adi, Husayn ibn Ali, Ibn Hisham, Ibn Manzur, Ibn Taymiyyah, Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, Jerusalem, Kairouan, Khalid ibn al-Walid, Khawarij, Levant, List of Caliphs, List of sieges of Constantinople, Malik al-Ashtar, Marwan I, Maysun bint Bahdal, Mecca, Monophysitism, Mosque, Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani, Musa bin Nusayr, New Book of Tang, Old Book of Tang, Pinyin, Quraysh, Rajab, Rashidun Caliphate, Robert Payne (author), Sahabah, Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Saudi Arabia, Sea of Marmara, Second Fitna, Shia Islam, Sicily, Siege of Constantinople (674–678), Siege of Uthman, Sino-Roman relations, Succession to Muhammad, Syria, Tariq ibn Ziyad, The Great History, Tunisia, Twenty-Four Histories, Umar, Umayyad Caliphate, Uqba ibn Nafi, Uthman, Yazid I, Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan. Expand index (55 more) » « Shrink index
'Amr ibn al-'As (عمرو بن العاص; 6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640.
‘Abd Manāf al-Mughirah ibn Quṣai (عبد مناف المغيرة بن قصي) was a Quraishi and great-great-grandfather of Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdullah ibn Umar (عبدالله بن عمر بن الخطاب) (c.610–693 CE) was the son of the second Caliph Umar and a brother-in-law and companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abū Hurayrah al-Dawsiyy al-Zahrāniyy (أبو هريرة الدوسي الزهراني‎; 603–681), often spelled Abu Hurairah, was one of the sahabah (companions) of Muhammad and, according to Sunni Islam, the most prolific narrator of hadith.
Sakhr ibn Harb (صخر بن حرب), more commonly known as Abu Sufyan (560–650), was the leader of the Quraysh of Mecca, the most powerful tribe of pre-Islamic Arabia.
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, fully Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abdillāh ibn al-Jarāḥ (أبو عبيدة عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح; 583–639 CE), was one of companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abu al-Fida (أبو الفداء; November 1273October 27, 1331), fully Abu Al-fida' Isma'il Ibn 'ali ibn Mahmud Al-malik Al-mu'ayyad 'imad Ad-din and better known in English as Abulfeda, was a Kurdish historian, geographer and local governor of Hama.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Al-Dhahabi (Full name: Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn ʿUthmān ibn Qāymāẓ ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Turkumānī al-Fāriqī al-Dimashqī al-Shāfiʿī, محمد بن احمد بن عثمان بن قيم ، أبو عبد الله شمس الدين الذهبي), known also as Ibn al-Dhahabī (5 October 1274 – 3 February 1348), a Shafi'i Muhaddith and historian of Islam.
Abū'l-Ḥasan ʿAli ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Abī Sayf (752–843), better known by his nisba of al-Madāʾinī ("from al-Mada'in"), was an early Arab scholar, active under the Abbasids in Iraq in the first half of the 9th century.
The Prophet's Mosque (Classical ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدُ ٱلـنَّـبَـوِيّ, Al-Masjidun-Nabawiyy; Modern Standard ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدْ اَلـنَّـبَـوِي, Al-Masjid An-Nabawī) is a mosque established and originally built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, situated in the city of Medina in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia.
Al-Mas‘udi (أبو الحسن علي بن الحسين بن علي المسعودي,; –956) was an Arab historian and geographer.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
ʻAmmār ibn Yāsir ibn ʿĀmir ibn Mālik Abū al-Yaqzān (عمار بن یاسر) was one of the Muhajirun in the history of Islam, Islam Times, retrieved on 13 Apr 2014 and, for his dedicated devotion to Islam's cause, is considered to be one of the most loyal and beloved companions of Muhammad and ‘Ali; thus, he occupies a position of the highest prominence in Islam.
Arab culture is the culture of the Arabs, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea.
The Arab–Byzantine wars were a series of wars between the mostly Arab Muslims and the East Roman or Byzantine Empire between the 7th and 11th centuries AD, started during the initial Muslim conquests under the expansionist Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs in the 7th century and continued by their successors until the mid-11th century.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Asmā' bint Abu Bakr (أسماء بنت أبي بكر), c. 595 – 692 CE, was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Banu Abd Shams refers to a clan within the Meccan tribe of Quraysh.
The Banu Umayya (بنو أمية), also known as the Umayyads (الأمويون / بنو أمية al-Umawiyyun), were a clan of the Quraysh tribe descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams.
The barīd (بريد, often translated as Postal Service) was the state-run courier service of the Umayyad and later Abbasid Caliphates.
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, in present-day Iraq.
The Battle of Siffin (وقعة صفين; May–July 657 occurred during the First Fitna, or first Muslim civil war, with the main engagement taking place from July 26 to July 28. It was fought between Ali ibn Abi Talib who ruled as the Fourth Caliph and Muawiyah I, on the banks of the Euphrates river, in what is now Raqqa, Syria.
The Battle of the Camel, sometimes called the Battle of Jamal or the Battle of Bassorah, took place at Basra, Iraq on.
The Battle of the Masts (Arabic: معركة ذات الصواري, romanized Ma‘rakat Dhāt al-Ṣawārī) or Battle of Phoenix was a crucial naval battle fought in 654 (A.H. 34) between the Muslim Arabs, led by Abu'l-Awar and the Byzantine fleet under the personal command of Emperor Constans II.
The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate.
Bayt al-mal (بيت المال) is an Arabic term that is translated as "House of money" or "House of Wealth." Historically, it was a financial institution responsible for the administration of taxes in Islamic states, particularly in the early Islamic Caliphate.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine navy was the naval force of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire.
Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Kaysariya or Qesarya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in north-central Israel.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Chancellor (cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Concise History of Humanity or Chronicles (المختصر في أخبار البشر Tarikhu 'al-Mukhtasar fi Akhbar al-Bashar, or تاريخ أبى الفداء Tarikh Abi al-Fida History of Abu al-Fida), is a history book written by Abu al-Fida Ismail Ibn Hamwi in 1315 and continued by the author to 1329.
The conquest of Mecca (فتح مكة) refers to the event when Mecca was conquered by Muslims led by Muhammad on 11 January, 630 AD, (Julian), 20 Ramadan, 8 AH.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
Cyzicus (Κύζικος Kyzikos; آیدینجق, Aydıncıḳ) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
A divan or diwan (دیوان, dīvān) was a high governmental body in a number of Islamic states, or its chief official (see dewan).
The First Fitna (فتنة مقتل عثمان fitnat maqtal ʿUthmān "strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman") was a civil war within the Rashidun Caliphate which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty.
Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.
Friedrich Hirth, Ph.D. (16 April 1845 in Gräfentonna, Saxe-Gotha – 10 January 1927 in Munich) was a German-American sinologist.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire that was first developed.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Al-Ḥasan ibn Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (الحسن ابن علي ابن أبي طالب, 624–670 CE), commonly known as Hasan or Hassan, is the eldest son of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and of Ali, and the older brother to Husayn.
In 661 CE, after Ali's murder, Hasan ibn Ali attained to the caliphate.
The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.
Hind bint ‘Utbah (هند بنت عتبة) was an Arab woman who lived in the late 6th and early 7th centuries CE; she was the wife of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, a powerful man of Mecca, in western Arabia.
Hujr ibn 'Adi al-Kindi (died 660 CE) He was sentenced to death by the Umayyad Caliph Muawiyah I for his unwavering support and praise for Ali, the fourth Rashidun Caliph of Islam and the first Imam of the Shias, when he objected to the tradition of publicly cursing Ali and continued to condemn Uthman for his corruption.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Abu Muhammad 'Abd al-Malik bin Hisham ibn Ayyub al-Himyari (أبو محمد عبدالمالك بن هشام), or Ibn Hisham, edited the biography of the Islamic prophet Muhammad written by Ibn Ishaq.
Ibn Manẓūr (Arabic: ابن منظور) (June–July 1233 – December 1311/January 1312) was a North African lexicographer of the Arabic language and author of a large dictionary called Lisān al-ʿArab (the tongue of the Arabs).
Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد ابن تيمية, January 22, 1263 - September 26, 1328), known as Ibn Taymiyyah for short, was a controversial medieval Sunni Muslim theologian, jurisconsult, logician, and reformer.
The Jacobite Syrian Christian Church also known as the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church or the Syriac Orthodox Church of India, is an Oriental Orthodox Church based in the Indian state of Kerala, and is an integral branch of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Kairouan (القيروان, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia.
Abū Sulaymān Khālid ibn al-Walīd ibn al-Mughīrah al-Makhzūmī (أبو سليمان خالد بن الوليد بن المغيرة المخزومي‎; 585–642), also known as Sayf ullah al-Maslūl (سيف الله المسلول; Drawn Sword of God) was a companion of Muhammad.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
This is a list of people who have held the title of Caliph, the supreme religious and political leader of an Islamic state known as the Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, as the political successors to Muhammad.
There were many sieges of Constantinople during the history of the Byzantine Empire.
Malik Al-Ashtar (مالك الأشتر) (also known as Malik bin al-Harith al-Nakha'i) was one of the most loyal companions of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Marwān ibn Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams (مروان بن الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية), commonly known as Marwan I (ca. 623–626 — April/May 685) was the fourth caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, ruling for less than a year in 684–685, and founder of its Marwanid ruling house, which remained in power until 750.
Maysūn bint Baḥdal (ميسون بنت بحدل, d. 700), is noted as a wife of Caliph Mu‘āwiya I, and as mother of his successor and son Caliph Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Muhammad Nasir-ud-Dīn al-Albani (1914 – October 2, 1999) was an Albanian Islamic scholar who specialised in the fields of hadith and fiqh.
Musa bin Nusayr (موسى بن نصير Mūsá bin Nuṣayr; 640–716) served as a governor and general under the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid I. He ruled over the Muslim provinces of North Africa (Ifriqiya), and directed the Islamic conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom in Hispania (Spain, Portugal, Andorra and part of France).
The New Book of Tang (Xīn Tángshū), generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters.
The Old Book of Tang, or simply the Book of Tang, is the first classic historical work about the Tang dynasty, comprising 200 chapters, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
Rajab (رجب) is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Pierre Stephen Robert Payne (1911 – 1983) was an English-born author, known principally for works of biography and history, although he also wrote novels, poetry, magazine articles and many other works.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.
Sahih Muslim (صحيح مسلم, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim; full title: Al-Musnadu Al-Sahihu bi Naklil Adli) is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) in Sunni Islam.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic empire during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I. Historians date its start variously as 680 AD and its end as being somewhere between 685 and 692.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The First Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674–678 was a major conflict of the Arab–Byzantine wars, and the first culmination of the Umayyad Caliphate's expansionist strategy towards the Byzantine Empire, led by Caliph Mu'awiya I. Mu'awiya, who had emerged in 661 as the ruler of the Muslim Arab empire following a civil war, renewed aggressive warfare against Byzantium after a lapse of some years and hoped to deliver a lethal blow by capturing the Byzantine capital, Constantinople.
The Third Rightly Guided Caliph, Uthman, was assassinated at the end of a siege upon his house.
Sino-Roman relations comprised the mostly indirect contact, flow of trade goods, information, and occasional travellers between the Roman Empire and Han Empire of China, as well as between the later Eastern Roman Empire and various Chinese dynasties.
The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that divided the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Muslim history.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
āriq ibn Ziyād (طارق بن زياد) was a Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar.
The Great History (al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr) is a book by ninth-century Islamic scholar Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari in the field of biographical evaluation.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Twenty-Four Histories, also known as the Orthodox Histories are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
ʿUqbah ibn Nāfiʿ (عقبة بن نافع, also referred to as Oqba ibn Nafi, Uqba bin Nafe, Uqba ibn al Nafia, or Akbah; 622–683) was an Arab general serving the Rashidun Caliphate since the Reign of Umar and later on the Umayyad Caliphate during the reigns of Muawiyah I and Yazid I, leading the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, including present-day Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Morocco.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان.; 64711 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate (and the first one through inheritance).
Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan (Yazīd bin Abī Sufyān) was one of the companions (ṣaḥābah) of Muhammad.
Ameer Muawiyah, Moawiyah, Mu'Awiyah, Mu'awiya, Mu'awiya I, Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, Mu'awiyah, Mu'awiyah I, Mu'awiyah Ibn Abi Sufyaan, Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, Mu'āwiyah, Mu`awiyah, Muawija, Muawiya I, Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan, Muawiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan, Muawiyya Ibn Abu Sufyan, Muawiyyah, Muʾawiya, Mu‘awiyah, Mu‘āwiya, Mu’awiya, Shi'a view of Muawiyah I, Shia view of Muawiyah I, معاوية بن أبي سفيان.