442 relations: Abraham Eraly, Absolute monarchy, Afghan, Afghanistan, Afsharid dynasty, Agra, Agra Fort, Agrarian reform, Agriculture, Ain-i-Akbari, Akbar, Aligarh Muslim University, Alkali, Allahabad, Americas, Ammunition, Ancient Greece, Angus Maddison, Annemarie Schimmel, Arabian horse, Arabic, Arabs, Architecture of India, Arcot State, Armenian community of Dhaka, Army of the Mughal Empire, Ashgate Publishing, Ashok Desai, Asia, Astronomer, Astronomy, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Atlantic Ocean, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, Aurangzeb, Autarchism, Awadh, Ayesha Jalal, Babur, Baburnama, Badshahi Mosque, Bahadur Shah I, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Bairam Khan, Bangladesh, Bankipur (Bengal), Barley, Battle of Karnal, Battle of Pollilur (1780), BBC, ..., Bengal, Bengal Subah, Bengali calendars, Bengali Muslims, Bengalis, Bijapur, Brill Publishers, British Empire, British Museum, British Raj, Bronze, Budikote, Bullion, Butter, Cadastral surveying, Calico, Cambridge University Press, Cash crop, Celestial globe, Central Asia, Centralisation, Chagatai Khan, Chagatai Khanate, Chagatai language, Chemistry, Chhapra, City, Company rule in India, Congreve rocket, Cotton, Cotton gin, Crank (mechanism), Crop, Crop yield, Culture of India, Currency, Cutlery, Dabestan-e Mazaheb, Dam (Indian coin), Danish India, Dara Shukoh, Das Kapital, Daulat Khan Lodi, Debal, Debasement, Deck (ship), Deindustrialization, Delhi, Delhi Sultanate, Dhaka, Dharma Kumar, Dhow, Din-i Ilahi, Diu, India, Dominion, Drawbar (haulage), Dutch Bengal, Dutch East India Company, Dynasty, Early modern Europe, Early modern warfare, East India Company, Economic history of India, Edo period, Emperor of India, Explosive weapon, Fatawa-e-Alamgiri, Fatehpur Sikri, Fath Muhammad, Fathullah Shirazi, Federation, Field artillery, Final good, Firearm, Firman, First Battle of Panipat, Flag of the Mughal Empire, Flush deck, François Catrou, French East India Company, Ganges Delta, Genghis Khan, George IV of the United Kingdom, Globe, Godavari River, Government of India Act 1858, Grenade, Gross domestic product, Gross national product, Gross world product, Gujarat, Gujarat under Mughal Empire, Gulbadan Begum, Gun, Gun barrel, Gunpowder, Gunpowder Empires, Hajj, Hamida Banu Begum, Hand cannon, Harvard University, Hay House, Hijri year, Hindi, Hindu, Hindu temple, Hindustan, Hindustani language, History (U.S. TV network), History of Afghanistan, History of Ajmer, History of Allahabad, History of Bihar, History of India, History of Multan, Hull (watercraft), Humayun, Humayun's Tomb, Hyder Ali, Ibrahim Lodi, Immanuel Wallerstein, India, Indian Army, Indian art, Indian astronomy, Indian mathematics, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Ocean trade, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indian subcontinent, Indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, Indo-Persian culture, Indology, Indonesia, Industrial Revolution, Industry, Infobase Publishing, Infrastructure, International Studies Quarterly, International trade, IOS Press, Irfan Habib, Irrigation, J. 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Abraham Eraly (August 15, 1934—April 8, 2015) was an Indian writer of history, a teacher, and the founder of Chennai-based magazine Aside.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Afghan (also referred to as Afghanistani) (Pashto/افغان; see etymology) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particular a citizen of that country.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Agra Fort is a historical fort in the city of Agra in India.
Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or, broadly, to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Ain-i-Akbari (آئینِ اکبری) or the "Constitution of Akbar", is a 16th-century, detailed document recording the administration of emperor Akbar's empire, written by his vizier, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is an Indian public central university.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Prayag, or Allahabad is a large metropolitan city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Allahabad District, the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India, and the Allahabad Division.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Angus Maddison (6 December 1926 – 24 April 2010) was a British economist specialising in quantitative macroeconomic history, including the measurement and analysis of economic growth and development.
Annemarie Schimmel (7 April 1922 – 26 January 2003) was an influential German Orientalist and scholar who wrote extensively on Islam and Sufism.
The Arabian or Arab horse (الحصان العربي, DMG ḥiṣān ʿarabī) is a breed of horse that originated on the Arabian Peninsula.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The architecture of India is rooted in its history, culture and religion.
Nawabs of the Carnatic (also referred to as the Nawabs of Arcot) ruled the Carnatic region of South India between about 1690 and 1801.
The Armenian community of Dhaka played a significant role in Bengali trade and commerce in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Army of the Mughal Empire was the force by which the Mughal emperors established their empire in the 15th century and expanded it to its greatest extent at the beginning of the 18th century.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
Ashok H. Desai is a Senior Advocate practicing in the Supreme Court of India.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Aurangabad (is a city in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state in India. The city is a tourism hub, surrounded by many historical monuments, including the Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves, which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites, as well as Bibi Ka Maqbara and Panchakki. The administrative headquarters of the Aurangabad Division or Marathwada region, Aurangabad is titled "The City of Gates" and the strong presence of these can be felt as one drives through the city. The city was founded in 1610 by Malik Amber. Aurangabad is the Tourism Capital of Maharashtra. Aurangabad is the fifth largest city in Maharashtra.
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگزیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.
Autarchism is a political philosophy that promotes the principles of individualism, the moral ideology of individual liberty and self-reliance.
Awadh (Hindi: अवध, اوَدھ),, known in British historical texts as Avadh or Oudh, is a region in the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh) and a small area of Nepal's Province No. 5.
Ayesha Jalal (Punjabi, عائشہ جلال) is a Pakistani-American historian who serves as the Mary Richardson Professor of History at Tufts University, and was the recipient of the 1998 MacArthur Fellow.
Bāburnāma (Chagatai/بابر نامہ;´, literally: "Book of Babur" or "Letters of Babur"; alternatively known as Tuzk-e Babri) is the name given to the memoirs of Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muhammad Bābur (1483–1530), founder of the Mughal Empire and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur.
The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi and بادشاہی مسجد, or "Imperial Mosque") is a Mughal era mosque in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab.
Bahadur Shah (بہادر شاه اول—) (14 October 1643 – 27 February 1712), also known as Muhammad Muazzam and Shah Alam was the seventh Mughal emperor of India, ruled from 1707 until his death in 1712.
Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was the last Mughal emperor.
Bairam Khan also Bayram Khan was an important military commander, later commander-in-chief of the Mughal army, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of the Mughal Emperors, Humayun and Akbar.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
--> Bankipur was an ancient village on the Hugli river located in what is now West Bengal, north of Barrackpore, a little north of Ishapore.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
The Battle of Karnal (February 24, 1739), was a decisive victory for Nader Shah of Iran, during his invasion of Mughal dynasty of India.
The Battle of Pollilur (a.k.a Pullalur), also known as the Battle of Polilore or Battle of Perambakam, took place on 10 September 1780 at Pollilur near Conjeevaram, the city of Kanchipuram in present-day Tamil Nadu state, India, as part of the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
The Bengal Subah was a subdivision of the Mughal Empire encompassing modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal between the 16th and 18th centuries.
The Bengali Calendar or Bangla Calendar (Baṅgābda) is a solar calendar used in the region of Bengal.
Bengali Muslims (বাঙালি মুসলমান) are an ethnic, linguistic, and religious population who make up the majority of Bangladesh's citizens and the largest minority in the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam.
Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.
Bijapur, officially known as Vijayapura, is the district headquarters of Bijapur District of Karnataka state of India.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Budikote or the "Fort of Ash" is a small village situated in Bangarpet Taluk of Kolar District in Karnataka state of India.
Bullion is gold, silver, or other precious metals in the form of bars or ingots.
Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed.
Cadastral surveying is the sub-field of cadastre and surveying that specialises in the establishment and re-establishment of real property boundaries.
Calico (in British usage since 1505) is a plain-woven textile made from unbleached and often not fully processed cotton.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.
Celestial globes show the apparent positions of the stars in the sky.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Centralisation (British), or centralization (both British and American), is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location or group, keeping all of the important decision-making powers within the head office or the centre of the organisation.
Chagatai Khan (Цагадай, Tsagadai; 察合台, Chágětái; Çağatay; جغتای, Joghatai; 22 December 1183 – 1 July 1242) was the second son of Genghis Khan.
The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus/Цагаадайн Хаант Улс) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors.
Chagatai (جغتای) is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia, and remained the shared literary language there until the early 20th century.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chhapra (Chapra) is a city and headquarters of the Saran district in the Indian state of Bihar.
A city is a large human settlement.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Congreve rocket was a British military weapon designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804, based directly on Mysorean rockets.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, enabling much greater productivity than manual cotton separation.
A crank is an arm attached at a right angle to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from the shaft.
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).
The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
Cutlery includes any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in Western culture.
The Dabestān-e Mazāheb, also transliterated as Dabistān-i Mazāhib (دبستان مذاهب) "School of Religions", is an examination and comparison of South Asian religions and sects of the mid-17th century.
A Dam was a small Indian copper coin.
Danish India was the name given to the colonies of Denmark (Denmark–Norway before 1813) in India, forming part of the Danish colonial empire.
Dara Shukoh, also known as Dara Shikoh (دارا شِکوہ), (20 March 1615 – 30 August 1659), was the eldest son and heir-apparent of the fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
Das Kapital, also known as Capital.
Daulat Khan Lodi (Pashto: دولت خان لودی) was the governor of Lahore during the reign of Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Lodi dynasty.
Debal (ديبل; ديبل) was an ancient port located near modern Karachi, Pakistan.
Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency.
A deck is a permanent covering over a compartment or a hull of a ship.
Deindustrialization or deindustrialisation is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
Dharma Kumar (1928 – 19 October 2001) was an Indian economic historian, noted for her work on the agrarian history of India.
Dhow (Arabic داو dāw) is the generic name of a number of traditional sailing vessels with one or more masts with settee or sometimes lateen sails, used in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean region.
The Dīn-i Ilāhī (lit. "Religion of God") was a syncretic religion propounded by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1582 CE, intending to merge the best elements of the religions of his empire, and thereby reconcile the differences that divided his subjects.
Diu is a town in Diu district in the union territory of Daman and Diu, India.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
A drawbar is a solid coupling between a hauling vehicle and its hauled load.
Bengal was a directorate of the Dutch East India Company in Bengal between 1610 until the company's liquidation in 1800.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
Early modern Europe is the period of European history between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, roughly the late 15th century to the late 18th century.
Early modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive, including artillery and firearms; for this reason the era is also referred to as the age of gunpowder warfare (a concept introduced by Michael Roberts in the 1950s).
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The economic history of India is the story of India's evolution from a largely agricultural and trading society to a mixed economy of manufacturing and services while the majority still survives on agriculture.
The or is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.
Emperor (or Empress) of India The Indian form of the title was Kaisar-i-Hind.
An explosive weapon generally uses high explosive to project blast and/or fragmentation from a point of detonation.
Fatawa-e-Alamgiri (also known as Fatawa-i-Hindiya and Fatawa-i Hindiyya) (الفتاوى الهندية أو الفتاوى العالمكيرية) is a compilation of law created at the insistence of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb (who was also known as Alamgir).
Fatehpur Sikri is a town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Born as (6 May 1704 – 9 September 1725), Fateh Muhammad or Nadim Sahib was a General of Mysore.
Fathullah Shirazi (c. 1582), sometimes referred to as Amir Fathullah Shirazi, was a Persian-Indian polymath—a scholar, Islamic jurist, finance minister, mechanical engineer, inventor, mathematician, astronomer, physician, philosopher and artist—who worked for Akbar, ruler of the Mughal Empire.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Field artillery is a category of mobile artillery used to support armies in the field.
In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
A firman (فرمان farmân), or ferman (Turkish), at the constitutional level, was a royal mandate or decree issued by a sovereign in an Islamic state, namely the Ottoman Empire.
The First Battle of Panipat, on 21 April 1526, was fought between the invading forces of Babur and the Lodi Kingdom.
The Mughal Empire had a number of imperial flags and standards.
Flush deck is a term in naval architecture.
François Catrou (December 28, 1659 – October 12, 1737) was a French historian, translator, and Jesuit priest.
The French East India Company (Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) was a commercial enterprise, founded in 1664 to compete with the English (later British) and Dutch East India companies in the East Indies. Planned by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, it was chartered by King Louis XIV for the purpose of trading in the Eastern Hemisphere. It resulted from the fusion of three earlier companies, the 1660 Compagnie de Chine, the Compagnie d'Orient and Compagnie de Madagascar. The first Director General for the Company was François de la Faye, who was adjoined by two Directors belonging to the two most successful trading organizations at that time: François Caron, who had spent 30 years working for the Dutch East India Company, including more than 20 years in Japan, and Marcara Avanchintz, a trader from Isfahan, Persia.
The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (also known as the Brahmaputra Delta, the Sunderbans Delta or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the Bengal region of the South Asia, consisting of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
A globe is a spherical model of Earth, of some other celestial body, or of the celestial sphere.
The Godavari is India's second longest river after the Ganga.
The Government of India Act 1858 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (21 & 22 Vict. c. 106) passed on August 2, 1858.
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.
The gross world product (GWP) is the combined gross national product of all the countries in the world.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
In 1573, Akbar (1573-1605), the emperor of the Mughal Empire captured Gujarat (now a state in western India) by defeating Gujarat Sultanate under Muzaffar Shah III.
Gulbadan Begum (1523 – 7 February 1603) was a Mughal princess and the youngest daughter of Emperor Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire and the first Mughal emperor.
A gun is a tubular ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles that are solid (most guns) but can also be liquid (as in water guns/cannons and projected water disruptors) or even charged particles (as in a plasma gun) and may be free-flying (as with bullets and artillery shells) or tethered (as with Taser guns, spearguns and harpoon guns).
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
The Gunpowder Empires were the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Hamida Banu Begum (1527 – 29 August 1604) was a wife of the second Mughal emperor Humayun and the mother of his successor, the third Mughal emperor Akbar.
The hand cannon (Chinese: 手銃), also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Hay House is a New Thought and self-help publisher founded in 1984 by author Louise Hay,, Michael Kinsman, December 4, 2005, San Diego Union-Tribune when she self-published her books Heal Your Body and You Can Heal Your Life.
The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god.
Hindustan is the Persian name for India, broadly the Indian subcontinent, which later became an endonym.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
The history of Afghanistan, (تاریخ افغانستان, د افغانستان تاريخ) began in 1747 with its establishment by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
Ajmer is a historical region in central Rajasthan, a central part of a Shakambari Chahamana (Chauhan) kingdom in 11–12th centuries.
Allahabad (Hindi: इलाहाबाद), also known by its original name Prayag (Hindi: प्रयाग), is one of the largest cities of the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh in India.
The history of Bihar is one of the most varied in India.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
Punjab province of Pakistan.
The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.
Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad (نصیرالدین محمد|translit.
Humayun's tomb (Maqbaera e Humayun) is the tomb of the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Delhi, India.
Hyder Ali Khan, Haidarālī (c. 1720 – 7 December 1782) was the Sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India.
Ibrahim Lodi became the Sultan of Delhi in 1517 after the death of his father Sikandar Lodi.
Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein (born September 28, 1930) is an American sociologist, historical social scientist, and world-systems analyst, arguably best known for his development of the general approach in sociology which led to the emergence of his world-systems approach.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
Indian Arts consists of a variety of art forms, including plastic arts (e.g., pottery sculpture), visual arts (e.g., paintings), and textile arts (e.g., woven silk).
Indian astronomy has a long history stretching from pre-historic to modern times.
Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC until the end of the 18th century.
The Indian National Science Academy (INSA) in New Delhi is the apex body of Indian scientists representing all branches of science and technology.
Indian Ocean Trade has been a key factor in East–West exchanges throughout history.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indigo is a deep and rich color close to the color wheel blue (a primary color in the RGB color space), as well as to some variants of ultramarine.
Indigofera tinctoria, also called true indigo, is a species of plant from the bean family that was one of the original sources of indigo dye.
Indo-Persian culture refers to those Persian aspects that have been integrated into or absorbed into the cultures of South Asia and in particular, into North India, and Pakistan.
Indology or South Asian studies is the academic study of the history and cultures, languages, and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
IOS Press is a publishing house headquartered in Amsterdam, specialising in the publication of journals and books related to fields of scientific, technical, and medical research.
Irfan Habib (born 1931) is an Indian historian of ancient and medieval India, following the approach of Marxist historiography.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
James Riddick Partington (30 June 1886 – 9 October 1965) was a British chemist and historian of chemistry who published multiple books and articles in scientific magazines.
Jagat Gosain (جگت گوسین; died 19 April 1619) meaning 'Mistress of the World', was Empress consort of the Mughal Empire as the wife of Mughal emperor Jahangir and the mother of his successor, the fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh (3 November 1688 – 21 September 1743) was the Hindu Rajput ruler of the kingdom of Amber (later called Jaipur).
Jaipur is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India.
The Masjid-i Jahān-Numā (Persian/Urdu: مسجدِ جہاں نما, Devnagri: मस्जिद जहान नुमा, the 'World-reflecting Mosque'), commonly known as the Jama Masjid devnagrii: जामा मस्जिद, Urdu: جامع مسجد) of Delhi, is one of the largest mosques in India. It was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan between 1644 and 1656 at a cost of 1 million rupees, and was inaugurated by an Imam from Bukhara, present-day Uzbekistan.The mosque was completed in 1656 AD with three great gates, four towers and two 40 metres high minarets constructed with strips of red sandstone and white marble. The courtyard can accommodate more than 25,000 people. There are three domes on the terrace which are surrounded by the two minarets. On the floor, a total of 899 black borders are marked for worshippers. The architectural plan of Badshahi Masjid, built by Shah Jahan's son Aurangzeb at Lahore, Pakistan, is similar to the Jama Masjid.
Janjira State was a princely state in India during the British Raj.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Jat people (also spelled Jatt and Jaat) are a traditionally agricultural community in Northern India and Pakistan.
József Böröcz (born 1956, Budapest, Hungary) is a global historical sociologist, currently Professor of Sociology at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
Jeffrey Gale Williamson (born 1935) is the Laird Bell Professor of Economics (Emeritus), Harvard University; an Honorary Fellow in the Department of Economics at the University of Wisconsin (Madison); Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research; and Research Fellow for the Center for Economic and Policy Research.
John F. Richards (November 3, 1938 - August 23, 2007) was a historian of South Asia and in particular of the Mughal Empire.
John Montagu Hobson is a professor and author.
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Khalsa (Punjabi: "the pure") refers to both a special group of initiated Sikh warriors, as well as a community that considers Sikhism as its faith.
The Khyber Pass (د خیبر درہ, درۂ خیبر) (elevation) is a mountain pass in the north of Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
Kozhikode, or Calicut, is a city in Kerala, India on the Malabar Coast.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
The Lahore Fort (Punjabi and شاہی قلعہ: Shahi Qila, or "Royal Fort"), is a citadel in the city of Lahore, Pakistan.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
South Asia is home to several hundred languages.
Astronomical instruments include.
This is a historical list of the largest empires in India with an area covering more than 1 million square kilometres.
This is a list of Mongol states.
During the medieval and later feudal/colonial periods, many parts of Northern regions of the Indian subcontinent were ruled as sovereign or princely states by various dynasties of Rajputs.
The Lodi dynasty (or Lodhi) was an Afghan dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry.
Muhammad Shahid Alam is a Pakistani economist, academic, and social scientist.
A mahallah, mahalla, mahallya, or mohalla, mëhallë (محلة; মহল্লা; मोहल्ला; محله; محله; Məhəllə; mëhallë or mëhalla), is a country subdivision or neighbourhood in parts of the Arab world, Balkans, Western and South Asia and nearby Nations.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Maktab (مكتب) or Maktabeh (مكتبة) or Maktabkhaneh (مکتبخانه) (other transliterations include makteb, mekteb, mektep, meqteb, maqtab), also called a Kuttab (الكتَّاب) “school” is an Arabic word meaning elementary schools.
Malwa is a historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin.
Malwa Subah was one of the original twelve Subahs (imperial provinces) of the Mughal Empire, including Gondwana, from 1568-1743.
The Mansabdari system was the administrative system of the Mughal Empire introduced by Akbar.
Manual labour (in British English, manual labor in American English) or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
The Maratha (IAST:Marāṭhā; archaically transliterated as Marhatta or Mahratta) is a group of castes in India found predominantly in the state of Maharashtra.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
Mariam-uz-Zamani, (1542 – 19 May 1623) was the chief wife of Mughal emperor Akbar.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
The Modern Library is an American publishing company.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.
The Moti Masjid (translation: Pearl Mosque) in Agra was built by Shah Jahan.
Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.
A horse archer is a cavalryman armed with a bow, able to shoot while riding from horseback.
Mughal architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent.
The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals in the Persian style of architecture.
The Mughal Harem (مغل حرم) was the harem of Mughal emperors of the Indian subcontinent.
Mughal paintings are a particular style of South Asian painting, generally confined to miniatures either as book illustrations or as single works to be kept in albums, which emerged from Persian miniature painting (itself largely of Chinese origin), with Indian Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist influences, and developed largely in the court of the Mughal Empire of the 16th to 18th centuries.
The Mughals (مغول; مغل; مغول, also spelled Moghul or Mogul) are a number of culturally related clans of the Indian subcontinent.
Mughal weapons significantly evolved during the ruling periods of Babur, Akbar, Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan.
Mughal-e-Azam (English: The Great Mughal) is a 1960 Indian epic historical drama film directed by K. Asif and produced by Shapoorji Pallonji.
The rulers of the Mughal Empire shared certain genealogical relations with the Mongol royals.
The Mughal–Maratha Wars also called Maratha war of Independence were fought between the Maratha Empire and the Mughal Empire from 1680 to 1707.
Mughlai cuisine consists of dishes developed in Medieval India at the centers of the Mughal Empire.
Muhammad Saleh Kamboh (ملا محمد صالح کمبوہ) Lahori was a noted calligraphist and official biographer of Emperor Shah Jahan and the teacher of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.
Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad Shah (born Roshan Akhtar) (7 August 1702 – 26 April 1748) was Mughal emperor from 1719 to 1748.
Munnawar Khan Mughal Admiral born in Agra (died. 1671 AD) of Mughal descent, he entered service during the rule of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, during the conquest of Golconda, he first started his naval training by protecting Mughal supply routes in narrow and difficult rivers, he was also promoted as the chief admiral in the Bay of Bengal, he visited Janjira on several occasions.
Murshidabad (Pron: ˈmʊəʃɪdəˌbɑ:d/bæd or ˈmɜ:ʃɪdəˌ) is a town in Murshidabad district of West Bengal state in India.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Muslin, also mousseline, is a cotton fabric of plain weave.
Muslin, a cotton fabric of plain weave, was hand woven in the region around Dhaka, East Bengal (now Bangladesh), and exported to Europe, the Middle East, and other markets, for much of the 17th and 18th centuries.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Mysorean rockets were the first iron-cased rockets successfully deployed for military use.
Nabanna (নবান্ন, Nabānna; lit: new Feast) is a Bengali harvest celebration usually celebrated with food and dance and music in Bangladesh and in the Indian State of West Bengal.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
Emperor Nader Shah, the Shah of Persia (1736–47) and the founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Persia, invaded the Mughal Empire, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.
Rahmat-un-Nissa (رحمت النساء بیگم) (1623 – 1691) better known by her title Nawab Bai, was a secondary wife of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.
The Nawab of Awadh or the Nawab of Oudh was the title of the rulers who governed the state of Awadh (anglicised as Oudh) in north India during the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Nawabs of Bengal (full title, the Nawab Nizam of Bengal and Orissa) were the rulers of the then provinces of Bengal and Orissa.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Niter, or nitre (chiefly British), is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter or saltpetre.
The Nizam of Hyderabad (Nizam-ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra.
Khwaja Nizam-ud-Din Ahmad (also spelled as Nizam ad-Din Ahmad and Nizam al-Din Ahmad) (born 1551, died 1621/1030 AH) was a Muslim historian of late medieval India.
Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models.
An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The OECD Development Centre was established in 1961 as an independent platform for knowledge sharing and policy dialogue between Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries and developing economies, allowing these countries to interact on an equal footing.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
Old Delhi or Purani Dilli was founded as a walled city of Delhi, India, founded as Shahjahanabad in 1638, when Shah Jahan, the Mughal emperor at the time, decided to shift the Mughal capital from Agra.
Om Prakash (born January 1940, in Delhi) is an Indian economic historian.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Packard Humanities Institute (PHI) is a non-profit foundation, established in 1987, and located in Los Altos, California, which funds projects in a wide range of conservation concerns in the fields of archaeology, music, film preservation, and historic conservation, plus Greek epigraphy, with an aim to create tools for basic research in the Humanities.
Padishah, sometimes rendered as Padeshah or Padshah (پادشاه, padişah) is a superlative sovereign title of Persian origin, composed of the Persian pād "master" and the widespread shāh "king", which was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "The Great" or "Great King", and later adopted by post-Achaemenid and Christian Emperors.
Pahela Baishakh (পহেলা বৈশাখ) or Bangla Nababarsha (বাংলা নববর্ষ, Bangla Nôbobôrsho) is the first day of Bengali Calendar.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Paolo Malanima (born 17 December 1950) is an Italian economic historian and director of the Institute of Studies on Mediterranean Societies in Naples.
A pargana (परगना, پرگنہ, পরগণা), or parganah, also spelt pergunnah during the time of the Sultanate period, Mughal times and British Raj, is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Paul Bairoch (24 July 1930 in Antwerp – 12 February 1999 in Geneva) was one of the great post-war economic historians who specialised in global economic history, urban history and historical demography.
Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Thomas George Percival Spear (1901–1982) was an English historian who spent much of his life living and teaching in India.
Persian art or Iranian art has one of the richest art heritages in world history and has been strong in many media including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and sculpture.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
A Persianate society, or Persified society, is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language, culture, literature, art and/or identity.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
Polybolos was an ancient Greek repeating ballista reputedly invented by Dionysius of Alexandria, a 3rd-century BC Greek engineer at the Rhodes arsenal, and used in antiquity.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.
Proto-industrialization (also spelled proto-industrialisation) was a possible phase in the development of modern industrial economies that preceded, and created conditions for, the establishment of fully industrial societies.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed.
Real wages are wages adjusted for inflation, or, equivalently, wages in terms of the amount of goods and services that can be bought.
Red Fort is a historic fort in the city of Delhi in India.
The repeating crossbow, also known as the magazine crossbow, or the Zhuge crossbow (previously romanized Chu-ko-nu) due to its association with the Three Kingdoms-era strategist Zhuge Liang (181–234 AD), is a Chinese crossbow that appeared in ancient times.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Roller mills are mills that use cylindrical rollers, either in opposing pairs or against flat plates, to crush or grind various materials, such as grain, ore, gravel, plastic, and others.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Royal warrants of appointment have been issued for centuries to tradespeople who supply goods or services to a royal court or certain royal personages.
The rupee is the common name for the currencies of India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Maldives, Mauritius, Nepal, Bhutan, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, and formerly those of Afghanistan, Tibet, Burma and British East Africa, German East Africa and Trucial States.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Sake Dean Mahomed was a Bengali Anglo-Indian traveller, surgeon and entrepreneur who was one of the most notable early non-European immigrants to the Western World.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarkar (सरकार, سركار, সরকার also spelt Circar) is an historical administrative unit, used mostly in the Mughal Empire.
Seakeeping ability or seaworthiness is a measure of how well-suited a watercraft is to conditions when underway.
The Second Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company from 1780 to 1784.
The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.
A seed drill is a device that sows the seeds for crops by metering out the individual seeds, positioning them in the soil, and covering them to a certain average depth.
Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk.
Ali Gauhar (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806), historically known as Shah Alam II, was the sixteenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II.
Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.
Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.
The word shampoo in English is derived from Hindi chāmpo (चाँपो), and dates to 1762.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shekhupura (شیخُوپُورہ, شیخُوپُور) is a city the Pakistani province of Punjab.
Shēr Shāh Sūrī (1486–22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, which had been in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna. He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels.
Siddhānta, a Sanskrit term denoting the established and accepted view of any particular school within Indian philosophy.
The Siddi, also known as Sidi, Siddhi, Sheedi, or Habshi, are an ethnic group inhabiting India and Pakistan.
Siege of Bidar, was a twenty-seven days long siege mounted by the Mughal Empire against Adil Shahi dynasty's garrison at Bidar patronized by Mohammed Adil Shah.
The Siege of Delhi was one of the decisive conflicts of the Indian rebellion of 1857.
The Siege of Jinji, (September, 1690–January 8, 1698), began when the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb appointed Zulfiqar Ali Khan as the Nawab of the Carnatic and dispatched him to besiege and capture Jinji Fort, which had been sacked and captured by Maratha Empire troops led by Rajaram, they had also ambushed and killed about 300 Mughal Sowars in the Carnatic.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
A spinning wheel is a device for spinning thread or yarn from natural or synthetic fibres.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Subahdar (صُوبہ دار) (also known as Nazim or in English as a "Subah") was one of the designations of a governor of a Subah (province) during the Mughal era of India who was alternately designated as Sahib-i-Subah or Nazim.
Subedar (صوبیدار) is a historical rank in the Indian Army and Pakistan Army, ranking below British commissioned officers and above non-commissioned officers.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
A sugar cane mill can refer to a factory that processes sugar cane to produce raw or white sugar.
Sugata Bose (born 7 September 1956) is an Indian historian and politician who has taught and worked in the United States since the mid-1980s.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
The Sur Empire was an empire established by a Muslim dynasty of Pashtun origin who ruled a large territory in northern part of the Indian subcontinent for nearly 16 years, between 1540 and 1556, with Delhi serving as its capital.
Surat is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
The Taj Mahal (meaning "Crown of the Palace") is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra.
Tapan Raychaudhuri (8 May 1926 – 26 November 2014) was an Indian historian specialising in British Indian history, Indian economic history and the History of Bengal.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn, cloth and clothing.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry.
Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore,Pletcher 2010, p. 195 is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians is a book comprising translations of medieval Persian chronicles based on the work of Henry Miers Elliot.
The New Cambridge History of India is a major multi-volume work of historical scholarship published by Cambridge University Press.
The World Economy: Historical Statistics is a book by Angus Maddison. Published in 2004 by the OECD Development Centre, it studies the growth of populations and economies across the centuries: not just the world economy as it is now, but how it was in the past. Among other things, it showed that Europe's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was faster progressing than the leading Asian economies since 1000 AD, reaching again a higher level than elsewhere from the 15th century, while Asian GDP per capita remained static until 1800, when it even began to shrink in absolute terms, as Maddison demonstrated in a subsequent book. At the same time, Maddison showed them recovering lost ground from the 1950s, and documents the much faster rise of Japan and East Asia and the economic shrinkage of Russia in the 1990s. The book is a mass of statistical tables, mostly on a decade-by-decade basis, along with notes explaining the methods employed in arriving at particular figures. It is available both as a paperback book and in electronic format. Some tables are available on the official website.
Theoretical astronomy is the use of the analytical models of physics and chemistry to describe astronomical objects and astronomical phenomena.
The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818) was the final and decisive conflict between the British East India Company (EIC) and the Maratha Empire in India.
Thread is a type of yarn used for sewing.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
The Timurid Empire (تیموریان, Timuriyān), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gurkāniyān), was a PersianateB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006 Turco-Mongol empire comprising modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary India, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey. The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage, who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and, while not descended from Genghis, regarded himself as Genghis's heir and associated much with the Borjigin. The ruling Timurid dynasty, or Timurids, lost most of Persia to the Aq Qoyunlu confederation in 1467, but members of the dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan), invaded Kabulistan (modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there, and from there 20 years later he invaded India to establish the Mughal Empire.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
Turco-Mongol or the Turko-Mongol tradition was a cultural or ethnocultural synthesis that arose during the early 14th century, among the ruling elites of Mongol Empire successor states such as the Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh (میرزا محمد طارق بن شاہ رخ, میرزا محمد تراغای بن شاہ رخ), better known as Ulugh Beg (March 22, 1394 in Sultaniyeh, Persia – October 27, 1449, Samarkand), was a Timurid ruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician and sultan.
The Ulugh Beg Observatory is an observatory in Samarkand, Uzbekistan.
Umarkot Fort (قِلعہ عُمَرکوٹ), is a fort located in Umerkot, Sindh, also called Amarkot(امَرکوٹ), Emperor Akbar was born in Umarkot Fort when his father Humayun fled from the military defeats at the hands of Sher Shah Suri on 15 October 1542.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Dhaka (ঢাকা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়, also known as Dhaka University or simply DU) is the oldest university in modern Bangladesh.
The University of Warwick is a plate glass research university in Coventry, England.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Ustad Ali Quli was a commander of the Mughal Empire.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
A volley gun is a gun with several barrels for firing a number of shots, either simultaneously or in succession.
A war elephant is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
William Irvine (4 July 1840 – 3 November 1911) was a Scottish administrator of the Indian Civil Service and historian, known for works on the Moghul Empire.
William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.
Woolen (American English) or woollen (Commonwealth English) is a type of yarn made from carded wool.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account (money).
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
A worm drive is a gear arrangement in which a worm (which is a gear in the form of a screw) meshes with a worm gear (which is similar in appearance to a spur gear).
Yahya Saleh was a Mughal Admiral and voyager from Surat.
Yangon (ရန်ကုန်မြို့, MLCTS rankun mrui,; formerly known as Rangoon, literally: "End of Strife") was the capital of the Yangon Region of Myanmar, also known as Burma.
Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking.
A zīj (زيج) is an Islamic astronomical book that tabulates parameters used for astronomical calculations of the positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets.
Zīj-i Sultānī (زیجِ سلطانی) is a Zij astronomical table and star catalogue that was published by Ulugh Beg in 1438-1439.
Fashion in the period 1660–1700 in Western European clothing is characterised by rapid change.
Baburid Empire, Decline of the Mughal Empire, Delhi Empire, Foundation of the mughal empire, Great Moghul, Great Moguls, Gurkaniyan, Gurkānī, Gūrkāniyān, Historiography of the fall of the Mughal Empire, House of Taimur, Later mughals, Maghal, Maghal Empire, Maghul, Maghul Empire, Moghal empire, Moghul, Moghul Dynasty, Moghul Empire, Moghul dynasty, Moghul empire, Mogul Dynasty, Mogul Empire, Mogul Era, Mogul India, Mogul dynasty, Mogul empire, Mogul or Mughal Empire, Moughal, Mugal Empire, Mughal Administration, Mughal Dynasty, Mughal Era, Mughal India, Mughal King, Mughal Pakistan, Mughal Period, Mughal Raj, Mughal Royal Family, Mughal dynasty, Mughal economy, Mughal empire, Mughal empire after akbar, Mughal era, Mughal india, Mughal period, Mughal power, Mughalian, Mughals, Mughlai, Mughul, Mughul Empire, Mughul Era, Mugliyah Saltanat, Mugul, Mugul Empire, Muguls, Mug̱liyah Salṭanat, Mug̱ẖliyah Salṭanat, The Journey Of Muslims in South Asia, The Mughal Empire, The Mughal dynasty, Timurid Dynasty (Mughal), مغلیہ سلطنت, گورکانیان.