106 relations: Aligarh Movement, Aligarh Muslim University, All-India Muslim League, Andhra Pradesh, Awadhi language, Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), Baloch people, Bangladesh Awami League, Bengalis, Bengalis in Pakistan, Berar Province, Bhojpuri language, Bombay Presidency, British Raj, Central Superior Services, Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan), Constitution of Pakistan of 1962, Convention Muslim League, Cultural assimilation, Dakhini, Delhi, Dhaka, East India Company, East Pakistan, Electoral fraud, Encarta, Fatima Jinnah, Gohar Ayub Khan, Government of Pakistan, Gujarat, Haryana, Hegira, Himachal Pradesh, History of Islam, Hyderabad State, Hyderabad, Sindh, India, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Islam, Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan, Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan, Jammu and Kashmir, Jinnahpur, Journal of Genocide Research, Karachi, Karnataka, Kerala, Khariboli dialect, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Kutch district, ..., Languages of India, List of most populous cities in Pakistan, List of Muhajir people, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Malayali, Mappila, Martial law, Marwari language, Mass migration, Memon people, Mewati language, Mirpur Khas, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Muslim, Muslim League (Pakistan), Nationalisation in Pakistan, Nawab, Pakistan, Pakistan Movement, Pakistan Muslim League, Pakistan National Alliance, Pakistan Peoples Party, Pakistan Television Corporation, Pakistani general election, 1970, Pakistani general election, 1977, Pakistani presidential election, 1965, Parliament of Pakistan, Pashtuns, Princely state, Provincial Assembly of Sindh, Punjab, India, Punjabis, Rajasthan, Rajputana Agency, Rohingya people in Pakistan, Sadri language, Shia Islam, Sindh, Sindhi language, Sindhis, South India, Stranded Pakistanis in Bangladesh, Sukkur, Sunni Islam, Syed Ahmad Khan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Urdu, Uttar Pradesh, Vadodara, Yahya Khan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, 1958 Pakistani coup d'état. Expand index (56 more) » « Shrink index
The Aligarh Movement was the push to establish a modern system of education for the Muslim population of British India, during the later decades of the 19th century.
Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is an Indian public central university.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Awadhi (Devanagari: अवधी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh and Terai belt of Nepal.
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
The Bangladesh Awami League (BAL) (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the two major political parties of Bangladesh.
Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.
Pakistani Bengalis (پاکستانی بنگالی) are Pakistani citizens who migrated from East Bengal and live in West Pakistan or East Pakistan prior to 1971, or immigrants who migrated from Bangladesh after 1971; although according to social activists in Pakistan, economic migrants have mostly moved out because it is no longer profitable to work and earn in Pakistan due to the Pakistani rupee being weaker than the Bangladeshi taka.
Berar Province (Marathi: Varhāḍa/वऱ्हाड), known also as the Hyderabad Assigned Districts, was a province of British India.
Bhojpuri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Northern-Eastern part of India and the Terai region of Nepal.
The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The Central Superior Services (denoted as CSS; or Bureaucracy) is a permanent elite bureaucratic authority, and the civil service that is responsible for running the civilian bureaucratic operations and government secretariats and directorates of the Cabinet of Pakistan.
The Chief of Army Staff (سربراہ پاک فوج) (reporting name: COAS), is a military appointment and statutory office held by the four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.
The Constitution of 1962 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from June 1962 until martial law was declared in March 1969.
The Convention Muslim League (CML) was a faction of the Pakistan Muslim League that split-off in 1962, in support of the military regime of the President of Pakistan, General Ayub Khan.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
Dakhini or Dakkhani, also spelled Dakkani (داکھان) and Deccani (dec-ca-ni), is an Indo-Aryan language of South India.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
Fatima Jinnah English IPA: fətɪ̈mɑ d͡ʒinnəɦ, (فاطمہ جناح; 31 July 1893 – 9 July 1967) was a Pakistani dental surgeon, biographer, stateswoman and one of the leading founders of Pakistan.
Gohar Ayub Khan (گوہر ایوب خان; born 15 January 1937), is a Pakistani politician, business oligarch, retired army officer, and conservative figure of the Pakistan Muslim League, who held ministerial positions during the administration of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.
The Government of Pakistan (حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
Hyderabad State was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad.
Hyderabad (Sindhi and حيدرآباد; is a city located in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Located 140 kilometres east of Karachi, Hyderabad is the 2nd largest in Sindh province, and the 8th largest city in Pakistan. Founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty, Hyderabad served as the Kalhoro, and later Talpur, capital until the British transferred the capital to Karachi in 1843.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jamaat-e-Islami, (Urdu:; meaning "Islamic Congress") abbreviated JI, is a socially conservative and Islamist political party based in Pakistan.
The Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan (JUP) (جميعت علماء پاکستان) (Assembly of Pakistani Clergy) is a political party in Pakistan usually seen as being political vehicle for the religious Barelvi strain of Sunni Islam.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Jinnahpur refers to an alleged plot in Pakistan to form a breakaway autonomous state to serve as a homeland for the Karachi based Urdu-speaking Muhajir community.
The Journal of Genocide Research is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering studies of genocide.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Khariboli, also known as Khari Boli or simply Khari, Dehlavi, Kauravi, and Vernacular Hindustani, is the prestige dialect of Hindustani, of which Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu are standard registers and literary styles, which are the principal official languages of India and Pakistan respectively.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
Kutch district (also spelled as Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
This is a list of the most populous cities of Pakistan according to the 2017 census.
This is a list of Muhajir people, also known as Urdu-speaking people in Pakistan.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
The Malayali people or Keralite people (also spelt Malayalee, Malayalam script: മലയാളി and കേരളീയൻ) are an Indian ethnic group originating from the present-day state of Kerala, located in South India.
Mappila, also known as a Mappila Muslim, formerly romanized as Moplah and historically as Jonaka Mappila, in general, is a member of the Muslim community of the same nameMiller, E. Roland.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Marwari (Mārwāṛī; also rendered Marwadi, Marvadi) is a Rajasthani language spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Mass migration refers to the migration of large groups of people from one geographical area to another.
The term Memon refers to a Muslim commercial community from the western part of South Asia, including Memons historically associated with Kathiawar.
Mewati is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about three million speakers in the Mewat Region (Alwar and Bharatpur, districts of Rajasthan, Nuh district of Haryana).
Mirpur Khas (Sindhi and; meaning "Town of the most-high Mirs") is the capital city of Mirpur Khas District in the province of Sindh in Pakistan and was the capital of an eponymous princely state.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988) was a Pakistani four-star general who served as the 6th President of Pakistan from 1978 until his death in 1988, after declaring martial law in 1977.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Muslim League was the original successor of the All India Muslim League that led the Pakistan Movement achieving an independent nation.
The Nationalization process in Pakistan (or historically simply regarded as the "Nationalization in Pakistan") was a policy measure programme in the economic history of Pakistan, first introduced, promulgated and implemented by people-elected Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and the Pakistan Peoples Party to lay the foundation of socialist economics reforms to improve the growth of national economy of Pakistan.
Nawab (Eastern Nagari: নবাব/নওয়াব, Devanagari: नवाब/नबाब, Perso-Arab: نواب) also spelt Nawaab, Navaab, Navab, Nowab The title nawab was also awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similarly to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (تحریک پاکستان –) was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire.
The Pakistan Muslim League (پاکستان مسلم لیگ; known as PML), is the name of several Pakistani political parties that have dominated the Right-wing platform since the 1960s.
The Pakistan National Alliance (Urdu: پاکستان قومی اتحاد, Acronym: PNA), was a populist and consolidated right-wing political alliance, consisting of nine political parties of the country.
The Pakistan Peoples Party (پاکِستان پیپلز پارٹی, commonly referred to as the PPP) is a left-wing, socialist-progressive political party of Pakistan.
Pakistan Television Corporation (پاكِستان ٹیلی وژن نیٹ ورک; reporting name: PTV) is a public and commercial broadcasting television network, as well as a mass-media state-owned megacorporation, with headquarters at Islamabad, Pakistan.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 7 December 1970.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 7 March 1977 to elect the 200 parliamentarians to both houses (Senate and National Assembly) of the Parliament of Pakistan.
Pakistan's first ever Presidential Elections were held on January 2, 1965.
The Parliament of Pakistan (مجلس شوریٰ پاکستان —) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
Provincial Assembly of Sindh (Sindhiصوباۂي اسيمبلي سنڌ, صوبائی اسمبلی سندھ) is a unicameral house of elected representatives of people of Sindh established under Article 106 of the Constitution of Pakistan.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
The Rajputana Agency was a political office of the British Indian Empire dealing with a collection of native states in Rajputana (now in Rajasthan, northwestern India), under the political charge of an Agent reporting directly to the Governor-General of India and residing at Mount Abu in the Aravalli Range.
Rohingya people in Pakistan (پاکستانی برمی) are a Muslim community based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Sadri, also known as Nagpuri, is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, northern West Bengal, Assam and in Bangladesh.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language and are native to the Sindh province of Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition British India.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Stranded Pakistanis in Bangladesh (پھنسے ہوئے پاکستانی, উদ্বাস্তু পাকিস্তানী) are Urdu-speaking Muslim migrants with homelands in present-day India and Pakistan who settled in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) following the partition of India in 1947.
Sukkur is a city in the Pakistani province of Sindh along the western bank of the Indus River, directly across from the historic city of Rohri.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Syed Ahmad Taqvi bin Syed Muhammad Muttaqi KCSI (سید احمد خان.; 17 October 1817 – 27 March 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, was an Indian Muslim pragmatist, Islamic reformist, philosopher of nineteenth century British India and the first who named the term "Two Nation theory" to the theory of separate nation of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Born into a family with strong ties with Mughal court, Syed studied the Quran and sciences within the court. He was awarded honorary LLD from the University of Edinburgh. In 1838, Syed Ahmad entered the service of East India Company and went on to become a judge at a Small Causes Court in 1867, and retired from service in 1876. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he remained, loyal to the British Empire and was noted for his actions in saving European lives.Glasse, Cyril, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Altamira Press, (2001) After the rebellion, he penned the booklet ''The Causes of the Indian Mutiny'' – a daring critique, at the time, of British policies that he blamed for causing the revolt. Believing that the future of Muslims was threatened by the rigidity of their orthodox outlook, Sir Syed began promoting Western–style scientific education by founding modern schools and journals and organising Muslim entrepreneurs. In 1859, Syed established Gulshan School at Muradabad, Victoria School at Ghazipur in 1863, and a scientific society for Muslims in 1864. In 1875, founded the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, the first Muslim university in South Asia. During his career, Syed repeatedly called upon Muslims to loyally serve the British Empire and promoted the adoption of Urdu as the lingua franca of all Indian Muslims. Syed heavily critiqued the Indian National Congress. Syed maintains a strong legacy in Pakistan and Indian Muslims. He strongly influenced other Muslim leaders including Allama Iqbal and Jinnah. His advocacy of Islam's rationalist (Muʿtazila) tradition, and at broader, radical reinterpretation of the Quran to make it compatible with science and modernity, continues to influence the global Islamic reformation. Many universities and public buildings in Pakistan bear Sir Syed's name. Aligarh Muslim University celebrated his 200th birth centenary with much enthusiasm on 17 October 2017. Former President of India shri Pranab Mukherjee was the chief guest.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Vadodara (formerly known as Baroda) is the third-largest.
Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état refers to the events between October 7, when the President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution of Pakistan and declared martial law, and October 27, when Mirza himself was deposed by Gen.
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