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According to Islamic narrations and inline with Arabic history, Abū Lahab (أبو لهب) (c. 549 – 624) was Muhammad's paternal uncle.
‘Abd Manāf al-Mughirah ibn Quṣai (عبد مناف المغيرة بن قصي) was a Quraishi and great-great-grandfather of Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad (عبدالله بن محمد) also known as Tahir ibn Muhammad (Tahir.
Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy (عبد الله بن أبي بن سلول, died 631), also called ibn Salul in reference to his mother, was a chief of the Arab tribe Banu Khazraj and one of the leading men of Medina (then known as Yathrib).
Shaybah ibn Hāshim c. 497 – 578), better known as ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib, since he was raised by his uncle Muṭṭalib, was the grandfather of Islamic prophet Muḥammad.
Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib (عبدالله بن عبد المطلب) (c.546–570) was the father of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abraha (also spelled Abreha, died after AD 553;Stuart Munro-Hay (2003) "Abraha" in Siegbert Uhlig (ed.) Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. r. 525–at least 553S. C. Munro-Hay (1991) Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. p. 87.), also known as Abraha al-Ashram (Arabic: أبرهة الأشرم), was an Aksumite army general, then the viceroy of southern Arabia for the Kingdom of Aksum, and later declared himself an independent King of Himyar.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Ibrahim (ʾIbrāhīm), known as Abraham in the Hebrew Bible, is recognized as a prophet and messenger in Islam of God.
Abu 'Afak (أبو عفك, died c. 624) was a Jewish poet who lived in the Hijaz region (today Saudi Arabia).
Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.
Abu Dawud Sulaymān ibn al-Ash‘ath al-Azdi as-Sijistani أبو داود سليمان بن الأشعث الأزدي السجستاني), commonly known simply as Abu Dawud, was a Persian scholar of prophetic hadith who compiled the third of the six "canonical" hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, the Sunan Abu Dāwūd.
Sakhr ibn Harb (صخر بن حرب), more commonly known as Abu Sufyan (560–650), was the leader of the Quraysh of Mecca, the most powerful tribe of pre-Islamic Arabia.
Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib (ابو طالب بن عبد المطلب), was the leader of Banu Hashim, a clan of the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca in the Hijaz, Arabian Peninsula.
Âdam or Aadam (ʾĀdam) is believed to have been the first human being and Nabi (نَـبِي, Prophet) on Earth, in Islam.
The adhan, athan, or azaan (أَذَان) (also called in Turkish: Ezan) is the Islamic call to worship, recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day.
Ahl al-Bayt (أهل البيت, اهلِ بیت), also Āl al-Bayt, is a phrase meaning, literally, "People of the House" or "Family of the House".
Ahmad, Ahmed or Ahmet are the principal transliterations of an Arabic given name, أحمد.
Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Ḥanbal Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shaybānī (احمد بن محمد بن حنبل ابو عبد الله الشيباني; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred to as Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Ḥanbal for short, or reverentially as Imam Aḥmad by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, ascetic, and hadith traditionist.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE;عائشة بنت أبي بكر or عائشة, transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah, also transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha) was one of Muhammad's wives.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Al-Azraqi was a 9th-century Islamic commentator and historian, and author of the Kitab Akhbar Makka (Book of reports about Makka).
Al-ʻUzzā (العزى) was one of the three chief goddesses of Arabian religion in pre-Islamic times and was worshiped by the pre-Islamic Arabs along with Allāt and Manāt.
Qasīdat al-Burda (قصيدة البردة, "Poem of the Mantle"), or al-Burda for short, is an ode of praise for the Islamic prophet Muhammad composed by the eminent Sufi mystic Imam al-Busiri of Egypt.
al-Būsīrī (Abū 'Abdallāh Muhammad ibn Sa'īd ul-Būsīrī Ash Shadhili) (1211–1294) was a Sanhaji BerberSufi poet belonging to the Shadhiliyya order being direct disciple of Sheikh Abul Abbas al-Mursi ash Shadhili.
Abu l-Hasan ′Ali ibn ′Umar ibn Ahmad ibn Mahdi ibn Mas′ud ibn al-Nu′man ibn Dinar ibn ′Abdullah al-Baghdadi al-Daraqutni (918 CE/306 AH, Baghdad — 995 CE/385 AH) was an eminent Muslim scholar and muhaddith (collector of hadiths).
Sūrat al-Fatḥ (سورة الفتح, "Victory, Triumph") is the 48th sura of the Qur'an with 29 ayat.
Sūrat al-Ḥajj (سورة الحج, "The Pilgrimage, The Hajj") is the 22nd sura of the Qur'an with 78 ayat.
Allat, also spelled Allatu, Alilat,, and (اللات) was the name and title of multiple goddesses worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia, including the one in Mecca who was a chief goddess along with her siblings Manāt and al-‘Uzzá.
Qalāwūn aṣ-Ṣāliḥī (قلاوون الصالحي, c. 1222 – November 10, 1290) was the seventh Bahri Mamluk sultan; he ruled Egypt from 1279 to 1290.
The Prophet's Mosque (Classical ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدُ ٱلـنَّـبَـوِيّ, Al-Masjidun-Nabawiyy; Modern Standard ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدْ اَلـنَّـبَـوِي, Al-Masjid An-Nabawī) is a mosque established and originally built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, situated in the city of Medina in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia.
Sūrat al-Muddathir (سُـورة الـمُـدّثّـر, "Chapter of the Cloaked One" or "Chapter of the Man Wearing a Cloak") is the 74th sura of the Qur’an, with 56 ayat.
Sūrat al-Muzzammil (سورة المزمل, “The Enshrouded One”, “Bundled Up”, “Enfolded”) is the seventy-third chapter of the Qur'an.
Al-Nasā'ī (214 – 303 AH; 829 – 915 CE), full name Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān al-Nasā'ī, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad),Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.138.
Abu Zakaria Yahya Ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī (أبو زكريا يحيى بن شرف النووي;‎ 1233–1277), popularly known as al-Nawawī or Imam Nawawī (631–676 A.H./1234–1277), was an influential Sunni Shafi'ite jurist and hadith scholar.
Abū ʿAbdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī (أبـو عـبـد الله مـحـمـد ابـن إدريـس الـشـافـعيّ) (767-820 CE, 150-204 AH) was an Arab Muslim theologian, writer, and scholar, who was the first contributor of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Uṣūl al-fiqh).
Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.
Abū ‘Īsá Muḥammad ibn ‛Īsá as-Sulamī aḍ-Ḍarīr al-Būghī at-Tirmidhī (أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى السلمي الضرير البوغي الترمذي; ترمذی, Termezī; 824 – 9 October 892), often referred to as Imām at-Termezī/Tirmidhī, was a Persian Islamic scholar and collector of hadith who wrote al-Jami` as-Sahih (known as Jami` at-Tirmidhi), one of the six canonical hadith compilations in Sunni Islam.
Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (الوليد بن عبد الملك) or Al-Walid I (668 – 23 February 715) was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 705 until his death in 715. His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana in Central Asia, Sind, Hispania in far western Europe, and against the Byzantines. He poisoned the fourth Shi'a imam, Zayn al-Abidin.
Abu `Abdullah Muhammad Ibn ‘Omar Ibn Waqid al-Aslami (Arabic أبو عبد الله محمد بن عمر بن واقد الاسلمي) (c. 130 – 207 AH; c. 747 – 823 AD) was a historian commonly referred to as al-Waqidi (Arabic: الواقدي).
Alford T. Welch is a Professor of Religious Studies at Michigan State University.
Alfred Guillaume DD (8 November 1888 – 30 November 1965) was a British Arabist, scholar of Islam and Hebrew Bible / Old Testament scholar.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Amin (in Arabic أمين) is an Arabic and Persian given name that means "faithful, trustworthy".
Aminah bint Wahb (آمنة بنت وهب; died 577 AD) was the mother of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Amr ibn Hisham (عمرو بن هشام), often known as Abu Jahl (أبو جهل), (born 556? — died 17 March 624), was one of the Meccan polytheist pagan Qurayshi leaders known for his critical opposition towards Muhammad the Islamic prophet and the early Muslims in Mecca.
Sūrat an-Nūr (سورة النور, "The Light") is the 24th sura of the Qur'an with 64 ayat.
Aniconism is a proscription in Islam against the creation of images of sentient beings.
Ansar (الأنصار, "The Helpers") is an Islamic term for the local inhabitants of Medina who took the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers (the Muhajirun) into their homes when they emigrated from Mecca (hijra).
Aqidah (ʿaqīdah, plural عقائد ʿaqāʾid, also rendered ʿaqīda, aqeeda etc.) is an Islamic term meaning "creed" p. 470.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
There were several Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic names were historically based on a long naming system; most Arabs did not have given/middle/family names, but a full chain of names.
The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order.
Armah (reigned 614–631), known in some Muslim sources as Al-Najashi (النجاشي), was a Christian king of the Kingdom of Aksum.
Sūrat aṣ-Ṣaff (سورة الصف, "The Ranks, Battle Array") is the 61st chapter (sura) of the Quran with 14 verses.
As-salāmu ʿalaykum (السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ) is a greeting in Arabic that means "peace be upon you".
The Ashtiname of Muhammad, also known as the Covenant or Testament (Testamentum) of Muhammad (the Islamic Prophet), is a document which is a charter or writ ratified by the Islamic prophet Muhammad granting protection and other privileges to the followers of Jesus the Nazarene, given to the Christian monks of Saint Catherine's Monastery.
ʻAṣmāʼ bint Marwān (عصماء بنت مروان "'Asmā' the daughter of Marwān") was a female member of the Ummayad caliphate who lived in Medina in 7th century Arabia.
In the Islamic Quran, an Āyah (آية; plural: āyāt آيات) is a "verse".
Baetylus (also Baetyl, Bethel, or Betyl, from Semitic bet el "house of god") is a word denoting sacred stones that were supposedly endowed with life.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Bahá'u'lláh (بهاء الله, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (میرزا حسینعلی نوری), was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
Bahira (بحيرى, ܒܚܝܪܐ), or Sergius the Monk to the Latin West, was an Assyrian or Arab Arian, Nestorian or possibly Gnostic Nasorean monk who, according to Islamic tradition, foretold to the adolescent Muhammad his future as a prophet.
Banu Abd Shams refers to a clan within the Meccan tribe of Quraysh.
The Banu Bakr ibn Abd Manat (بنو بكر) were an Arabian tribe of the Hejaz region,Bani Bakr bin Abd Manat bin Kenana bin Khuzaymah bin Mdarka bin Elias bin Mudar bin Nizar bin Ma'ad bin Adnan, one of the most famous tribe of the Kenana tribes in the pre-Islamic era and Islam was issued during the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphate, and is one of the largest Arab tribes number.
Banū Hāshim (بنو هاشم) is a clan in the Quraysh tribe with a unique maternal bloodline of Israelite ancestry through Salma bint Amr of Banu Najjar.
The Banū Khuza’ah (Arabic بنو خزاعة singular خزاعيّ Khuzā’ī) is the name of an Azdite, Qaḥṭānite tribe (some say Muḑarite ‘Adnānite), which is one of the main ancestral tribes of the Arabian Peninsula.
Banū Makhzūm was one of the wealthy clans of Quraysh.
The Banu Nadir (بنو النضير, בני נצ'יר) were a Jewish tribe who lived in northern Arabia until the 7th century at the oasis of Medina.
Banu Nawfal is a notable Arabic sub-clan of the Quraish tribe.
The Banu Qaynuqa (بنو قينقاع; בני קינקאע; also spelled Banu Kainuka, Banu Kaynuka, Banu Qainuqa, Banu Qaynuqa) was one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia.
The Banu Qurayza (بنو قريظة, בני קוריט'ה; alternate spellings include Quraiza, Qurayzah, Quraytha, and the archaic Koreiza) were a Jewish tribe which lived in northern Arabia, at the oasis of Yathrib (now known as Medina), until the 7th century, when their alleged violation of a pact brokered by Muhammad led to their massacre.
Banū Thaqīf is a Saudi tribe that inhabit the Ta'if area, they are a branch of Qays 'Aylan.
Barakat Ahmad (died 1988) was a scholar and Indian diplomat.
The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca.
The Battle of Hunayn (غَـزوة حُـنـيـن, Ghazwat Hunayn) was fought by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers against the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin and its subsection the Thaqif, in 630 CE, in the Hunayn valley, on the route from Mecca to At-Ta’if.
The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 628 between Muslims and the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located from Medina in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Saudi Arabia.
The Battle of Mu'tah (معركة مؤتة, غزوة مؤتة) was fought in September 629 C.E. (1 Jumada al-awwal 8 A.H.), near the village of Mu'tah, east of the Jordan River and Karak in Karak Governorate, between the forces of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad and the forces of the Byzantine Empire.
The Battle of Uhud (غزوة أحد) was a battle between the early Muslims and their Quraish Meccan enemies in AD 624 in the northwest of the Arabian peninsula.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Bernard Lewis, FBA (31 May 1916 – 19 May 2018) was a British American historian specializing in oriental studies.
Bilal ibn Rabah (بلال ابن رباح‎; 580–640 AD) also known as Bilal al-Habashi, Bilal ibn Riyah, and ibn Rabah), was one of the most trusted and loyal Sahabah (companions) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was born in Mecca and is considered as the first muezzin, chosen by Muhammad himself.Robinson, David.. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print. He was known for his beautiful voice with which he called people to their prayers. He died in 640, at the age of 57.
The Black Stone (ٱلْحَجَرُ ٱلْأَسْوَد,, "Black Stone") is a rock set into the eastern corner of the Kaaba, the ancient building located in the center of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Blood money, also called bloodwit, is money or some sort of compensation paid by an offender (usually a murderer) or his/her family group to the family or kin group of the victim.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Brotherhood among the Sahaba refers to the time after the Hijra when the Islamic prophet Muhammad instituted brotherhood between the emigrants, Muhajirun, and the helpers, Ansar, and he chose Ali as his own brother.
Brunetto Latini (c. 1220–1294) (who signed his name Burnectus Latinus in Latin and Burnecto Latino in Italian) was an Italian philosopher, scholar, notary, and statesman.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Al-Burāq (البُراق al-Burāq or "lightning") is a steed in Islamic mythology, a creature from the heavens that transported the prophets.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Children of Muhammad include the three sons and four daughters born to the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Church with independent hierarchy from the Nestorian Schism (431–544), while tracing its history to the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan in the Parthian Empire.
Claude-Emmanuel Joseph Pierre, Marquess of Pastoret (24 December 1755, Marseille – 28 September 1840, Paris) was a French lawyer, author and politician.
Clifford Edmund Bosworth FBA (29 December 1928 – 28 February 2015) was an English historian and Orientalist, specialising in Arabic and Iranian studies.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The below table is a comparison of the lives of the founders of religious traditions.
The conquest of Mecca (فتح مكة) refers to the event when Mecca was conquered by Muslims led by Muhammad on 11 January, 630 AD, (Julian), 20 Ramadan, 8 AH.
The Constitution of Medina (دستور المدينة, Dustūr al-Madīnah), also known as the Charter of Medina (صحيفة المدينة, Ṣaḥīfat al-Madīnah; or: ميثاق المدينة, Mīthāq al-Madīnah), was drawn up on behalf of the Islamic prophet Muhammad shortly after his arrival at Medina (then known as Yathrib) in 622 CE argues that the initial agreement was shortly after the Hijra and the document was amended later, after the Battle of Badr (AH 2,.
In many traditions and statutes of civil or religious law, the consummation of a marriage, often called simply consummation, is the first (or first officially credited) act of sexual intercourse between two people, either following their marriage to each other or after a prolonged romantic attraction.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
(also daawa or daawah; دعوة "invitation") is the proselytizing or preaching of Islam.
Denise A. Spellberg (born c. 1958) is an American scholar of Islamic history.
The permissibility of depictions of Muhammad in Islam has been a contentious issue.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Dhu'l-Hijjah or alternatively Zulhijja (ذو الحجة; properly transliterated, also called Zil-Hajj) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic calendar.
Din (Dīn, also anglicized as Deen) is an Arabic word that roughly means "creed" or "religion".
Muhammad (c. 22 April, 571–11 June, 632) is documented as having engaged as a diplomat during his propagation of Islam and leadership over the growing Muslim Ummah (community).
The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Robert Poole; October 7, 1897 – February 25, 1975) was a black religious leader, who led the Nation of Islam (NOI) from 1934 until his death in 1975.
The Emirate of Transjordan (إمارة شرق الأردن lit. "Emirate of east Jordan"), also hyphenated as Trans-Jordan and previously known as Transjordania or Trans-Jordania, was a British protectorate established in April 1921.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
The Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān (abbreviated EQ) is an encyclopedia dedicated to the Qur'an published with Brill.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Encyclopedia of Ethics is a scholarly work with the original focus on ethical theory.
Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.
An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group whose members are also unified by a common religious background.
A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.
"Only one eye for one eye", also known as "An eye for an eye" or "A tooth for a tooth"), or the law of retaliation, is the principle that a person who has injured another person is to be penalized to a similar degree, and the person inflicting such punishment should be the injured party. In softer interpretations, it means the victim receives the value of the injury in compensation. The intent behind the principle was to restrict compensation to the value of the loss. The principle is sometimes referred using the Latin term lex talionis or the law of talion. The English word talion (from the Latin talio) means a retaliation authorized by law, in which the punishment corresponds in kind and degree to the injury.
In religion, a false prophet is one who falsely claims the gift of prophecy or divine inspiration, or who uses that gift for evil ends.
This article is about the family tree of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
The Farewell Pilgrimage (Arabic: حجة الوداع) was the last and only Hajj pilgrimage Muhammad, prophet of Islam, participated in 632 CE (10 AH).
The Farewell Sermon (خطبة الوداع, Khuṭbatu l-Wadāʿ), also known as Muhammad's Final Sermon or the Last Sermon, is believed by Muslims to have been delivered by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad on the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 AH (6 March 632) in the Uranah valley of Mount Arafat, during the Islamic pilgrimage of Hajj.
Fatima The Gracious (Arabic: Fatimah Zahra) is a book written by Shi'a scholar Abu Muhammad Ordoni and published by Ansariyan Publications.
Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.
Fatimah bint Asad (68 BH – 4 AH; 555–626 CE) (فاطمة بنت أسد) was the mother of Ali bin Abi Talib.
Fazlur Rahman Malik (فضل الرحمان ملک) (September 21, 1919 – July 26, 1988), generally known as Fazlur Rahman, was a modernist scholar and philosopher of Islam from today's Pakistan.
A feud, referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud, vendetta, faida, beef, clan war, gang war, or private war, is a long-running argument or fight, often between social groups of people, especially families or clans.
Francis Edward Peters (born June 23, 1927, New York City), who generally publishes as F.E. Peters, is Professor Emeritus of History, Religion and Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies at New York University (NYU).
Gabriel (lit, lit, ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ, ܓܒܪܝܝܠ), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel who typically serves as God's messenger.
German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism.
The following list consists of notable concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content.
Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).
The Green Dome (al-Qubah al-Khaḍrā’) is a green-coloured dome built above the tomb of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and early Muslim Caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar.
Guillaume Postel (25 March 1510 – 6 September 1581) was a French linguist, astronomer, Cabbalist, diplomat, professor, and religious universalist.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hadith studies (علم الحديث ʻilm al-ḥadīth "knowledge of hadith", also science of hadith, or science of hadith criticism) consist of several religious disciplines used in the study and evaluation of the Islamic hadith — i.e. the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by Muslim scholars.
Ḥafṣah bint ʿUmar (حفصة بنت عمر; c. 605–665) was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Halimah al-Sa‘diyah (حليمة السعدية) was the foster-mother and wetnurse of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib (حمزة ابن عبد المطّلب) (c.570–625)Muhammad ibn Saad.
Ḥanīf (حنيف,; plural: حنفاء) meaning "revert" refers to one who, according to Islamic belief, maintained the pure monotheism of the patriarch Abraham.
Harald Motzki is a German-trained scholar of Islam who writes on the transmission of hadith.
Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf al Mughirah (هاشم بن عبد مناف المغيرة; ca. 464 – 497) was the great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the progenitor of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe in Mecca.
The Banu Hawazin (هوازن / ALA-LC: Hawāzin) were an ancient Pre-Islamic Arab tribe considered to be the descendants of Hawazin son of Mansur son of Ikrimah son of Khasafah son of Qays ʿAylān son of Mudar son of Nizar son of Ma'ad son of Adnan son of Aa'd son of U'dud son of Sind son of Ya'rub son of Yashjub son of Nabeth son of Qedar son of Ishmael, or Ishmaelites, son of Abraham.
The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.
Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (13 December 1797 – 17 February 1856) was a German poet, journalist, essayist, and literary critic.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Henri de Boulainvilliers (21 October 1658, Saint-Saire, Normandy – 23 January 1722, Paris) was a French nobleman, writer and historian.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.
The term hilya (Arabic حلية (plural: ḥilan, ḥulan), hilye (plural: hilyeler) denotes a religious genre of Ottoman Turkish literature, dealing with the physical description of Muhammad. Hilya literally means "ornament". They originate with the discipline of shama'il, the study of Muhammad's appearance and character, based on hadith accounts, most notably Tirmidhi's al-Shama'il al-Muhamadiyyah wa al-Khasa'il al-Mustafawiyyah ("The Sublime Characteristics of Muhammad"). In Ottoman-era folk Islam, there was a belief that reading and possessing Muhammad's description protects the person from trouble in this world and the next, it became customary to carry such descriptions, rendered in fine calligraphy and illuminated, as amulets. In 17th-century Ottoman Turkey, hilyes developed into an art form with a standard layout, often framed and used as a wall decoration. Later hilyes were also written for the first four Caliphs, the companions of Muhammad, Muhammad's grandchildren (Hasan and Hussein) and Islamic saints (walis).
Historicity in philosophy is the idea or fact that something has a historical origin and developed through history: concepts, practices, values.
Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.
Ian Almond (born 1969, Skipton, England) is a literary scholar and writer.
Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī or Ibn Ḥajar (ابن حجر العسقلاني, full name: Shihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Nūr al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī) (18 February 1372 – 2 February 1449), was a medieval Shafiite Sunni Muslim scholar of Islam "whose life work constitutes the final summation of the science of hadith." represents the entire realm of the Sunni world in the field of Hadith, also known as Shaykh al Islam.
Abu Muhammad 'Abd al-Malik bin Hisham ibn Ayyub al-Himyari (أبو محمد عبدالمالك بن هشام), or Ibn Hisham, edited the biography of the Islamic prophet Muhammad written by Ibn Ishaq.
Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq ibn Yasār ibn Khiyār (according to some sources, ibn Khabbār, or Kūmān, or Kūtān, محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار بن خيار, or simply ibn Isḥaq, ابن إسحاق, meaning "the son of Isaac"; died 767 or 761) was an Arab Muslim historian and hagiographer.
Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria.
Abū ʻAbdillāh Muḥammad ibn Yazīd Ibn Mājah al-Rabʻī al-Qazwīnī (ابو عبد الله محمد بن يزيد بن ماجه الربعي القزويني; fl. 9th century CE) commonly known as Ibn Mājah, was a medieval scholar of hadith of Persian origin.
Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Sa‘d ibn Manī‘ al-Baṣrī al-Hāshimī kātib al-Wāqidī or simply Ibn Sa'd (ابن سعد) and nicknamed "Scribe of Waqidi" (Katib al-Waqidi), was a scholar and Arabian biographer.
Ibrahim ibn Muhammad (إبراهيم بن محمد) was the male child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Maria al-Qibtiyya.
The Ikhwan (الإخوان, (The) Brethren), also Akhwan, was the first Saudi army made up of traditionally nomadic tribesmen which formed a significant military force of the ruler Ibn Saud and played an important role in establishing him as ruler of most of the Arabian Peninsula in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Infanticide (or infant homicide) is the intentional killing of infants.
Inferno (Italian for "Hell") is the first part of Dante Alighieri's 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy.
Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.
The International Journal of Middle East Studies is a scholarly journal published by the Middle East Studies Association of North America (MESA), a learned society.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
According to the biblical Book of Genesis, Isaac (إسحٰق/إسحاق) was the son of Abraham and Sarah and father of Jacob; his name means "he will laugh", reflecting when Sarah laughed in disbelief when told that she would have a child.
The ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute (p) is a Singaporean statutory board and research institution established by an Act of Parliament in 1968.
Ishmael Ἰσμαήλ Ismaēl; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic: إِسْمَٰعِيْل; Modern Arabic: إِسْمَاعِيْل ʾIsmāʿīl; Ismael) is a figure in the Tanakh and the Quran and was Abraham's first son according to Jews, Christians and Muslims. Ishmael was born to Abraham and Sarah's handmaiden Hagar (Hājar).. According to the Genesis account, he died at the age of 137. The Book of Genesis and Islamic traditions consider Ishmael to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites and patriarch of Qaydār. According to Muslim tradition, Ishmael the Patriarch and his mother Hagar are said to be buried next to the Kaaba in Mecca.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam: Beliefs and Observances is a contemporary book about Islam by Islamic scholar Caesar E. Farah.
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
Islamic ethics (أخلاق إسلامية), defined as "good character," historically took shape gradually from the 7th century and was finally established by the 11th century.
An Islamic marriage contract is an Islamic prenuptial agreement.
This article summarizes the different branches and schools in Islam.
A miracle in the Qur'an is a supernatural intervention in the life of human beings.
The Isra and Mi'raj (الإسراء والمعراج) are the two parts of a Night Journey that, according to Islam, Muhammad took during a single night around the year 621 CE.
Jabal an-Nour (lit or 'Hill of the Illumination') is a mountain near Mecca in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia.
Jacob, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites.
Jahannam (جهنم (etymologically related to Hebrew גיהנום. Gehennom and Greek: γέεννα) refers to an afterlife place of punishment for evildoers. The punishments are carried in accordance with the degree of evil one has done during his life. In Quran, Jahannam is also referred as al-Nar ("The Fire"), Jaheem ("Blazing Fire"), Hatamah ("That which Breaks to Pieces"), Haawiyah ("The Abyss"), Ladthaa, Sa’eer ("The Blaze"), Saqar. and also the names of different gates to hell. Suffering in hell is both physical and spiritual, and varies according to the sins of the condemned. As described in the Quran, Hell has seven levels (each one more severe than the one above it); seven gates (each for a specific group of sinners); a blazing fire, boiling water, and the Tree of Zaqqum. Not all Muslims and scholars agree whether hell is an eternal destination or whether some or even all of the condemned will eventually be forgiven and allowed to enter paradise.
Jahiliyyah (جَاهِلِيَّة / "ignorance") is an Islamic concept of the period of time and state of affairs in Arabia before the advent of Islam.
Jannah (جنّة; plural: Jannat), lit.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
In Islam, ʿĪsā ibn Maryam (lit), or Jesus, is understood to be the penultimate prophet and messenger of God (Allah) and al-Masih, the Arabic term for Messiah (Christ), sent to guide the Children of Israel with a new revelation: al-Injīl (Arabic for "the gospel").
The Jewish tribes of Arabia were ethnic groups professing the Jewish faith that inhabited the Arabian Peninsula before and during the advent of Islam.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
John bar Penkaye (ܝܘܚܢܢ ܒܪ ܦܢܟܝ̈ܐ Yōḥannān bar Penkāyē) was an East Syriac Nestorian Christian writer of the late 7th century.
John Kelsay is an author and a Research Professor and Richard L. Rubenstein Professor of Religion at Florida State University.
John Victor Tolan (born 1959) is a historian of religious and cultural relations between the Arab and Latin worlds in the Middle Ages.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Jonathan Andrew Cleveland Brown (born 1977) is an American scholar of Islamic studies.
Juwayriyya bint al-Harith (Juwayriyya bint al-Ḥārith; born c. 608) was a wife of Muhammad and a Mother of the Believers.
Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf (כעב אבן אלאשרף, كعب بن الاشرف, died 624) was per Islamic texts a Jewish leader in Medina and a poet.
Ka'b ibn Asad was the chief of the Qurayza, a Jewish tribe that lived in Medina until 627.
The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Karen Armstrong, (born 14 November 1944) is a British author and commentator of Irish Catholic descent known for her books on comparative religion.
Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (after 1814: von) Schlegel (10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829), usually cited as Friedrich Schlegel, was a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist and Indologist.
Khadijah, Khadījah bint Khuwaylid (خديجة بنت خويلد) or Khadījah al-Kubra (Khadijah the Great) 555 – 22 November 619 CE) was the first wife and follower of the Islamic Prophet (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad. She is commonly regarded by Muslims as the "Mother of the Believers". Khadijah is regarded as one of the most important female figures in Islam, like her daughter, Fatimah. Muhammad was monogamously married to her for 25 years. After the death of Khadijah, Muhammad married at least nine women. Khadijah was the closest to Muhammad and he confided in her the most out of all his following wives. It is narrated in many hadiths that Khadijah was Muhammad's most trusted and favorite among all his marriages. It is narrated in Sahih Muslim: The messenger of Allah said: "God Almighty never granted me anyone better in this life than her. She accepted me when people rejected me; she believed in me when people doubted me; she shared her wealth with me when people deprived me; and Allah granted me children only through her." ‘A’ishah narrated of Muhammed and Khadijah in Sahih Bukhari: "I did not feel jealous of any of the wives of the Prophet as much as I did of Khadijah though I did not see her, but the Prophet used to mention her very often, and when ever he slaughtered a sheep, he would cut its parts and send them to the women friends of Khadijah. When I sometimes said to him, "(You treat Khadijah in such a way) as if there is no woman on Earth except Khadijah," he would say, "Khadijah was such-and-such, and from her I had children." It is also narrated: The Messenger of Allah said: "The best of its women is Khadijah bint Khuwailid, and the best of its women is Maryam bint ‘Imran." Muhammad said about her "She believed in me when the whole world refuted me and she attested to my veracity when the whole world accused me of falsehood. She offered me compassion and loyalty with her wealth when everyone else had forsaken me." Khadijah was the first female and person to become a follower of Muhammad. Muhammad was married to her until her death and Khadijah was the only wife to be married to Muhammad in monogamy, thus sometimes regarded as Muhammad's most beloved. She is regarded as one of the most important women in Islam, and in terms of the progression of Islam, the most important out of all of Muhammad's wives.
Khatam an-Nabiyyin (خاتم النبيين, khātam an-nabīyīn; or Khātim an-Nabīyīn), translated as Seal of the Prophets, is a title used in the Qur'an to designate the prophet Muhammad.
KhaybarOther standardized Arabic transliterations: /. Anglicized pronunciation:,. (خيبر) is the name of an oasis some to the north of Medina (ancient Yathrib), Saudi Arabia.
Khosrow II (Chosroes II in classical sources; Middle Persian: Husrō(y)), entitled "Aparvēz" ("The Victorious"), also Khusraw Parvēz (New Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from 590 to 628.
Kilab ibn Murrah (كلاب بن مُرة) (born 373 CE) was the paternal great-great-great-great grandfather and maternal great-great-great grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muḥammad.
The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
A kunya (كنية, kunyah) is a teknonym in Arabic names, the name of an adult derived from his or her eldest child.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
This is a chronological listing of biographies of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, ranging from the earliest traditional writers to modern times.
This article lists historical figures credited with founding religions or religious philosophies or people who first codified older known religious traditions.
Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water.
Mahomet (Le fanatisme, ou Mahomet le Prophète, literally Fanaticism, or Mahomet the Prophet) is a five-act tragedy written in 1736 by French playwright and philosopher Voltaire.
Mālik b. Anas b. Mālik b. Abī ʿĀmir b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aymān b. K̲h̲ut̲h̲ayn b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Aṣbaḥī, often referred to as Mālik ibn Anas (Arabic: مالك بن أنس‎; 711–795 CE / 93–179 AH) for short, or reverently as Imam Mālik by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
(مناة oblique case, construct state; also transliterated as) was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca.
The Manifestation of God is a concept in the Bahá'í Faith that refers to what are commonly called prophets.
Maria bint Sham'ûn, better known as Maria al-Qibtiyya (مارية القبطية) (alternatively, "Maria Quptiyah"), or Maria the Copt, (died 637) was an Egyptian Coptic Christian who was given to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 628 as a slave by Muqawqis, the Christian ruler of Egypt.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
The Mosque of the Two Qiblas (مَـسْـجِـد الْـقِـبْـلَـتَـیْـن, Masjid al-Qiblaṫayn) is a mosque in Medina that is historically important for Muslims as the place where, after the Islamic Prophet Muhammad received the command to change the Qiblah (قِـبْـلَـة, Direction of Prayer) from Jerusalem to Mecca, the entire congregation led by a companion changed direction in prayer.
Mawlid or Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif (مَولِد النَّبِي mawlidu n-nabiyyi, "Birth of the Prophet", sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad which is commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.
Maymunah bint al-Harith al-Hilaliyah (Maymūnah bint al-Ḥārith al-Hilālīyah) was a wife of Muhammad.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
The Maccan boycott of the Hashemites was a public boycott against the clan of Banu Hashim, declared in 617 by the leaders of Banu Makhzum and Banu Abd-Shams, two important clans of Quraysh.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Meir Jacob Kister (מאיר יעקב קיסטר‎ 16 January 1914 in Mościska – 16 August 2010 in Jerusalem) was a Jewish Arabist from Poland who worked in Israel.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Migration to Abyssinia (الهجرة إلى الحبشة, al-hijra ʾilā al-habaša), also known as the First Hegira (هِجْرَة hijrah), was an episode in the early history of Islam, where Prophet Muhammad's first followers (the Sahabah) fled from the persecution of the ruling Quraysh tribe of Mecca.
The military career of Muhammad lasted for the final ten years of his life when he served as the leader of the ummah, the head of state at Medina.
The Miracles of Muhammad are a number of supernatural occurrences, which as claimed by Islamic tradition were made by Muhammad (Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim) during his lifetime.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Mûsâ ibn 'Imran (Mūsā) known as Moses in the Hebrew Bible, considered a prophet, messenger, and leader in Islam, is the most frequently mentioned individual in the Quran.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mount Arafat or Mount Arafah (جبل عرفات transliterated Jabal ‘Arafāt) is a granite hill east of Mecca in the plain of Arafat.
Muhajirun (المهاجرون The Emigrants) were the first converts to Islam and the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's advisors and relatives, who emigrated with him from Mecca to Medina, the event known in Islam as ''The Hijra''.
Muhammad (محمد) is the primary transliteration of the Arabic given name that comes from the passive participle of the Arabic verb ḥammada (حَمَّدَ), praise, which comes from the triconsonantal root Ḥ-M-D. The word can therefore be translated as "praised, commendable, laudable".
Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī (أبو عبد الله محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه الجعفي البخاري‎; 19 July 810 – 1 September 870), or Bukhārī (بخاری), commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, was a Persian Islamic scholar who was born in Bukhara (the capital of the Bukhara Region (viloyat) of Uzbekistan).
Arguments that prophecies of Muhammad in the Bible presaged his birth, teachings, and death have formed part of Muslim tradition from the early history of Muhammad’s Ummah (أُمَّـة, Community) although contested by Christian Doctors of the Church like John of Damascus.
Muhammad at Mecca is a book about the Islamic prophet Muhammad, specifically about the first phase of his public mission, which concern his years in Mecca until the hijra to Medina.
Muhammad at Medina is a book about early Islam written by the non-Muslim Islamic scholar W. Montgomery Watt.
The depiction of Muhammad, the Islamic Prophet, in film (as with other visual depictions) is a controversial topic both within and outside of Islam.
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (مُـحَـمَّـد ابْـن عَـبْـد الله ابْـن عَـبْـد الْـمُـطَّـلِـب ابْـن هَـاشِـم) (circa 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE), in short form Muhammad, is the last Messenger and Prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam.
The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born and lived in Mecca for the first 52 years of his life (570–622 A.D.). Orphaned early in life, he became known as a prominent merchant, and as an impartial and trustworthy arbiter of disputes.
The Islamic prophet Muhammad came to Medina following the migration of his followers in what is known as the Hijra (migration to Medina) in 622.
Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (Arabic: محمد مصطفى الأعظمي) was a contemporary hadith scholar best known for his critical investigation of the theories of Ignác Goldziher, David Margoliouth, and Joseph Schacht.
Muhammad's first revelation was an event described in Islam as taking place in 610 AD, during which the Islamic prophet, Muhammad was visited by the Angel Jibril Gabriel, who revealed to him the beginnings of what would later become the Quran.
According to al-Tabari in his History of the Prophets and Kings, Muhammad decided after the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah to send letters to many rulers of the world, inviting them to Islam.
Muhammad went to the city of Ta’if and invited the people there to Islam.
Muhammad's wives or Wives of Muhammad were the women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet is a biography of Muhammad by the British religion writer and lecturer Karen Armstrong, published by Gollancz in 1991.
Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources is a 1983 biography of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by Martin Lings.
Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet is a PBS documentary film about the life of the Islamic prophet Muhammad based on historical records and on the stories of living American Muslims who call Muhammad the Messenger of God.
At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt or Arab conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire, which had its capital at Constantinople.
The Muslim conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-Islāmiyyuash-Shām) or Arab conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْـعَـرَبِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-ʿArabiyyu Lish-Shām) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Abū al-Ḥusayn ‘Asākir ad-Dīn Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj ibn Muslim ibn Ward ibn Kawshādh al-Qushayrī an-Naysābūrī (أبو الحسين عساكر الدين مسلم بن الحجاج بن مسلم بن وَرْد بن كوشاذ القشيري النيسابوري; after 815 – May 875) or Muslim Nīshāpūrī (مسلم نیشاپوری), commonly known as Imam Muslim, was a Persian Islamic scholar, particularly known as a muhaddith (scholar of hadith).
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
The names and titles of Muhammad, names and attributes of Muhammad, 99 Names of Muhammad (اسماء النبي ʾAsmāʾ an-Nabī) are the names of the Islamic prophet Muhammad used by Muslims, which are found mainly in the Qur’an and hadith literature.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Nation of Islam, abbreviated as NOI, is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, Michigan, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930.
Na'at (نعت) refers to poetry in praise of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History is a book by Thomas Carlyle, published by James Fraser, London, in 1841.
Oneworld Publications is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Novin Doostdar and Juliet Mabey originally to publish accessible non-fiction by experts and academics for the general market.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The Arabic phrase ʿalayhi s-salām (عليه السلام), which translates as "peace be upon him" is a conventionally complimentary phrase or durood attached to the names of the prophets in Islam.
People of the Book/Scripture (أهل الكتاب ′Ahl al-Kitāb) is an Islamic term referring to Jews, Christians, and Sabians and sometimes applied to members of other religions such as Zoroastrians.
Peri J. Bearman (born 1953) is an academic scholar of Islamic law.
In the early days of Islam at Mecca, the new Muslims were often subjected to abuse and persecution.
A Persian miniature (Persian:نگارگری ایرانی) is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa.
The Pledge of the Tree (بيعة الشجرة bayʻat ash-shajarah) or Pledge of Satisfaction (Arabic: بيعة الرضوان bayʻat ar-riḍwān) or Pledge of Ridwan was a pledge that was sworn to the Islamic prophet Muhammad by his Sahaba (companions) prior to the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah (6 AH, 628 CE).
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
A polity is any kind of political entity.
Progressive revelation is a core teaching in the Bahá'í Faith that suggests that religious truth is revealed by God progressively and cyclically over time through a series of divine Messengers, and that the teachings are tailored to suit the needs of the time and place of their appearance.
Prometheus Books is a publishing company founded in August 1969 by the philosopher Paul Kurtz (who was also the founder of the Council for Secular Humanism, Center for Inquiry, and co-founder of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry).
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
The view on the Prophets of God (Arabic: نبي) in Ahmadiyya theology differs significantly from Orthodox Islam.
In Islam, Al-sīra al-Nabawiyya (Prophetic biography), Sīrat Rasūl Allāh (Life of the Messenger of God), or just Al-sīra are the traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad from which, in addition to the Quran and trustable Hadiths, most historical information about his life and the early period of Islam is derived.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
Qasim ibn Muhammad (قاسم بن محمد) was one of the sons of Muhammad and Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Islam considers the Quran to be a holy book, the word of Allah, and a miracle.
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
Qusayy ibn Kilāb ibn Murrah (قُـصَيّ ابْـن كِـلَاب ابْـن مُـرَّة; ca. 400 – 480), also known as Qusai, Kusayy or Cossai, né Zayd (زَيْـد), was the great-grandfather of Shaiba ibn Hashim, who was the paternal grandfather of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Rabīʿ al-ʾawwal (ربيع الأوّل) is the third month in the Islamic calendar.
Race and Slavery in the Middle East: an Historical Enquiry is a 1990 book written by the British historian Bernard Lewis.
Ramla bint Abi Sufyan (رملة بنت أبي سفيان; c.594-665) also known as Umm Habiba (أم حبيبة) was a wife of Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Rashad Khalifa (رشاد خليفة; November 19, 1935 – January 30, 1990) was an Egyptian-American biochemist, closely associated with the United Submitters International, a reform branch of Islam.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Rayhāna bint Zayd (ريحانة بنت زيد) was a Jewish woman from the Banu Nadir tribe, who is revered by Muslims as one of the Ummahaatu'l-Mu'mineen, or Mothers of the Faithful - the Wives of Muhammad.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Traditionally, Islam has had a rich history of the veneration of relics, especially of those attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia was a mix of polytheism, Christianity, Judaism, and Iranian religions.
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
The Ridda Wars (Arabic: حروب الردة), also known as the Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes during 632 and 633, just after Muhammad died.
The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian.
Ruqayyah bint Muhammad (رقية بنت محمد) (c.601 - 624) is regarded as the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadija.
Sa'd ibn Mu'adh (سعد ابن معاذ) (c.591-627) was the chief of the Aws tribe in Medina and one of the prominent companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Safiyyah bint Huyayy (صفية بنت حيي) (c. 610 – c. 670) was one of the wives of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.
Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.
Salman the Persian or Salman al-Farsi (سلمان الفارسي Salmān al-Fārisī), born Rouzbeh (روزبه), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the first Persian who converted to Islam.
Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The Satanic Verses incident, known as qissat al-gharaniq (Story of the Cranes), is the name given to the occasion on which the Islamic Prophet Muhammad is said to have mistaken the words of "satanic suggestion" for divine revelation.
Imam Saud al Kabeer bin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud (d. 1814) ruled the First Saudi State from 1803 to 1814.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Sawda bint Zamʿa (سودة بنت زمعة) was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and therefore the Mother of the Believers.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
The Seal of Muhammad (Turkish Mühr-ü Saadet or Mühr-ü Şerif; Arabic ختم الرسول) is one of the relics of Muhammad kept in the Topkapı Palace by the Ottoman Sultans as part of the Sacred Relics collection.
The second pledge at al-Aqabah was an important event that preceded the Migration to Medina.
In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness; compare sedentarism) is the practice of living in one place for a long time.
The Shahada (الشهادة,"the testimony").
Shahid and Shaheed (شهيد, plural: شُهَدَاء; female) originates from the Quranic Arabic word meaning "witness" and is also used to denote a martyr.
Shahid or Shaheed (شاهد is a Muslim given name translating to "witness", mostly found in South Asia (transcribed as Devanagari शाहिद, Bengali শাহিদ, Gurmukhī ਸ਼ਾਹਿਦ; in Urdu also written شاہد). It is derived form the same root š-h-d (c.f. Shahadah). It is also used as a surname. Aš-šāhid الشهيد "the witness" is also one of the names given to Muhammad, and also one of the 99 names of God in the Qur'an (usually capitalized in transcription, as Aš-Šāhid "The Witness"). The related term Shahid (شَهيد) "martyr" is used as an honorific for Muslims who are considered to have died in jihad ("struggle") for the faith, in battle. This is also occasionally found as a given name (transcribed as Bengali শহীদ) Outside of Islam, it is also used in the sense of " martyrs" in Sikhism, e.g. the 18th century Shaheed Bhai Mani Singh and the Indian freedom fighter Shaheed Bhagat Singh (1907–1931). Both meanings of šāhid (شاهد "witness") and šahīd (شهيد "martyr") have also been loaned into Hindustani and Bengali as common nouns.
The Shamā'il Muhammadiyyah ("The Appearance of Muhammad"), often referred to as Shamā'il al-Tirmidhi or simply Shamā'il), is a collection of hadiths compiled by the 9th-century scholar Tirmidhi regarding the intricate details of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's appearance, belongings, manners and life. The book contains 399 narrations from the successors of Muhammad which are divided into 56 chapters.ibn Isa (2011) The best known and accepted of these hadith are attributed to Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin Ali. Another well-known description is attributed to a woman named Umm Ma'bad. Other descriptions are attributed to Aisha, `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas, Abu Hurairah and Hasan ibn Ali. While shama'il lists the physical and spiritual characteristics of Muhammad in simple prose, in hilye these are written about in a literary style. Among other descriptive Shama'il text are the Dala'il al-Nubuwwah of Al-Bayhaqi, Tarih-i Isfahan of Abu Naeem Isfahani, Al-Wafa bi Fadha’il al-Mustafa of Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi and Al-Shifa of Qadi Ayyad are the main shemaa-il and hilya books. An Urdu translation and commentary, Khasa'il-i Nabawi was written by Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi. An English translation and commentary, "A Commentary on the Depiction of Prophet Muhammad" was published in 2015.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Sharif (also transliterated Sharīf or Sherif) / Shareef, Alsharif, Alshareef (شريف), or Chérif (Darija: Chorfa) is a traditional Arab title.
Shawwāl (شوّال) is the tenth month of the lunar Islamic calendar.
Shelomo Dov Goitein (April 3, 1900 – February 6, 1985) was a German-Jewish ethnographer, historian and Arabist known for his research on Jewish life in the Islamic Middle Ages, and particularly on the Cairo Geniza.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society is a peer-reviewed feminist academic journal.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Various sources of sharia are used by Islamic jurisprudence to elucidate the body of Islamic law.
A spiritual practice or spiritual discipline (often including spiritual exercises) is the regular or full-time performance of actions and activities undertaken for the purpose of inducing spiritual experiences and cultivating spiritual development.
The splitting of the moon (انشقاق القمر) is a miracle in Muslim tradition attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that divided the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Muslim history.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.
Sumayyah bint Khayyat (سمية بنت خياطّ) (c.550-c.615) was the first member of the Ummah (أمّـة, Community) of Muhammad to become a shahidah (شـهـيـدة, female martyr).
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
Ta'if (الطائف) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains (Al-Sarawat Mountains).
Tafsir (lit) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.
Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an (الميزان في تفسير القرآن, "The balance in interpretation of Quran"), more commonly known as Tafsir al-Mizan (تفسير الميزان) or simply Al-Mizan (الميزان), is a tafsir (exegesis of the Quran) written by the Shia Muslim scholar and philosopher Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i (1892–1981).
Tariq Ramadan (طارق رمضان; born 26 August 1962) is a Swiss Muslim academic, philosopher, and writer.
Tawhid (توحيد, meaning "oneness " also romanized as tawheed, touheed, or tevhid) is the indivisible oneness concept of monotheism in Islam.
The Message (الرسالة Ar-Risālah; originally known as Mohammad, Messenger of God) is a 1976 epic historical drama film directed by Moustapha Akkad, chronicling the life and times of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Social Contract, originally published as On the Social Contract; or, Principles of Political Rights (Du contrat social; ou Principes du droit politique) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is a 1762 book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality (1754).
The Succession to Muhammad is a book by Wilferd Madelung published by the Cambridge University Press in 1997.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Saint Theophanes the Confessor (Θεοφάνης Ὁμολογητής; c. 758/760 – March 12, 817/818) was a member of the Byzantine aristocracy, who became a monk and chronicler.
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah (Arabic: صلح الحديبية) was an important event that took place during the formation of Islam.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
The tribes of Arabia are the clans that originated in the Arabian Peninsula.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
Umayyah ibn Khalaf ibn Safwan was a Meccan Arab, a leading member of the Quraish and head of Bani Jumah.
Barakah (بَـرَكَـة) the daughter of Tha'alaba bin Amr, known as Umme Aymen (أمّ أيمن), was the Second Mother of the Prophet of Islam, she was an Abyssinian slave girl of Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib, or his wife Aminah.
Umm Kulthum (أم كلثوم) (603–630) is considered to be the third daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by his first wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.
Umm Rumān Zaynab bint ‘Āmir' ibn Uwaymir ibn Abd Shams ibn Attab Al-Kinaniyah (death 628), known by her kunyah "Umm Rumān" (أمّ رومان زينب بنت عامر بن عويمر بن عبد شمس بن عتاب الكنانية) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hind bint Abi Umayya (هند بنت أبي أمية), also known as Hind al-Makhzumiyah, Hind bint Suhayl or Umm Salama (أم سلمة هند بنت أبي أمية) Umme Salma went through trials and tribulations following her conversion to Islam (c. 596 AD – 64 AH) was one of Muhammad's wives.
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
The ʿUmrah (عُمرَة) is an Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Hijaz, Saudi Arabia, performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year, in contrast to the Ḥajj (حَـجّ) which has specific dates according to the Islamic lunar calendar.
United Submitters International (also called the Submitters) is a reformist moderate Islamic religious community, and is a branch of Quraniyoon.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam al-Asadi (عروة بن الزبير بن العوام الأسدي., died 713) was among the seven fuqaha (jurists) who formulated the fiqh of Medina in the time of the Tabi‘in and one of the Muslim historians.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish historian, Orientalist, Anglican priest, and academic.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
Waraka (or Waraqah) bin Nawfal ibn Asad ibn Abd-al-Uzza ibn Qusayy Al-Qurashi (Arabic ورقه بن نوفل بن أسد بن عبد العزّى بن قصي القرشي) was the paternal first cousin of Khadija, the first wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds and cares for another's child.
Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung (born 26 December 1930) is a scholar of Islam.
Wolfhart P. Heinrichs (3 October 1941 – 23 January 2014) was a German-born scholar of Arabic.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
In the Islamic tradition, the Year of Sorrow (‘Ām al-Ḥuzn, also translated Year of Sadness) is the Hijri year in which Muhammad's wife Khadijah and his uncle and protector Abu Talib died.
The ʿĀmu l-Fīl (عام الفيل, Year of the Elephant) is the name in Islamic history for the year approximately equating to 570 CE.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zad al-Ma'ad (زاد المعاد) is a book, translated as Provisions of the Hereafter, written by the Islamic scholar Ibn al-Qayyim on the subject of sira.
Zainab bint Muhammad (زينب بنت محمد) (598—629 AD) is regarded by Sunni historians as the eldest daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by his first wife Khadija bint Khuwaylid.
Zakat (زكاة., "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal زكاة المال, "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance.
Zayd ibn Harithah (زيد بن حارثة) (c. 581 – 629 CE) was a companion of Muhammad who was at one stage regarded as his (adoptive) son.
Zaynab bint Jahsh (زينب بنت جحش; c. 590–641) was a cousin and wife of Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers.
Zaynab bint Khuzayma (زينب بنت خزيمة, also known as Umm al-Masakin, "Mother of the Poor", born 595Awde, Nicholas. "Women in Islam", 2000. p. 10) was the fifth wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
In Islam, ziyara(h) (زيارة ziyārah, "visit") or ziyarat (زیارت, ziyārat, "pilgrimage") is a form of pilgrimage to sites associated with Muhammad, his family members and descendants (including the Shī‘ī Imāms), his companions and other venerated figures in Islam such as the prophets, Sufi Saints and Islamic scholars.
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