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Abdul Qayyum Khan (عبدالقیوم خان) (16 July 1901 – 23 October 1981) was a major figure in Pakistan politics, in particular in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province, where he was deputy speaker of the provincial assembly, Chief Minister and served as Interior Minister of Pakistan in the central government from 1972 to 1977.
Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar (13 June 1899 – 14 February 1958; سردار عبد الرب نښتر) was a Muslim League stalwart, a Pakistan movement activist and later on a Pakistani politician.
An advocate general is a senior officer of the law.
Sir Sultan Muhammed Shah, Aga Khan III (2 November 187711 July 1957) was the 48th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili religion.
Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat.
Akbar Salahuddin Ahmed, (born. January 15, 1943) also known as Akbar Ahmed, is an American-Pakistani academic, author, poet, playwright, filmmaker and former diplomat.
ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
The Allahabad Address (خطبہ الہ آباد) is a speech by Pakistani scholar Sir Muhammad Iqbal, one of the best-known in Pakistan history.
Alyque Padamsee (born 1928) is an Indian theatre personality and ad film maker.
Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Annie Besant, née Wood (1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a British socialist, theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule.
Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, (5 May 1883 – 24 May 1950) was a senior officer of the British Army.
Assam Province was a province of British India, created in 1911 by the partition of the Eastern Bengal and Assam Province.
Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948 in the compound of Birla House (now Gandhi Smriti), a large mansion in central New Delhi.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Clement Attlee was invited by King George VI to form the Attlee ministry in the United Kingdom in July 1945, succeeding Winston Churchill as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Ayesha Jalal (Punjabi, عائشہ جلال) is a Pakistani-American historian who serves as the Mary Richardson Professor of History at Tufts University, and was the recipient of the 1998 MacArthur Fellow.
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
Babariawad was a small principality under suzerainty of the Princely State of Junagadh.
The Babrra massacre occurred on 12 August 1948 in the Charsadda District of the North-West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pukhtunkhwa) of Pakistan, when hundreds of unarmed members of the Khudai Khidmatgar movement were shot dead on the orders of the then Chief Minister Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan Pakistan: History and Politics, 1947-1971 (1 April 2002) by M.Rafique Afzal p38 OUP Pakistan The protest was against the promulgation of Public Safety Ordinance by the provincial governor, termination of an elected government of Dr Khan and the resulting arrests of Khudai Khidmatgar leaders and confiscations of property.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (or Lokmanya Tilak,; 23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920), born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, teacher, social reformer, lawyer and an independence activist.
Baldev Singh (ਬਲਦੇਵ ਸਿਂਘ,बलदेव सिंह) was an Indian Sikh political leader, he was an Indian independence movement leader and the first Defence Minister of India.
The Chief Commissioner's Province of Balochistan (Urdu: بلوچستان,چیف کمشنر صوبہ) was a province of British India, and later Pakistan, located in the northern parts of the modern Balochistan province.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Barristers in England and Wales are one of the two main categories of lawyer in England and Wales, the other being solicitors.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The Bengal Presidency was once the largest subdivision (presidency) of British India, with its seat in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
Bhopal State (pronounced) was a tributary state in 18th-century India, a princely salute state with 19-gun salute in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1818 to 1947, and an independent state from 1947 to 1949.
Bhulabhai Desai (13 October 1877 – 6 May 1946) was an Indian independence activist and acclaimed lawyer.
The Bhutto family (ڀُٽو) is a prominent political family of Pakistan, based in the province of Sindh.
Bombay High Court (IAST) is one of the oldest High Courts of India.
The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972) informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian politician, independence activist, lawyer, writer and statesman.
The call to the bar is a legal term of art in most common law jurisdictions where persons must be qualified to be allowed to argue in court on behalf of another party and are then said to have been "called to the bar" or to have received a "call to the bar".
Canada Day (Fête du Canada) is the national day of Canada.
The Cathedral & John Connon School is a co-educational, private school founded in 1860 and located in Fort, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
The Caucus Case was a court case handled by Muhammad Ali Jinnah at the behest of Sir Pherozeshah Mehta at the Bombay High Court in 1905.
The Central Legislative Assembly was the lower house of the Imperial Legislative Council, the legislature of British India.
Charsadda (چارسده, چارسده) is a town and headquarters of Charsadda District, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali (In Punjabi and) (16 November 1893 – 3 February 1951) was a Pakistani Punjabi Muslim nationalist who was one of the earliest proponents of the creation of the state of Pakistan.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Sir Christopher Frank Carandini Lee (27 May 1922 – 7 June 2015) was an English character actor, singer, and author.
The Church Mission School (CMS) is a complex in Karachi, Pakistan.
The Cinnah Caddesi is a major road located in the city of Ankara, the capital of Turkey.
The City Law School is one of the five schools of City, University of London.
The Pakistan Civil Awards were established on March 19, 1957, following the proclamation of Pakistan as an independent republic on March 23, 1956.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
The Command and Staff College is a Pakistani military training institution where officers receive staff training and education.
Communalism is a term used in South Asia to denote attempts to construct religious or ethnic identity, incite strife between people identified as different communities, and to stimulate communal violence between those groups.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
An idea for a Constituent Assembly of India was proposed in 1934 by M. N. Roy, a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy.
The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan (পাকিস্তান্ গণপরিষদ্ Pākistān Gaṇapariṣad; آئین ساز اسمبلی, Aāin Sāz Asimblī.), was formed to write Pakistan's constitution and serve as its first parliament.
Craven "A" is a British brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Rothmans, Benson & Hedges, a subsidiary of Altria in North America and British American Tobacco outside of North America.
The Cripps Mission was a failed attempt in late March 1942 by the British government to secure full Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II.
Cyril John Radcliffe, 1st Viscount Radcliffe, (30 March 1899 – 1 April 1977) was a British lawyer and Law Lord best known for his role in the partition of British India.
Dadabhai Naoroji (4 September 1825 – 30 June 1917), known as the Grand Old Man of India, was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political and social leader.
DAWN is Pakistan's oldest, leading and most widely read English-language newspaper.
Dehradun or Dehra Dun is the interim capital city of Uttarakhand, a state in the northern part of India.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Devon Avenue is a major east-west street in the Chicago metropolitan area.
The originally Persian title dewan (also known as diwan, also spelled or devan/ divan) has, at various points in Islamic history, designated a powerful government official, minister or ruler.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Dina Wadia (15 August 1919 – 2 November 2017) was the daughter and only child of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and his wife Rattanbai Petit.
Direct Action Day (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread communal rioting between Muslims and Hindus in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.
Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য; مملکتِ پاکستان), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan.
General Sir Douglas David Gracey & Bar (3 September 1894 – 5 June 1964) was a British Indian Army officer who fought in both the First and Second World Wars.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
Edwin Samuel Montagu PC (6 February 1879 – 15 November 1924) was a British Liberal politician who served as Secretary of State for India between 1917 and 1922.
Edwina Cynthia Annette Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma, (née Ashley; 28 November 1901 – 21 February 1960) was an English heiress, socialite, relief worker and the last Vicereine of India as wife of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma.
Eid prayers, also known as Salat al-Eid (صلاة العيد) and Salat al-Eidain (صلاة العيدين), is the special prayer offered to commemorate two Islamic festivals.
Emibai Jinnah (1878–1893) was the first cousin and first wife of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah from 1892 until her death.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
Frederick Edwin Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead, (12 July 1872 – 30 September 1930), known as F. E. Smith, was a British Conservative politician and barrister who attained high office in the early 20th century, in particular as Lord Chancellor.
The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of his country, state, or nation.
Fatima Jinnah English IPA: fətɪ̈mɑ d͡ʒinnəɦ, (فاطمہ جناح; 31 July 1893 – 9 July 1967) was a Pakistani dental surgeon, biographer, stateswoman and one of the leading founders of Pakistan.
The Federal Capital Territory (FCT) around Karachi was the original capital territory of Pakistan.
Finsbury Central was a parliamentary constituency that covered the Clerkenwell district of Central London.
The Fourteen Points of Jinnah were proposed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah drafted by C Rajagopalachari as a constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India.
Frederick William Pethick-Lawrence, 1st Baron Pethick-Lawrence, PC (28 December 1871 – 10 September 1961) was a British Labour politician.
Gandhi is a 1982 epic historical drama film based on the life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the leader of India's non-violent, non-cooperative independence movement against the United Kingdom's rule of the country during the 20th century.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto (9 July 18451 March 1914) was a British aristocrat and politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the eighth since Canadian Confederation, and as Viceroy and Governor-General of India, the country's 17th.
Gondal State was one of the eight first class princely states of Kathiawar Agency, Bombay Presidency in British India.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale CIE (9 May 1866 – 19 February 1915) was one of the political leaders and a social reformer during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Government of India Act 1919 (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Government of India Act,1935 was originally passed in August 1935 (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 42), and is said to be the longest Act (British) of Parliament ever enacted by that time.
The Governor's House (گورنر ہاؤس; previously known as the Government House, Governor-General's House and President's House) in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan is the official residence of the Governor of Sindh.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
The Governor-General of Pakistan (گورنر جنرل پاکستان), was the representative in Pakistan of the British monarch, from the country's independence in 1947.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Gujarati people or Gujaratis (ગુજરાતી) are an ethnic group traditionally from Gujarat that speak Gujarati, an Indo-Aryan language.
Guntur; is a city within the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
Hampstead, commonly known as Hampstead Village, is an area of London, England, northwest of Charing Cross.
Hari Singh (September 1895 – 26 April 1961) was the last ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.
(Henry) Hector Bolitho (28 May 1897 – 12 September 1974) was a New Zealand author, novelist and biographer, who had 59 books published.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens.
Hormasji "Homi" Maneckji Seervai (1906–1996) was an Indian eminent jurist, lawyer and author.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
The Imperial Legislative Council was a legislature for British India from 1861 to 1947.
Independence Day (یوم آزادی; Yaum-e Āzādī), observed annually on 14 August, is a national holiday in Pakistan.
An anna was a currency unit formerly used in India and Pakistan, equal to 1/16 rupee.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
The Indian Home Rule movement was a movement in British India on the lines of Irish Home Rule movement and other home rule movements.
The Indian Military Academy, Dehradun (also known as IMA) is the officer training Academy of the Indian Army.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian Police Service (Bhāratīya Pulis Sevā) or IPS, is an All India Service for policing.
Provincial elections were held in British India in the winter of 1936-37 as mandated by the Government of India Act 1935.
Provincial elections were held in British India in January 1946 to elect members of the legislative councils of British Indian provinces.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
Indore is the most populous and the largest city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales.
The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharaja Hari Singh, ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of Indians, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab.
Jammu and Kashmir was, from 1846 until 1952, a princely state of the British Empire in India and ruled by a Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty.
Jaswant Singh (born 3 January 1938) is a retired officer of the Indian Army and a former cabinet minister.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jhirk also spelt as Jerruck is a small town on the right bank of River Indus, in district Thatta, province of Sindh, Pakistan.
Jinnah is a 1998 epic biographical film which follows the life of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
The Jinnah family (خاندان جناح; ઝીણા કુટુંબ, ڄيڻا کٽمب) was a political family of Pakistan.
Jinnah International Airport (جناح بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا; جناح بين الاقوامي هوائي اڏي) is Pakistan's busiest international and domestic airport, and handled 6,860,095 passengers in 2016-2017.
Jinnah of Pakistan is book written about Muhammad Ali Jinnah by Stanley Wolpert.
Jinnah Tower is a landmark monument in the city of Guntur in Andhra Pradesh.
Jinnah: India-Partition-Independence is a book written by Jaswant Singh, a former Finance Minister of India and an External Affairs Minister, on Pakistan's founder Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the politics associated with the Partition of India.
Jodhpur is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and officially the second metropolitan city of the state.
John Allsebrook Simon, 1st Viscount Simon, (28 February 1873 – 11 January 1954) was a British politician who held senior Cabinet posts from the beginning of the First World War to the end of the Second.
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is the highest court of appeal for certain British territories and Commonwealth countries.
Junagadh is the headquarters of Junagadh district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
A karakul (or qaraqul) hat (Pashto/Persian: قراقلی) is a hat made from the fur of the Qaraqul breed of sheep, often from the fur of aborted lamb foetuses.
Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan (خان عبدالجبار خان) (born 1883, Utmanzai, Charsadda – 9 May 1958, Lahore), popularly known as Dr.
Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin(خواجہ ناظِمُ الدّین; খাজা নাজিমুদ্দীন; 19 July 1894 – 22 October 1964),, was a Bengali politician, conservative figure, and one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan.
The Khilafat movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamist, political protest campaign launched by Muslims of India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate.
Khudai Khidmatgar (خدايي خدمتگار) literally translates as the servants of God, represented a non-violent struggle against the British Empire by the Pashtuns (also known as Pathans, Pakhtuns or Afghans) of the North-West Frontier Province of British India (now in Pakistan).
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Kutchi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Kutch region of the India.
Lal Krishna Advani (born 8 November 1927) known as L. K. Advani is an Indian politician who served as the 7th Deputy Prime Minister of India from 2002 to 2004 under Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
The Lahore Resolution (قرارداد لاہور, Karardad-e-Lahore; Bengali: লাহোর প্রস্তাব, Lahor Prostab),was a declaration written by Muhammad Zafarullah Khan and others and presented by A. K. Fazl ul Huq, the Prime Minister of Bengal, was a formal political statement adopted by the All-India Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session in Lahore on 22–24 March 1940.
Lala Lajpat Rai, (28 January 1865 – 17 November 1928) was an Indian freedom fighter.
The Language Movement (ভাষা আন্দোলন Bhasha Andolôn) was a political movement in former East Bengal (currently Bangladesh) advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of the then-Dominion of Pakistan in order to allow its use in government affairs, the continuation of its use as a medium of education, its use in media, currency and stamps, and to maintain its writing in the Bengali script.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (Næʍābzādāh Liāqat Alī Khān,لِیاقت علی خان; born October 1895 – 16 October 1951), widely known as Quaid-e-Millat (Leader of the Nation) and Shaheed-e-Millat (شہِیدِ مِلّت Martyr of the Nation), was one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan, statesman, lawyer, and political theorist who became and served as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan; in addition, he also held cabinet portfolio as the first foreign, defence, and the frontier regions minister from 1947 until his assassination in 1951.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn is one of the four Inns of Court in London to which barristers of England and Wales belong and where they are called to the Bar.
Civil rights leaders are influential figures in the promotion and implementation of political freedom and the expansion of personal civil liberties and rights.
This list of peace activists includes people who have proactively advocated diplomatic, philosophical, and non-military resolution of major territorial or ideological disputes through nonviolent means and methods.
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.
There are a number of landmarks, buildings, roads and parks named after the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah (also known as Quaid-e-Azam), as well as other items.
Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, commonly known as Law Lords, were judges appointed under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 to the British House of Lords in order to exercise its judicial functions, which included acting as the highest court of appeal for most domestic matters.
Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Lucknow Pact was an agreement reached between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at the joint session of both the parties held in Lucknow in December 1916.
Mahamana Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya ((25 December 1861 – 12 November 1946) was an Indian educationist and politician notable for his role in the Indian independence movement and as the twice president of Indian National Congress. He was respectfully addressed as Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya and also addressed as 'Mahamana'. Mahamana is most remembered as the founder of Banaras Hindu University (BHU) at Varanasi in 1916, which was created under the B.H.U. Act, 1915. The largest residential university in Asia and one of the largest in the world, having over 40,000 students across arts, sciences, engineering, medical, agriculture, performing arts, law and technology from all over the world. He was Vice Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University from 1919–1938. Indians have forgotten his role in ending "Indentured Labours" particularly to West Indies. As Gandhi is for South Africans Mahamana is to East Indians. Malaviya was one of the founders of Scouting in India. He also founded a highly influential, English-newspaper, The Leader published from Allahabad in 1909. He was also the Chairman of Hindustan Times from 1924 to 1946. His efforts resulted in the launch of its Hindi edition named Hindustan Dainik in 1936. Pandit ji was posthumously conferred with Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, on 24 December 2014, a day before his 153rd Birth Anniversary.
Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
A maiden speech is the first speech given by a newly elected or appointed member of a legislature or parliament.
Malabar Hill, is a hillock and upmarket VIP residential neighbourhood in South Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Mangrol is a town and a minor port in Junagadh district in the state of Gujarat, western India.
Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan (M. T. Khan; March 1889 – 19 August 1963) was the Speaker of Pakistan's Constituent Assembly from 1948 to 1954 and National Assembly of Pakistan between 1962 and 1963.
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.
Mazar-e-Quaid, also known as the Jinnah Mausoleum or the National Mausoleum, is the final resting place of Quaid-e-Azam ("Great Leader") Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA), or a Member of the Legislature (ML), is a representative elected by the voters of a constituency to the legislature or legislative assembly of a sub-national jurisdiction.
Mohammad Ali Jenah Expressway is a short expressway in Tehran that connects Second Sadeghiye Square to Azadi Square.
Motilal Nehru (6 May 1861 – 6 February 1931) was an Indian lawyer, an activist of the Indian Independence Movement and an important leader of the Indian National Congress, who also served as the Congress President twice, 1919–1920 and 1928–1929.
The Muhajir people (also spelled Mahajir and Mohajir) (مهاجر) are Muslim immigrants, of multi-ethnic origin, and their descendants, who migrated from various regions of India after the independence of Pakistan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah's 11 August Speech is a speech made by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founding father of Pakistan and known as Quaid-e-Azam (Great Leader) to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan.
Muhammad Iqbal (محمد اِقبال) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Muslim League was the original successor of the All India Muslim League that led the Pakistan Movement achieving an independent nation.
My Brother is the biography of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, by his sister Fatima Jinnah.
Nagpur is the winter capital, a sprawling metropolis, and the third largest city of the Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune.
A namesake is a person named after another, or more broadly, a thing (such as a company, place, ship, building, or concept) named after a person.
Nathuram Vinayak Godse (19 May 1910 – 15 November 1949) was a right-wing advocate of Hindu nationalism who assassinated Mahatma Gandhi in New Delhi on 30 January 1948.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
of 28-30 August, 1928 was a memorandum outlining a proposed new dominion status constitution for India.
Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.
Neville Ness Wadia (22 August 1911 – 31 July 1996) was an Indian businessman, philanthropist and a member of the Wadia family, an old Parsi family which, by the 1840s, was one of the leading forces in the Indian shipbuilding industry, having built over a hundred warships for the British and having established trading networks around the world.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
The Ottoman Caliphate (1517–1924), under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
The Pakistan Declaration (titled Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?) was a pamphlet written and published by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, on 28 January 1933, in which the word Pakstan (without the letter "i") was used for the first time and was presented in the Round Table conferences in 1933.
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (تحریک پاکستان –) was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire.
Pakistan- (پاکستان زِنده باد —,; lit.) is a slogan used by Pakistanis as an expression of victory or patriotism, often used in political speeches.
Pakistan's first ever Presidential Elections were held on January 2, 1965.
The Pakistani rupee (روپیہ / ALA-LC:; sign: ₨; code: PKR) is the currency of Pakistan.
A Parsi (or Parsee) means "Persian" in the "Persian Language", which today mainly refers to a member of a Zoroastrian community, one of two (the other being Iranis) mainly located in India, with a few in Pakistan.
The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal (বঙ্গভঙ্গ.) was announced on 19 July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Sir Pherozeshah Merwanjee Mehta, KCIE (4 August 1845 – 5 November 1915) was an Indian political leader, activist, and a leading lawyer of Bombay, who was knighted by the British Government in India for his service to the law.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
Probate is the judicial process whereby a will is "proved" in a court of law and accepted as a valid public document that is the true last testament of the deceased, or whereby the estate is settled according to the laws of intestacy in the state of residence of the deceased at time of death in the absence of a legal will.
Pakistan holidays are celebrated according to Islamic or Gregorian calendars for religious and civil purposes, respectively.
Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.
A pupillage, in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Kenya, Pakistan.
Quaid-e-Azam Residency (قائد اعظم اقامتگاه—), also known as Ziarat Residency, is located in Ziarat, Balochistan, Pakistan.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Quetta (کوټه; کویته; کوٹه; کوئٹہ) is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan.
The Quit India Movement or the India August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India.
The Radcliffe Line was the boundary demarcation line between India and Pakistan published on 17 August 1947 upon the Partition of India.
Rajmohan Gandhi (born 7 August 1935) is a biographer and a research professor at the Center for South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, US.
James Ramsay MacDonald, (né James McDonald Ramsay; 12 October 18669 November 1937) was a British statesman who was the first Labour Party politician to become Prime Minister, leading minority Labour governments in 1924 and in 1929–31.
Rattanbai "Ruttie" Jinnah, (born as Rattanbai Petit); also known by her married name Maryam Jinnah – was the second wife of Muhammad Ali Jinnah—an important figure in the creation of Pakistan and the country's founder.
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, (29 August 1923 – 24 August 2014), was an English actor, filmmaker, entrepreneur, and politician.
The three Round Table Conferences of 1930–32 were a series of conferences organized by the British Government to discuss constitutional reforms in India.
Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading, (10 October 1860 – 30 December 1935) was the Viceroy of India (1921–25), barrister, jurist and the last member of the official Liberal Party to serve as Foreign Secretary.
Satyagraha सत्याग्रह; satya: "truth", graha: "insistence" or "holding firmly to") or holding onto truth or truth force – is a particular form of nonviolent resistance or civil resistance. The term satyagraha was coined and developed by Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948). He deployed satyagraha in the Indian independence movement and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa for Indian rights. Satyagraha theory influenced Martin Luther King Jr.'s and James Bevel's campaigns during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, and many other social justice and similar movements. Someone who practices satyagraha is a satyagrahi.
The Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was the British Cabinet minister and the political head of the India Office responsible for the governance of the British Raj (India), Aden, and Burma.
Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto, (شاہ نواز بهُٹو), CIE, OBE, OBI (8 March 1888 – 19 November 1957) (شھنواز ڀٽو), was a politician and a member of Bhutto family hailing from Larkana in Sindh province of British India, which is now part of Pakistan.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shimla, also known as Simla, is the capital and the largest city of the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
The Simla Conference 1945 was a meeting between the Viceroy and the major political leaders of British India at Simla, India.
The Indian Statutory Commission, commonly referred to as the Simon Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament of United Kingdom under the chairmanship of Sir John Allsebrook Simon assisted by Clement Attlee.
Sind was a province of British India from 1936 to 1947 and Pakistan from 1947 to 1955.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sindh Madressatul Islam University (سندھ مدرسۃ الاسلام; سنڌ مدرسته الاسلام, also known as SMI University) is a university in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
South Court is an unoccupied house in Malabar Hill, a premium neighbourhood of the city of Mumbai in India.
The Speaker of the National Assembly (Urdu: اسﭘيكر نيشنل اسمبلى); informally as Speaker National assembly, is the presiding official of the National Assembly of Pakistan– a lower house of the Parliament of Pakistan.
Sir Richard Stafford Cripps, (24 April 1889 – 21 April 1952) was a British Labour politician of the first half of the twentieth century.
Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, (3 August 186714 December 1947) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who dominated the government in his country between the world wars.
Stanley Wolpert (born December 23, 1927) is an American historian, Indologist, and author on the political and intellectual history of modern India and PakistanDr.
The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) (بینک دَولتِ پاکِستان) is the central bank of Pakistan.
Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Swaraj Party, Swarajaya Party or Swarajya Party or Swarajist Party, established as the Congress-Khilafat Swarajaya Party, was a political party formed in India in January 1923 after the Gaya annual conference in December 1922 of the National Congress, that sought greater self-government and political freedom for the Indian people from the British Raj.
Sylhet Division (সিলেট বিভাগ, ꠍꠤꠟꠐ ꠛꠤꠜꠣꠉ), also known as Greater Sylhet, is the northeastern division of Bangladesh, named after its main city, Sylhet.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tulika Books is a New Delhi-based independent publisher of scholarly and academic books in the humanities and social sciences, with a "broad left and democractic perspective." The Chennai-based Tulika Publishers is a sister company of Tulika Books.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
The two-nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan.
The Udaipur State, also known as Mewar State, was a princely state in northwestern India prior to the formation of the Indian Republic.
The 1929 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 30 May 1929, and resulted in a hung parliament.
The 1945 United Kingdom general election was held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks.
United News of India (UNI) is a multilingual news agency in India.
The United Provinces of British India, more commonly known as the United Provinces, was a province of British India, which came into existence on 3 January 1921 as a result of the renaming of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.
The University of Mumbai, informally known as Mumbai University (MU), is one of the earliest state universities in India and the oldest in Maharashtra.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Vali Reza Nasr (ولی رضا نصر, born 20 December 1960) is an Iranian-American academic and author specializing in the Middle East and the Islamic world.
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950), popularly known as Sardar Patel, was the first Deputy Prime Minister of India.
Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow, (24 September 18875 January 1952) was a British Unionist politician, agriculturalist and colonial administrator.
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
Wazir Mansion (وزیر مینشن) known officially as Quaid-i-Azam Birthplace Museum is a former family home in the Kharadar district of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan which is considered the birthplace of the country's founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
West Pakistan (مغربی پاکستان,; পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান) was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Ziarat (زیارت) the capital of Ziarat District, Balochistan Province, Pakistan.
The United Kingdom Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss the transfer of power from the British government to the Indian leadership, with the aim of preserving India's unity and granting it independence.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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