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Muhammad Iqbal

Index Muhammad Iqbal

Muhammad Iqbal (محمد اِقبال) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement. [1]

189 relations: Abdolkarim Soroush, Abdul Sattar Ranjoor, Afghanistan, Aga Khan, Al-Andalus, Ale Ahmad Suroor, Ali Hujwiri, Ali Khamenei, Ali Shariati, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, All-India Muslim League, Allahabad, Allahabad Address, Allama Iqbal International Airport, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Allama Iqbal Open University, Allamah, Amanullah Khan, Anjuman-e-Himayat-e-Islam, Arabic, Arthur John Arberry, B. R. Ambedkar, Bachelor of Arts, Badshahi Mosque, Baluchistan (Chief Commissioner's Province), Bandagi Nama, Barrister, Bengal, British Empire, British Raj, British subject, Call to the bar, Cardiovascular disease, Chennai, Culture of Europe, Dante Alighieri, Dargah, Dari language, Divine Comedy, Doctor of Philosophy, East India Company, Egypt, Elegy, England, English literature, Epigram, Faculty (division), Faisalabad, Fateh Muhammad Malik, ..., Fourteen Points of Jinnah, Friedrich Nietzsche, Fritz Hommel, Gabriel, Gabriel's Wing, George V, Ghazal, Ghulam Ahmed Perwez, Gift from Hijaz, Goethe's Faust, Government College University (Lahore), Government of Pakistan, Gulshan Town, Hazuri Bagh, Heidelberg, Heinrich Heine, Hejaz, Henri Bergson, Hindi, Hindu, Hyderabad, Iblees Ki Majlis-e-Shura, Ibn Arabi, Ilm Al-Iqtisad, Indian National Congress, Indian people, Indian subcontinent, Intermediate 2, Iqbal Academy Pakistan, Iqbal Day, Iqbal Stadium, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Islam, Islamic philosophy, Israr Ahmed, Javed Iqbal (judge), Javed Manzil, Javid Nama, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kabul University, Kashmiris of Punjab, Khwaja Khurshid Anwar, Lahore, Lahore Fort, Law, Lincoln's Inn, List of Muslim philosophers, List of Pakistani poets, List of Urdu-language poets, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Madrasa, Magic realism, Master of Arts, Matriculation, Message from the East, Mohammad Ali Jouhar, Mosque, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muhammad Shafi (politician), Multan, Murray College, Muslim world, Mysore, Namesake, National poet, Nawabs of Bhopal, Niaz Ali Khan (politician), Nishtar Medical University, North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010), Oriental College, Oxford University Press, Pakistan, Pakistan Movement, Pakistan Today, Pakistanis, Pashtuns, Pathankot, Persian language, Persian literature, Persian Psalms, Philately, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Public holidays in Pakistan, Punjab, Punjab Legislative Assembly, Punjab Muslim League, Punjab Province (British India), Punjab, Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam University, Quatrain, Quran, Rūḥ, Reynold A. Nicholson, Rumi, Sare Jahan se Accha, Separation of church and state, Sharia, Sialkot, Sikandar Hayat Khan (Punjabi politician), Sikh Empire, Sind Province (1936–55), Siraj ud-Daulah, Sufism, Supreme Court of Pakistan, Supreme Court of the United States, Syed Mir Hassan, Syed Nazeer Niazi, Tarana-e-Milli, The Call of the Marching Bell, The Development of Metaphysics in Persia, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, The Rod of Moses, The Secrets of Selflessness, The Secrets of the Self, Theocracy, Thesis, Thomas Walker Arnold, Tipu Sultan, Tolu-e-Islam (magazine), Tomb of Allama Iqbal, Trinity College, Cambridge, Tulu'i Islam, Turkey, Two-nation theory, Ulama, Ummah, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, University of Cambridge, University of the Punjab, Urdu, Urdu literature, Urdu poetry, What Should then be Done O People of the East, Wilfred Cantwell Smith, William O. Douglas, World War I, Zinda Rood, 20th-century philosophy. Expand index (139 more) »

Abdolkarim Soroush

Abdolkarim Soroush (عبدالكريم سروش; born Hossein Haj Faraj Dabbagh (born 1945; حسين حاج فرج دباغ), is an Iranian Islamic thinker, reformer, Rumi scholar, public intellectual, and a former professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran and Imam Khomeini International University during Islamic regime since he only has a chemistry BS. He is arguably the most influential figure in the religious intellectual movement of Iran. Soroush is currently a visiting scholar at the University of Maryland in College Park, MD. He was also affiliated with other prestigious institutions, including Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Columbia, the Leiden-based International Institute as a visiting professor for the Study of Islam in the Modern World (ISIM) and the Wissenschaftskolleg in Berlin. He was named by TIME as one of the world’s 100 most influential people in 2005, and by Prospect magazine as one of the most influential intellectuals in the world in 2008. Soroush's ideas, founded on Relativism, prompted both supporters and critics to compare his role in reforming Islam to that of Martin Luther in reforming Christianity.

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Abdul Sattar Ranjoor

Abdul Sattar Ranjoor (born 12 October 1917, dead 23 March 1990) was a Kashmiri politician, and a renowned revolutionary poet and writer.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Aga Khan

Aga Khan (آقاخان; also transliterated as Aqa Khan and Agha Khan) is a title used also as a name by the Imam of the Nizari Ismailis, whose current holder is the 49th Imam (1957–present), Prince Shah Karim Al Husseini Aga Khan IV (b. 1936).

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Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Ale Ahmad Suroor

Ale Ahmad Suroor was an Urdu poet, critic and professor from India.

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Ali Hujwiri

Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUthmān b. ʿAlī al-Ghaznawī al-Jullābī al-Hujwīrī (c. 1009-1072/77), known as ʿAlī al-Hujwīrī or al-Hujwīrī (also spelt Hajweri, Hajveri, or Hajvery) for short, or reverentially as Shaykh Syed ʿAlī al-Hujwīrī or as Dātā Ganj Bakhsh by Muslims of the Indian subcontinent, was an 11th-century Ghaznian-Persian Sunni Muslim mystic, theologian, and preacher from what is now Afghanistan who became famous for composing the Kashf al-maḥjūb (Unveiling of the Hidden), which is considered the "earliest formal treatise" on Sufism in Persian.

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Ali Khamenei

Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.

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Ali Shariati

Ali Shariati Mazinani (علی شریعتی مزینانی, 23 November 1933 – 18 June 1977) was an Iranian revolutionary and sociologist who focused on the sociology of religion.

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Aligarh Muslim University

Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is an Indian public central university.

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Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

Aligarh (formerly Allygurh & Koil) is a city in the Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh that is famous for lock industries and the administrative headquarters of the Aligarh district.

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All-India Muslim League

The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.

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Prayag, or Allahabad is a large metropolitan city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Allahabad District, the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India, and the Allahabad Division.

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Allahabad Address

The Allahabad Address (خطبہ الہ آباد) is a speech by Pakistani scholar Sir Muhammad Iqbal, one of the best-known in Pakistan history.

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Allama Iqbal International Airport

Allama Iqbal International Airport (علامہ اقبال بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا) is the third largest civil airport by traffic in Pakistan, serving Lahore, the capital of Punjab province as well a large portion of the travellers from the Punjab province.

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Allama Iqbal Medical College

Allama Iqbal Medical College (علامہ اقبال طبی کالج لاہور), established in 1975, is a public school of medicine, nursing and allied health sciences located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

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Allama Iqbal Open University

Allama Iqbal Open University (جامعہ علامہ اقبال) or AIOU is a public research university in Islamabad, Pakistan.

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Allamah (علامه, Urdu and), also spelled Allameh and Allama, is an honorary title carried by scholars of Islamic fiqh, jurisprudence, and philosophy.

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Amanullah Khan

Amānullāh Khān (امان الله خان) was the sovereign of the Kingdom of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929, first as Emir and after 1926 as Malik (King).

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The Anjuman-e-Himayat-e-Islam ("The Association for the Service of Islam") (انجمن حمایت اسلام) is an Islamic intellectual and social welfare organisation with branches both in India and Pakistan.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arthur John Arberry

Arthur John Arberry (12 May 1905 in Portsmouth – 2 October 1969 in Cambridge) FBA was a respected British orientalist.

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B. R. Ambedkar

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards Untouchables (Dalits), while also supporting the rights of women and labour.

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Bachelor of Arts

A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.

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Badshahi Mosque

The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi and بادشاہی مسجد, or "Imperial Mosque") is a Mughal era mosque in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab.

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Baluchistan (Chief Commissioner's Province)

The Chief Commissioner's Province of Balochistan (Urdu: بلوچستان,چیف کمشنر صوبہ) was a province of British India, and later Pakistan, located in the northern parts of the modern Balochistan province.

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Bandagi Nama

The Bandagi Nama (Book of Slavery) is a poem in the Persian language written by Sir Muhammad Iqbal, as a part of his Zabur-i-Ajam collection.

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A barrister (also known as barrister-at-law or bar-at-law) is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions.

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Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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British subject

The term British subject has had a number of different legal meanings over time.

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Call to the bar

The call to the bar is a legal term of art in most common law jurisdictions where persons must be qualified to be allowed to argue in court on behalf of another party and are then said to have been "called to the bar" or to have received a "call to the bar".

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Culture of Europe

The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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A Dargah (درگاه dargâh or درگه dargah, also in Urdu) is a shrine built over the grave of a revered religious figure, often a Sufi saint or dervish.

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Dari language

Darī (دری) or Dari Persian (فارسی دری Fārsī-ye Darī) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی Fārsī) is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.

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Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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In English literature, an elegy is a poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English literature

This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States.

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An epigram is a brief, interesting, memorable, and sometimes surprising or satirical statement.

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Faculty (division)

A faculty is a division within a university or college comprising one subject area, or a number of related subject areas.

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Faisalabad (فیصل آباد;; Lyallpur until 1979) is the third-most-populous city in Pakistan, and the second-largest in the eastern province of Punjab.

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Fateh Muhammad Malik

Fateh Muhammad Malik, (فتح محمد ملک ALA-LC: born 1936) is a Pakistani literary critic, linguist and a scholar.

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Fourteen Points of Jinnah

The Fourteen Points of Jinnah were proposed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah drafted by C Rajagopalachari as a constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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Fritz Hommel

Fritz Hommel (31 July 1854 – 17 April 1936) was a German Orientalist.

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Gabriel (lit, lit, ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ, ܓܒܪܝܝܠ), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel who typically serves as God's messenger.

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Gabriel's Wing

Bal-i-Jibril (بال جبریل; or Gabriel's Wing; published in Urdu, 1935) was a philosophical poetry book of Allama Iqbal, the great South Asian poet-philosopher, and the national poet of Pakistan.

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George V

George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.

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The ghazal (غزَل, غزل, غزل), a type of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry.

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Ghulam Ahmed Perwez

Ghulam Ahmad Parwez (غلام احمد پرویز; 1903–1985) was a Muslim socialist from pre-Independence India and later Pakistan.

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Gift from Hijaz

Armaghan-i-Hijaz (ارمغان حجاز; or Gift from Hijaz; published in Persian, 1938) was a philosophical poetry book of Allama Iqbal, the great poet-philosopher of Islam.

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Goethe's Faust

Faust is a tragic play in two parts by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, usually known in English as Faust, Part One and Faust, Part Two.

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Government College University (Lahore)

The Government College University (GCU) is a public research university located in the downtown, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

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Government of Pakistan

The Government of Pakistan (حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

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Gulshan Town

Gulshan Town (Sindhi and گلشن) is one of the towns in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

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Hazuri Bagh

Hazuri Bagh (حضوری باغ) is a garden in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, bounded by the Lahore Fort to the east, Badshahi Mosque to the west, the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh to the north, and the Roshnai Gate to the south.

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Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.

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Heinrich Heine

Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (13 December 1797 – 17 February 1856) was a German poet, journalist, essayist, and literary critic.

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The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.

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Henri Bergson

Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.

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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.

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Iblees Ki Majlis-e-Shura

Iblees Ki Majlis-e-Shura (The Parliament of Satan) is an Urdu poem written by Muhammad Iqbal in 1935.

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Ibn Arabi

Ibn ʿArabi (full name Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibnʿArabī al-Ḥātimī aṭ-Ṭāʾī أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن محمد بن عربي الحاتمي الطائي ‎ 26 July 1165 – 16 November 1240), was an Arab Andalusian Sufi scholar of Islam, mystic, poet, and philosopher.

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Ilm Al-Iqtisad

Ilm Al-Iqtisad (The Subject of Economics) was a book written by Muhammad Iqbal, the great poet-philosopher of the Indian subcontinent.

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Indian National Congress

The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.

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Indian people

No description.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Intermediate 2

Intermediate 2 level is Level 5 on the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework; it is the level between Higher and Standard Grade Credit.

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Iqbal Academy Pakistan

Iqbal Academy Pakistan (Urdu) is an institute whose purpose is to study, promote, and disseminate the teachings of the poet and philosopher Allama Muhammad Iqbal.

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Iqbal Day

Iqbal Day (یوم اقبال; Yōm-e Iqbāl) is the birthday of Muhammad Iqbal on 9 November.

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Iqbal Stadium

Iqbal Stadium (اقبال سٹیڈیم) is a Test cricket ground in Faisalabad, Pakistan.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic philosophy

In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.

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Israr Ahmed

Israr Ahmed (ڈاکٹر اسرار احمد; 26 April 1932 – 14 April 2010; Msc, MBBS) was a Pakistani Islamic theologian, philosopher, and Islamic scholar who was followed particularly in South Asia as well as by South Asian Muslims in the Middle East, Western Europe, and North America.

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Javed Iqbal (judge)

Senior Justice Javed Iqbal (Urdu: ‎; 5 October 1924 – 3 October 2015) Hilal-i-Imtiaz Award recipient in 2004-(Crescent of Excellence) Award, was a Pakistani philosopher and senior justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan.

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Javed Manzil

The Javed Manzil or the Allama Iqbal Museum is a national monument and museum in Lahore, Pakistan.

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Javid Nama

The Javid Nama (italic), or Book of Eternity, is a Persian book of poetry written by Allama Muhammad Iqbal and published in 1932.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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Kabul University

Kabul University (KU) (Pashto دکابل پوهنتون Da Kābul Pohantūn / Dari پوهنتون کابل Pohantūn-e Kābul) is located in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan.

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Kashmiris of Punjab

The Kashmiris of Punjab are ethnic Kashmiris who have historically migrated from the Kashmir Valley and settled in the Punjab region.

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Khwaja Khurshid Anwar

Khwaja Khurshid Anwar (21 March 1912 − 30 October 1984) (خواجہ خُورشِيد انور, ख़्वाजा खुर्शीद अनवर) was a filmmaker, writer, director and music composer who gained tremendous popularity both in India and Pakistan.

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Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.

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Lahore Fort

The Lahore Fort (Punjabi and شاہی قلعہ: Shahi Qila, or "Royal Fort"), is a citadel in the city of Lahore, Pakistan.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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Lincoln's Inn

The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn is one of the four Inns of Court in London to which barristers of England and Wales belong and where they are called to the Bar.

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List of Muslim philosophers

Muslim philosophers both profess Islam and engage in a style of philosophy situated within the structure of Islamic culture, though not necessarily concerned with religious issues.

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List of Pakistani poets

This is a list of noted Pakistani poets, poets born or raised in Pakistan, whether living there or overseas, and writing in one of the languages of Pakistan.

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List of Urdu-language poets

No description.

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Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (also referred to as LMU or the University of Munich, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.

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Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.

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Magic realism

Magical realism, magic realism, or marvelous realism is a genre of narrative fiction and, more broadly, art (literature, painting, film, theatre, etc.) that, while encompassing a range of subtly different concepts, expresses a primarily realistic view of the real world while also adding or revealing magical elements.

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Master of Arts

A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.

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Matriculation is the formal process of entering a university, or of becoming eligible to enter by fulfilling certain academic requirements such as a matriculation examination.

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Message from the East

Payam-i-Mashriq (پیامِ مشرق; or Message from the East; published in Persian, 1923) is a philosophical poetry book of Allama Iqbal, the great poet-philosopher of the Indian subcontinent.

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Mohammad Ali Jouhar

Muhammad Ali Jauhar (10 December 1878 – 4 January 1931), also known as Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar (Arabic: مَولانا مُحمّد علی جَوہر), was an Indian Muslim leader, activist, scholar, journalist and a poet, and was among the leading figures of the Khilafat Movement.

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A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.

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Muhammad Shafi (politician)

Sir Mian Muhammad Shafi, (1869–1932) was born in the Arain Mian family of Baghbanpura Lahore, an Indian Muslim politician.

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Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.

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Murray College

Government Murray College Sialkot (often referred to as Murray College), formerly known as Scotch Mission College, is located in Sialkot in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.

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A namesake is a person named after another, or more broadly, a thing (such as a company, place, ship, building, or concept) named after a person.

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National poet

A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture.

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Nawabs of Bhopal

The Nawabs of Bhopal were the Muslim rulers of the princely state of Bhopal, now part of the modern state of Madhya Pradesh, in India.

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Niaz Ali Khan (politician)

Chaudhry Niaz Ali Khan (چودہری نیاز علی خان) (born 1880 – died 1976), founder of the Dar ul Islam Movement and the Dar ul Islam Trust in South Asia and the Dar ul Islam Trust Institutes in Pathankot, India and Jauharabad, Pakistan, was a civil engineer, civil servant, landowner, agriculturalist and philanthropist.

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Nishtar Medical University

Nishtar Medical University (formerly Nishtar Medical College) is a public sector health sciences university located in Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.

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North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010)

The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.

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Oriental College

Punjab University Oriental College, commonly known as Oriental College, is an institution of oriental studies in Lahore.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pakistan Movement

The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (تحریک پاکستان –) was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire.

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Pakistan Today

Pakistan Today is a Pakistani English-language daily newspaper, published by Nawa Media Corporation from three Pakistani cities Lahore, Punjab; Karachi, Sindh; and Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory.

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No description.

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The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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Pathankot is a city in the Punjab state of India.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Persian literature

Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.

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Persian Psalms

Zabur-i-Ajam (زبور عجم, Persian Psalms) is a philosophical poetry book, written in Persian, of Allama Iqbal, the great poet-philosopher of the Indian subcontinent.

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Philately is the study of stamps and postal history and other related items.

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Presidencies and provinces of British India

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.

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Public holidays in Pakistan

Pakistan holidays are celebrated according to Islamic or Gregorian calendars for religious and civil purposes, respectively.

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The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.

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Punjab Legislative Assembly

The Punjab Legislative Assembly or the Punjab Vidhan Sabha (ਪੰਜਾਬ ਵਿਧਾਨ ਸਭਾ) is the unicameral legislature of the state of Punjab in northern India.

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Punjab Muslim League

When the All-India Muslim League was founded at Dacca, on 30 December 1906 at the occasion of the annual All India Muhammadan Educational Conference, It was participated by the Muslim leaders from Punjab, i.e., Sir Mian Muhammad Shafi, Mian Fazl-i-Hussain, Abdul Aziz, Khawaja Yusuf Shah and Sh.

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Punjab Province (British India)

Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.

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Punjab, Pakistan

Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.

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Quaid-i-Azam University

The Quaid-i-Azam University (جامعہ قائداعظم; simply QAU) is a public research university in Islamabad, Pakistan.

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A quatrain is a type of stanza, or a complete poem, consisting of four lines.

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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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In Islam and Sufism, rūḥ (روح; plural arwah) is a person's immortal, essential self—the spirit or soul.

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Reynold A. Nicholson

Reynold Alleyne Nicholson, or R. A. Nicholson (18 August 1868 – 27 August 1945), was an eminent English orientalist, scholar of both Islamic literature and Islamic mysticism and widely regarded as one of the greatest Rumi (Mevlana or Mawlana) scholars and translators in the English language.

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Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلال‌الدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.

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Sare Jahan se Accha

"Sare Jahan se Accha" (سارے جہاں سے اچھا, Hindi: सारे जहां से अच्छा), formally known as (ترانۂ ہندی|, Hindi: तराना-ए-हिंदी; "Anthem of the People of India"), is an Urdu language patriotic song written for children by poet Muhammad Iqbal in the ghazal style of Urdu poetry.

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Separation of church and state

The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.

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Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Sialkot (سيالكوٹ and سيالكوٹ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.

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Sikandar Hayat Khan (Punjabi politician)

Captain (retired) Sardar Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan, KBE (also written Sikandar Hyat Khan or Sikander Hyat-Khan at times) (5 June 1892 in Multan–25/26 December 1942) was a statesman from the Punjab.

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Sikh Empire

The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.

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Sind Province (1936–55)

Sind was a province of British India from 1936 to 1947 and Pakistan from 1947 to 1955.

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Siraj ud-Daulah

Mirza Muhammad Siraj ud-Daulah (مرزا محمد سراج الدولہ, মির্জা মুহম্মদ সিরাজউদ্দৌলা; 1733 – 2 July 1757) more commonly known as Siraj ud-Daulah, was the last independent Nawab of Bengal.

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Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Supreme Court of Pakistan

The Supreme Court of Pakistan (عدالت عظمیٰ پاکستان; Adālat-e-Uzma Pākistān) is the apex court in the judicial hierarchy of Pakistan.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Syed Mir Hassan

Shams al-’Ulama’ (“Sun of Scholars”) Syed Mir Hassan (18 April 1844 – 25 September 1929) was a scholar of the Qur'an, Hadith, Sufism, and the Arabic language.

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Syed Nazeer Niazi

Syed Nazeer Niazi was an eminent Muslim scholar, professor and journalist.

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Tarana-e-Milli (ترانۂ ملی) or Anthem of the Community is an enthusiastic poem in which Allama Mohammad Iqbal paid tribute to the Muslim Ummah (nation) and said that nationalism in Islam was not recommended.

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The Call of the Marching Bell

The Call of the Marching Bell (بان٘گِ دَرا; Bang-e-Dara; published in Urdu in 1924) was the first Urdu philosophical poetry book by Allama Iqbal, one of the great poet-philosophers of the Indian subcontinent.

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The Development of Metaphysics in Persia

The Development of Metaphysics in Persia is the book form of Muhammad Iqbal's PhD thesis in philosophy at the University of Munich submitted in 1908 and published in the same year.

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The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam

The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam is a compilation of lectures delivered by Muhammad Iqbal on Islamic philosophy and published in 1930.

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The Rod of Moses

Zarb-i-Kalim ضربِ کلیم (or The Rod of Moses) is a philosophical poetry book of Allama Iqbal in Urdu, a poet-philosopher of the Indian subcontinent.

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The Secrets of Selflessness

Rumuz-e-Bekhudi (رموز بیخودی; or The Secrets of Selflessness; published in Persian, 1918) is the second philosophical poetry book of Allama Iqbal, the national poet of Pakistan.

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The Secrets of the Self

Asrar-i-Khudi (اسرار خودی; or The Secrets of the Self; published in Persian, (1915) was the first philosophical poetry book of Allama Iqbal, the great poet-philosopher of Pakistan. This book deals mainly with the individual, while his second book Rumuz-i-Bekhudi discusses the interaction between the individual and society.

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Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.

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A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

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Thomas Walker Arnold

Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, CIE (19 April 1864–9 June 1930) was a British orientalist and historian of Islamic art who taught at Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, Aligarh Muslim University (then Aligarh College), and Government College University, Lahore.

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Tipu Sultan

Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.

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Tolu-e-Islam (magazine)

Tolu-e-Islam is a historical, political, religious, cultural magazine of Muslims of British India and Pakistan.

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Tomb of Allama Iqbal

The Tomb of Allama Muhammad Iqbal, or Mazaar-e-Iqbal (مزار اقبال) is a mausoleum located within the Hazuri Bagh, in the Pakistani city of Lahore, capital of Punjab province.

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Trinity College, Cambridge

Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.

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Tulu'i Islam

The Tulu'i Islam (Dawn of Islam) is an Urdu poem written by Sir Muhammad Iqbal, expounding on the birth and glory of Islam.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Two-nation theory

The two-nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan.

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The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".

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(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".

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United Provinces of Agra and Oudh

The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces (UP), by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of independent India until 1950.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of the Punjab

The University of the Punjab (جامعہ پنجاب), also referred to as Punjab University, is a public research university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

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Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.

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Urdu literature

Urdu literature (ادبیات اردو) has a history that is inextricably tied to the development of Urdu, the register of the Hindustani language written in the Perso-Arabic script.

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Urdu poetry

Urdu poetry (اُردُو شاعرى) is a rich tradition of poetry and has many different forms.

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What Should then be Done O People of the East

Pas Chih Bayad Kard ay Aqwam-i-Mashriq (or What should then be done O people of the East) was a philosophical poetry book of Allama Iqbal in Persian, a poet-philosopher of the Indian subcontinent.

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Wilfred Cantwell Smith

Wilfred Cantwell Smith (July 21, 1916 – February 7, 2000) was a Canadian professor of comparative religion who from 1964–1973 was director of Harvard University's Center for the Study of World Religions.

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William O. Douglas

William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898January 19, 1980) was an American jurist and politician who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Zinda Rood

Zinda Rood is a 4 volume biographical work of Justice Javed Iqbal on his father Muhammad Iqbal, a Muslim poet-philosopher.

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20th-century philosophy

20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.

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Redirects here:

Alama Iqbal, Allama Iqbal, Allama Mohammad Iqbal, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, Allameh Muhammad Iqbal, Dr Allama Iqbal, Dr Allama Muhammad Iqbal, Dr Muhammad Iqbal, Dreamer of Pakistan, Hakeem-ul-Ummat, Inceptor of Pakistan, Iqbal (poet), Iqbal of Lahore, Iqbal the poet, Iqbal, Muhammad, Iqbal, Sir Muhammad, Iqbal-e-Lahori, Iqbāl-e Lāhorī, Mohammad Iqbal, Mohammad Iqbal Lahouri, Mohammed Iqbal, Mufakir-e-Pakistan, Mufakir-i-Pakistan, Mufakkir-e-Pakistan, Mufakkir-i-Pakistan, Muffakir-e-Pakistan, Musawar-e-Pakistan, National Poet of Pakistan, National poet of Pakistan, Poet of the East, Shair e Mashriq, Shair i Mashriq, Shair-e-Mashriq, Shair-i-Mashriq, Sheikh Noor Muhammad, Sir Allama Iqbal, Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal, Sir Muhammad Iqbal, Spiritual Father of Pakistan, The Inceptor of Pakistan, The Poet of the East, The Sage of the Ummah, Thinker of Pakistan, محمد اقبال.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Iqbal

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