188 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abdel Rahman Badawi, Abu al-Abbas Iranshahri, Abu Hatim Ahmad ibn Hamdan al-Razi, Abu Salih Mansur, Acid, Al-Biruni, Al-Kindi, Al-Mu'tadid, Al-Muktafi, Al-Shahrastani, Alborz, Alchemy, Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam, Alcohol, Algebraic number theory, Alum, Ammonium chloride, Anthropomorphism, Aristotle, Arsenic, Astronomy, Atomism, Avicenna, Baghdad, Bar Hebraeus, Bimaristan, Bloodletting, Borate, Brill Publishers, Bukhara, Cadmia, Calcium oxide, Carl Brockelmann, Charlatan, Charles I of Anjou, Chickenpox, China, Chinese language, Classical element, Clinical urine tests, Combustibility and flammability, Cosmology, Cuscuta epithymum, Demon, Disease, Distillation, Dram (unit), Edward Granville Browne, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, ..., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Evidence-based medicine, Exoskeleton, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Faraj ben Salim, Ferdinand Wüstenfeld, Fermentation theory, Filtration, Frankincense, Freethought, Fuat Sezgin, Galen, Gemstone, George Sarton, Gilding, Glaucoma, Gold leaf, Grammar, Greater Iran, Greek language, Gypsum, Hamid al-Din al-Kirmani, Harvard University Press, Hekmat, Hermeticism, Hippocrates, Hossein Nasr, House of Wisdom, Human eye, Humorism, Ibn Abi Usaibia, Ibn al-Nadim, Ibn Juljul, Ibn Khallikan, Inorganic compound, Iran, Islamic Golden Age, Islamic philosophy, Isma'ilism, Kalam, Karaj, Kermanshah, Lapis lazuli, Latin, Latinisation of names, Laxative, Leprosy, Linen, Liquid–liquid extraction, List of pre-modern Iranian scientists and scholars, Logic, M. M. Sharif, Maceration (food), Malachite, Manichaeism, Marcasite, Mathematics in medieval Islam, Matter, Measles, Medical Encyclopedia of Islam and Iran, Medical ethics, Medical literature, Medical research, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Meningitis, Mental disorder, Mercury (element), Middle Ages, Miguel Casiri, Mineral, Muhammad, Myrrh, Naphtha, Nasir Khusraw, Natron, Natural science, Neoplatonism, Nisba (onomastics), Observation, Omar Khayyam, Ophthalmology, Opium, Organic chemistry, Patent medicine, Paul Kraus (Arabist), Pediatrics, Periclase, Persian language, Persian people, Peterborough Cathedral, Pharmacy, Physics in the medieval Islamic world, Plato, Polymath, Poppy, Potion, Quran, Razi University, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Rey, Iran, Risalah (fiqh), Rose, Routledge, Saffron, Said al-Andalusi, Salammoniac, Salinity, Sea salt, Sheikh, Shlomo Pines, Silk Road, Silvering, Smallpox, Sodium chloride, Soul, Spirit, Stool test, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, SUNY Press, Tabaristan, Tablet (pharmacy), Talc, Taqlid, Tehran, Tin, Traditional medicine, United Nations Office at Vienna, Urinary system, Urine, Vienna International Centre, Viola (plant), Vitriol, W. Montgomery Watt, Wax, William Alexander Greenhill, World Health Organization, Zinc. Expand index (138 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdur Rahman Badawi (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بدوى.) (February 17, 1917 – July 25, 2002) was an Egyptian existentialist professor of philosophy and poet.
Abu al-Abbas Iranshahri (حکیم ایرانشهری.) was a 9th-century Persian philosopher, mathematician, natural scientist, historian of religion, astronomer and author.
Abū Ḥātim Aḥmad ibn Ḥamdān al-Rāzī (ابو حاتم احمد بن حمدان الرازی) was a Persian Ismaili philosopher of the 9th century, who died in 322 AH (935 CE).
Abu Salih Mansur (died 915) was a Samanid prince, who served as governor during the reign of his uncle Isma'il ibn Ahmad, his cousin Ahmad Samani, and Nasr II.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Talha al-Muwaffaq (854 or 861 – 5 April 902), better known by his regnal name al-Mu'tadid bi-llah (المعتضد بالله, "Seeking Support in God") was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 892 until his death in 902.
Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad (أبو محمد علي بن أحمد; 877/878 – 13 August 908), better known by his regnal name al-Muktafī bi-llāh (المكتفي بالله, "Content with God Alone"), was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 902 to 908.
Tāj al-Dīn Abū al-Fath Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Karīm ash-Shahrastānī (1086–1153 CE), also known as Muhammad al-Shahrastānī, was an influential Persian historian of religions, a historiographer, Islamic scholar, philosopher and theologian.
The Alborz (البرز), also spelled as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alchemy and chemistry in Islam refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic world.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Algebraic number theory is a branch of number theory that uses the techniques of abstract algebra to study the integers, rational numbers, and their generalizations.
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Gregory Bar Hebraeus (122630 July 1286), also known by his Latin name Abulpharagius or Syriac name Mor Gregorios Bar Ebraya, was a maphrian-catholicos (Chief bishop of Persia) of the Syriac Orthodox Church in the 13th century.
Bimaristan is a Persian word (بیمارستان bīmārestān) meaning "hospital", with Bimar- from Middle Persian (Pahlavi) of vīmār or vemār, meaning "sick" plus -stan as location and place suffix.
Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease.
Borates are the name for a large number of boron-containing oxyanions.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
In alchemy, cadmia (Latin for cadmium) is an oxide of zinc (tutty) which collects on the sides of furnaces where copper or brass was smelted, and zinc sublimed.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Carl Brockelmann (17 September 1868 – 6 May 1956) German Semiticist, was the foremost orientalist of his generation.
A charlatan (also called a swindler or mountebank) is a person practicing quackery or some similar confidence trick or deception in order to obtain money, fame or other advantages via some form of pretense or deception.
Charles I (early 1226/12277 January 1285), commonly called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou.
Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
Cuscuta epithymum (dodder, lesser dodder, hellweed, strangle-tare) is a parasitic plant assigned to the Cuscutaceae or Convolvulaceae family, depending on the taxonomy.
A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
The dram (alternative British spelling drachm; apothecary symbol ʒ or ℨ; abbreviated dr) Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1897.
Edward Granville Browne, FBA (7 February 1862 – 5 January 1926) was a British orientalist.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
The Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science is a three-volume encyclopedia covering the history of Arabic contributions to science, mathematics and technology which had a marked influence on the Middle Ages in Europe.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī or Fakhruddin Razi (فخر الدين رازي) was an Iranian Sunni Muslim theologian and philosopher He was born in 1149 in Rey (in modern-day Iran), and died in 1209 in Herat (in modern-day Afghanistan).
Faraj ben Sālim, also known as Farragut of Girgenti, Moses Farachi of Dirgent, Ferragius, Farragus, or Franchinus, was a Sicilian-Jewish physician and translator who flourished in the second half of the thirteenth century.
Heinrich Ferdinand Wüstenfeld (31 July 1808 – 8 February 1899) was a German orientalist, known as a literary historian of Arabic literature, born at Münden, Hanover.
The fermentation theory was studied in depth and brought to light first by Louis Pasteur.
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.
Freethought (or "free thought") is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, revelation, or dogma.
Fuat Sezgin (24 October 1924 – 30 June 2018) was a Turkish orientalist who specialized in the history of Arabic-Islamic science.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
George Alfred Leon Sarton (31 August 1884 – 22 March 1956), was a Belgian-born American chemist and historian.
Gilding is any decorative technique for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
Gold leaf is gold that has been hammered into thin sheets by goldbeating and is often used for gilding.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Hamid al–Din Abu’l–Hasan Ahmad b. ‘Abdallah al–Kirmani (flourished 996–1021 CE) was an Isma'ili scholar.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hekmat (حكمت –"Wisdom") was the first Persian-language newspaper published in Egypt, and the first Persian journal published in an Arab country.
Hermeticism, also called Hermetism, is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ("Thrice Great").
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.
The House of Wisdom (بيت الحكمة; Bayt al-Hikma) refers either to a major Abbasid public academy and intellectual center in Baghdad or to a large private library belonging to the Abbasid Caliphs during the Islamic Golden Age.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa Muʾaffaq al-Dīn Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad Ibn Al-Qāsim Ibn Khalīfa al-Khazrajī (ابن أبي أصيبعة‎; 1203–1270), commonly referred to as Ibn Abi Usaibia, was a Syrian Arab physician of the 13th century CE.
Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Nadīm (ابوالفرج محمد بن إسحاق النديم), his surname was Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad ibn Abī Ya'qūb Ishāq ibn Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Warrāq and he is more commonly, albeit erroneously, known as Ibn al-Nadim (d. 17 September 995 or 998 CE) was a Muslim scholar and bibliographer Al-Nadīm was the tenth century Baghdadī bibliophile compiler of the Arabic encyclopedic catalogue known as 'Kitāb al-Fihrist'.
Abu Dawud Sulayman ibn Hassan Ibn Juljul (سليمان بن حسان ابن جلجل) (c. 944 Córdoba – c. 994) was an influential Andalusian Arab physician and pharmacologist of perhaps Spanish extraction.
Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm Abu ’l-ʿAbbās S̲h̲ams al-Dīn al-Barmakī al-Irbilī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī (احمد ابن محمد ابن ابراهيم ابوالعباس شمس الدين البرمكي الاربيلي الشافعي) (September 22, 1211 – October 30, 1282) was a Shafi'i Islamic scholar of the 13th Century and is famous as the compiler of a great biographical dictionary of Arab scholars, Wafayāt al-Aʿyān wa-Anbāʾ Abnāʾ az-Zamān (Deaths of Eminent Men and History of the Sons of the Epoch).
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.
Karaj (کرج) is the capital of Alborz Province, Iran, and effectively a suburb of Tehran.
Kermanshah (کرمانشاه, کرماشان, Kirmashan; Kermānshāh; also known as Bākhtarān or Kermānshāhān), the capital of Kermanshah Province, is located from Tehran in the western part of Iran.
Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
The following is a non-comprehensive list of Iranian scientists and engineers who lived from antiquity up until the beginning of the modern age.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Mian Mohammad Sharif (Urdu: محمد شریف) (1893 – 1965) TI, best known as Professor M. M. Sharif, was an influential philosopher, clergyman, and college professor.
In food preparation, maceration is softening or breaking into pieces using a liquid.
Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
The mineral marcasite, sometimes called white iron pyrite, is iron sulfide (FeS2) with orthorhombic crystal structure.
Mathematics during the Golden Age of Islam, especially during the 9th and 10th centuries, was built on Greek mathematics (Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius) and Indian mathematics (Aryabhata, Brahmagupta).
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
The Medical Encyclopedia of Islam and Iran is a series of reference books being prepared in the Iran's Academy of Medical Sciences.
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.
Medical literature is the scientific literature of medicine: articles in journals and texts in books devoted to the field of medicine.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Miguel Casiri (الاب مخايل الغزيري.; Mikhael Ghaziri) (1710–1791) was a learned Maronite and Orientalist.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Myrrh (from Aramaic, but see § Etymology) is a natural gum or resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.
Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.
Abu Mo’in Hamid ad-Din Nasir ibn Khusraw al-Qubadiani or Nāsir Khusraw Qubādiyānī Balkhi (1004 – 1088 CE) (ناصر خسرو قبادیانی) was a Persian poet, philosopher, Isma'ili scholar, traveler and one of the greatest writers in Persian literature.
Natron is a naturally occurring mixture of sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO3·10H2O, a kind of soda ash) and around 17% sodium bicarbonate (also called baking soda, NaHCO3) along with small quantities of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
In Arabic names, a nisba (also spelled nesba, sometimes nesbat; نسبة, "attribution") is an adjective indicating the person's place of origin, tribal affiliation, or ancestry, used at the end of the name and occasionally ending in the suffix -iyy(ah).
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
Omar Khayyam (عمر خیّام; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
A patent medicine, also known as a nostrum (from the Latin nostrum remedium, or "our remedy") is a commercial product advertised (usually heavily) as a purported over-the-counter medicine, without regard to its effectiveness.
Eliezer Paul Kraus (or Krause, December 11, 1904 – October 10 or 12th, 1944) was a Jewish Arabist, born in Prague.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Periclase is a magnesium mineral that occurs naturally in contact metamorphic rocks and is a major component of most basic refractory bricks.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Peterborough Cathedral, properly the Cathedral Church of St Peter, St Paul and St Andrew – also known as Saint Peter's Cathedral in the United Kingdom – is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Peterborough, dedicated to Saint Peter, Saint Paul and Saint Andrew, whose statues look down from the three high gables of the famous West Front.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
The natural sciences saw various advancements during the Golden Age of Islam (from roughly the mid 8th to the mid 13th centuries), adding a number of innovations to the Transmission of the Classics (such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid, Neoplatonism).
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae.
A potion (from Latin potio "drink") is a magical medicine, drug in liquid form.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Razi University (دانشگاه رازی) is a public university based in Kermanshah, Iran.
The Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute is an Iranian pharmaceutical company.
Rey or Ray (شهر ری, Šahr-e Rey, “City of Ray”), also known as Rhages (Ῥάγαι, or Europos (Ευρωπός) Rhagai; Rhagae or Rhaganae) and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County in Tehran Province of Iran, and the oldest existing city in the province.
Resalah (risalah, Arabic رسـالـة) is the Arabic word for treatise, but among the Shia, the term is used as shorthand for a Resalah Amaliyah (risalah-yi'amaliyyah, رسالهی عملیه) or treatise on practical law.
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".
Abū al-Qāsim Ṣāʿid ibn Abū al-Walīd Aḥmad ibn Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Ṣāʿid ibn ʿUthmān al-Taghlibi al-Qūrtūbi, often referred to as Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī, (1029–July 6,1070; 420- 6th Shawwal, 462) was an Andalusian-Arab Muslim Qadi.
Sal ammoniac is a rare mineral composed of ammonium chloride, NH4Cl.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Sea salt is a less refined salt that is produced by the evaporation of seawater.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
Shlomo Pines (August 5, 1908 in Charenton-le-Pont – January 9, 1990 in Jerusalem) was an Israeli scholar of Jewish and Islamic philosophy, best known for his English translation of Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Silvering is the chemical process of coating glass with a reflective substance.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
A spirit is a supernatural being, often but not exclusively a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel.
A stool test involves the collection and analysis of fecal matter to diagnose the presence or absence of a medical condition.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
Tabaristan (from Middle Persian:, Tapurstān), also known as Tapuria (land of Tapurs), was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran.
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
Taqlid or taqleed (Arabic تَقْليد taqlīd) is an Islamic terminology denoting the conformity of one person to the teaching of another.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
The United Nations Office at Vienna (UNOV) is one of the four major UN office sites where several different UN agencies have a joint presence.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
The Vienna International Centre (VIC) is the campus and building complex hosting the United Nations Office at Vienna (UNOV; in German: Büro der Vereinten Nationen in Wien).
Viola (and) is a genus of flowering plants in the violet family Violaceae.
In chemistry, vitriol is an archaic name for a sulfate, and vitriol names have the obvious meaning: for example, vitriol of lead is lead sulfate, and so on.
William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish historian, Orientalist, Anglican priest, and academic.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
William Alexander Greenhill (1 January 1814, Stationers' Hall, London – 19 September 1894, Hastings) was an English physician, literary editor and sanitary reformer.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Abi Bakr Mohammadi Filii Zachariae Raghensis, Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya Al-Razi, Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Abu Bakr Moḥammad bin Zakariyāʾ Rāzi, Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariyya' al-Razi, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Abu Bakr al-Razi, Abu Zakariya al-Razi, Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakarīya al-Rāzi, Abū Bakr al-Rāzī, Al Razi, Al-Rasi, Al-Raze, Al-Rāzī, Albubator, Ibn Razi, Ibn Zakaria, Ibn Zakariya, Muhammad Zakariyā Rāzī, Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi, Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi, Muhammad zakariya (medieval scholar), Rasis, Rhases, Rhazes, Rhazes (Razi) Biruni, The Sense of Smell (book), The Sense of Smelling (book), Zakariya al-Razi.