171 relations: Abd el-Krim, Abdelkader Mokhtari, Abdullah Azzam Brigades, Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, Abol-Ghasem Kashani, Abu al-Walid, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Abu Sayyaf, Afghan Arabs, Afghan Civil War (1992–1996), Afghanistan, Al-Haramain Foundation, Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya, Al-Qaeda, Al-Qaeda: Casting a Shadow of Terror, Al-Shabaab (militant group), Alawites, Alija Izetbegović, Ansar (Islam), Arab Spring, Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ayman al-Zawahiri, Bangladesh, Bangladesh–Myanmar border, Bashar al-Assad, Basmachi movement, Battle of al-Qusayr (2012), Battle of Baidoa, Boko Haram, Bosnia and Herzegovina, British Empire, Cameroon, Casus belli, Caucasian Front (militant group), Caucasus, Caucasus Emirate, Chad, Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Chechnya, Cold War, Council on Foreign Relations, Dagestan, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Demographics of Afghanistan, Dokka Umarov, East Pakistan, Egypt, Enver Hadžihasanović, Erroneous reporting on the 2008 Mumbai attacks, Ethnic group, ..., Fatah al-Islam, Fateh Kamel, Fedayeen, First Chechen War, Government of the Philippines, Guerrilla warfare, Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami, Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, History of the Soviet Union (1982–91), Hizbul Mujahideen, Hoshyar Zebari, Human Rights Watch, I.B. Tauris, Ibn al-Khattab, Indian Mujahideen, Indian Rebellion of 1857, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Iran, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Islam in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Islamic Declaration, Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic socialism, Islamic state, Islamic State of Iraq, Islamic terrorism, Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen, Islamism, Jabidah massacre, Jahangir Khoja, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Jammu and Kashmir, Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front, January 2012 al-Midan bombing, Jason Burke, Jihad, Jihadism, Jordan, Kabul, Karim Said Atmani, Kerala, Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen, Kidnapping, Lashkar-e-Taiba, List of expeditions of Muhammad, Ma al-'Aynayn, Madrassas in Pakistan, Maktab al-Khidamat, Mayu, Mecca, Mehmed V, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Mohammad Najibullah, Mohammed Omar, Moro Islamic Liberation Front, Moro National Liberation Front, Muhammad Ahmad, Mujahideen Army (Iraq), Mujahideen Shura Council (Iraq), Mullah, Mumbai, Myanmar, National Front (Iran), Niger, Nigeria, Nile, Non-governmental organization, North Africa, Omar Mukhtar, Osama bin Laden, Pakistan, Palestinian territories, Pan-Islamism, Pashto, People's Mujahedin of Iran, Philippines, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Proxy war, Qutbism, Rakhine State, Ransom, Rasim Delić, Rohingya Solidarity Organisation, RT (TV network), Salafi movement, Saudi Arabia, Second Chechen War, Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo, Sepoy, Shamil Basayev, Shamil, 3rd Imam of Dagestan, Sharia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Somali Civil War, Soviet Union, Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, Soviet–Afghan War, Students Islamic Movement of India, Suicide attack, Sunni Islam, Syrian Civil War, Taliban, Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn, The San Diego Union-Tribune, United Nations Security Council Resolution 713, University of the Philippines, Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Usman dan Fodio, War crime, War of Dagestan, War on Terror, Warlord, Yugoslav Wars, Zenica, 2003 invasion of Iraq, 2005 Bangladesh series bombings, 2008 Mumbai attacks, 3rd Corps of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 7th Muslim Brigade. Expand index (121 more) » « Shrink index
Abd el-Krim (1882–83, Ajdir – February 6, 1963, Cairo) was a Riffian political and military leader.
Abdelkader Mokhtari (kunya: Abu el-Ma'ali, The Gendarme) was an Arab commander who became a "sacred legend" for the Bosnian mujahideen in the Bosnian War.
The Abdullah Azzam Brigades, or al-Qaeda in Lebanon, (كتائب عبد الله عزام) is a Sunni Islamist militant group, and the al-Qaeda's branch in Lebanon.
Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (عبد الله يوسف عزام, ‘Abdu’llāh Yūsuf ‘Azzām; 194124 November 1989) also known as Father of Global Jihad was a Palestinian Sunni Islamic scholar and theologian and founding member of Al-Qaeda.
Sayyed Abu’l-Qāsem Kāšāni (سید ابوالقاسم کاشانی; November 19, 1882 – March 14, 1962) was an Iranian politician and Shia Marja.
Abu al-Walid (ابو الوليد) (also transliterated as Abu al-Waleed and also called Abu al-Walid al-Ghamdi or simply Abu Walid) (1967 – 16 April 2004), was a Saudi Arabian of the Ghamd tribe who fought as a "mujahid" volunteer in Central Asia, the Balkans, and the North Caucasus.
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (أبو مصعب الزرقاوي,, Abu Musab from Zarqa;; October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (أحمد فضيل النزال الخلايلة), was a Jordanian jihadist who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan.
Abu Sayyaf (جماعة أبو سياف;, ASG; Grupong Abu Sayyaf), unofficially known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Philippines Province, is a Jihadist militant and pirate group that follows the Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam based in and around Jolo and Basilan islands in the southwestern part of the Philippines, where for more than four decades, Moro groups have been engaged in an insurgency for an independent province in the country.
The term Afghan Arabs (also known as Arab-Afghans) refers mostly to Arab and other Muslim Islamist mujahideen who came to Afghanistan during and following the Soviet-Afghan War to help fellow Muslims fight Soviets and pro-Soviet Afghans.
This article covers the Afghan history between 28 April 1992, the day that a new interim Afghan government was supposed to replace the Republic of Afghanistan of President Mohammad Najibullah, and the Taliban's conquest of Kabul establishing the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan on 27 September 1996.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Al-Haramain Islamic Foundation (AHIF) was a charity foundation, based in Saudi Arabia.
Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya (lit), or AIAI, was an Islamist militant group in Somalia.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Al-Qaeda: Casting a Shadow of Terror is a 2003 book by Jason Burke about the history and goals of Osama bin Laden's Al-Qaeda and a loose amalgam of related groups.
Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen (HSM; حركة الشباب المجاهدين,; Xarakada Mujaahidiinta Alshabaab, lit. "Mujahideen Youth Movement" or "Movement of Striving Youth"), more commonly known as al-Shabaab (lit), is a jihadist fundamentalist group based in East Africa.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Alija Izetbegović (8 August 1925 – 19 October 2003) was a Bosnian politician, activist, lawyer, author, and philosopher who in 1992 became the first President of the newly-independent Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Ansar (الأنصار, "The Helpers") is an Islamic term for the local inhabitants of Medina who took the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers (the Muhajirun) into their homes when they emigrated from Mecca (hijra).
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH, Armija Republike Bosne i Hercegovine), often referred to as Bosnian Army, was the military force of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina established by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992 following the outbreak of the Bosnian War.
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري, born June 19, 1951) is the current leader of Al-Qaeda and a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in North America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh–Myanmar border is the international border between the countries of Bangladesh and Myanmar (formerly Burma).
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
The Basmachi movement (Басмачество, Basmachestvo) or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim peoples of Central Asia.
The first of the two battles in al-Qusayr was fought by the Syrian army and Shabiha against the Free Syrian Army in the small city of Al-Qusayr, near Homs, during late winter and spring of 2012.
The Battle of Baidoa began on December 20, 2006 when the Somali Transitional Federal Government's forces (TFG) allied with Ethiopian forces stationed there attacked advancing Islamic Courts Union (ICU) forces along with 500 alleged Eritrean troops and mujahideen arrayed against them.
The Islamic State in West Africa (abbreviated as ISWA or ISWAP), formerly known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād (جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد, "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad") and commonly known as Boko Haram until March 2015, is a jihadist militant organization based in northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
The Caucasian Front (Кавказский фронт) also called Caucasus Front or the Caucasian Mujahadeen, was formally established in May 2005 as an Islamic structural unit of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria's armed forces by the decree of the separatist President of Chechnya Abdul-Halim Sadulayev during the Second Chechen War.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus Emirate (Имарат Кавказ Imarat Kavkaz (IK); Кавказский Эмират Kavkazskiy Emirat), also known as the Caucasian Emirate, was a militant Jihadist organisation active in the southwestern region of the Russian Federation.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (Nóxçiyn Paçẋalq Içkeri noχtʃʰiːn pʰɑtʃʜɑlq nɔχtʃɪtʃʰy̯ø, Cyrillic: Нохчийн Пачхьалкх Ичкери; Чеченская Республика Ичкерия; abbreviated as "ChRI" or "CRI") is the unrecognized secessionist government of the Chechen Republic.
The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.
The population of Afghanistan is around 33 million as of 2016, which includes the roughly 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran.
Doku Khamatovich Umarov (Ӏумар КӀант Доккa, 'Umar K'ant Dokka; Доку Хаматович Умаров, Doku Khamatovich Umarov); also known as Dokka Umarov as well as by his Arabized name of Dokka Abu Umar; (13 April 1964 – 7 September 2013) was a Chechen Islamic extremist militant in Russia.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Enver Hadžihasanović (born 7 July 1950) is a former Bosnian chief of staff of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and war criminal.
During and immediately after the 2008 Mumbai attacks the news media worldwide broadcast incorrect factual information on a scale often seen in a fog of war.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Fatah al-Islam (فتح الإسلام', meaning Conquest of Islam) is a radical Sunni Islamist group that formed in November 2006 in a Palestinian refugee camp, located in Lebanon.
An Algerian-Canadian, Fateh Kamel was arrested in 1999 on charges of supporting a terrorist plot against attacks against French targets in Paris, and was sentenced to eight years' imprisonment.
Fedayeen (فِدائيّين fidāʼīyīn) is a term used to refer to various military groups willing to sacrifice themselves.
The First Chechen War (Пе́рвая чече́нская война́), also known as the First Chechen Сampaign (Пе́рвая чече́нская кампа́ния) or First Russian-Chechen war, was a rebellion by the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria against the Russian Federation, fought from December 1994 to August 1996.
The Government of the Philippines (Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas) is the national government of the Philippines.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (حركة الجهاد الإسلامي, Ḥarkat al-Jihād al-Islāmiyah, meaning "Islamic Jihad Movement", HuJI) is an Islamic fundamentalist organisation most active in South Asian countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh since the early 1990s.
Harkat-ul-Mujahideen- al-Islami (حرکت المجاہدین الاسلامی) (abbreviated HUM) is a Pakistan-based Islamic militant group operating primarily in Kashmir.
The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (حزب المجاھدین, Ḥizb al-Mujāhidīn, meaning "Party of Holy Warriors" or "Party of Mujahideen") is a Kashmiri separatist militant organization founded by Muhammad Ahsan Dar in September 1989.
Hoshyar Mahmud Mohammed Zebari, also simply known as Hoshyar Zebari (also spelled Hoshyar Zubari/Zibari, Kurdish: Hişyar Zêbarî; born 1953) is an Iraqi politician who formerly served as the Deputy Prime Minister of Iraq in 2014 and also as the Finance Minister until 2016.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.
Samir Saleh Abdullah (سامر صالح عبد الله; 14 April 1969 – 20 March 2002), more commonly known as Ibn al-Khattab or Emir Khattab (also transliterated as Amir Khattab and Ameer Khattab, meaning Commander Khattab, or Leader Khattab), was a Saudi Arabian-born mercenary leader in the First Chechen War and the Second Chechen War.
The Indian Mujahideen is a terrorist group led by Abdul Subhan Qureshi.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Islam is the most widespread religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Islamic Declaration (Islamska deklaracija) is an Islamist essay written by Alija Izetbegović (1925–2003), first published in 1969–70, and republished in 1990 in Sarajevo, SFR Yugoslavia.
Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to describe a more spiritual form of socialism.
An Islamic state (دولة إسلامية, dawlah islāmiyyah) is a type of government primarily based on the application of shari'a (Islamic law), dispensation of justice, maintenance of law and order.
The Islamic State of Iraq (ISI; دولة العراق الإسلامية) (commonly referred to as al-Qaeda in Iraq) was a militant Salafist jihadist group that aimed to establish an Islamic state in Sunni, Arab-majority areas of Iraq during the Iraq War and later in Syria during the Syrian Civil War.
Islamic terrorism, Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism is defined as any terrorist act, set of acts or campaign committed by groups or individuals who profess Islamic or Islamist motivations or goals.
The Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen, also known as the Seven Party Mujahideen Alliance or Peshawar Seven, was an Afghan alliance formed in either 1981 or 1985 (see Alliance Formation below) by the seven Afghan mujahideen parties fighting against the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan forces in the Soviet-Afghan War.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
The Jabidah massacre was the killing of Moro soldiers by members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) on 18 March 1968.
Jahanghir Khoja, Jāhangīr Khwāja, or Jihangir Khoja (جهانگیر خوجا, جهانگير خوجة,; 1788 – 1828) was a member of the influential East Turkestan Afaqi khoja clan, who managed to wrest Kashgaria from the Qing Empire's power for a few years in the 1820s.
Jaish-e-Mohammed (جيش محمد, literally "The Army of Muhammad", abbreviated as JeM) is a Deobandi: "Deobandis like Masood Azhar, a graduate of Jamia Binouria who later set up a jihadist outfit named Jaish-e-Muhammad (JeM) in 2000, reportedly at the behest of Pakistan's military establishment." jihadist: "as soon as he was freed, Masood Azhar was back in Pakistan where he founded a new jihadist movement, Jai-sh e Mohd Shaikh, which became one of the jihadist groups the ISI used in Kashmir and elsewhere." group active in Kashmir.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
The Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) is a political organisation in Jammu & Kashmir founded by Amanullah Khan and Maqbool Bhat.
On 6 January 2012, a bomb exploded in the Al-Midan district of Damascus, Syria.
Jason Burke (born 1970) is a British journalist and the author of several non-fiction books.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
The term "Jihadism" (also "jihadist movement", "jihadi movement" and variants) is a 21st-century neologism found in Western languages to describe Islamist militant movements perceived as military movements "rooted in Islam" and "existentially threatening" to the West.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
A Moroccan living illegally in Montreal since 1995, Karim Said Atmani (also Abu Isham, Abu Hisham) was alleged to be a document-forger for the Groupe Islamique Armé, and shared an apartment with Ahmed Ressam.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen (KNM) is an Islamic organization in state of Kerala founded in 1950.
In criminal law, kidnapping is the unlawful carrying away (asportation) and confinement of a person against his or her will.
Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT, لشکر طیبہ; literally Army of the Good, translated as Army of the Righteous, or Army of the Pure and alternatively spelled as Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, Lashkar-e-Toiba; Lashkar-e-Taiba; Lashkar-i-Tayyeba) is one of the largest and most active Islamic terrorism militant organizations in South Asia, operating mainly from Pakistan.
The list of expeditions of Muhammad includes the expeditions undertaken by the Muslim community during the lifetime of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Mohamed Mustafa Ma al-'Aynayn (c. 1830–31 in Oualata, present-day Mauritania – 1910 in Tiznit, Morocco; complete name Mohamad Mustafa ben Mohamad Fadel Maa al-'Aynayn ash-Shanguiti محمد مصطفى بن محمد فاضل ماء العينين الشنكيطي) was a Saharan Moorish religious and political leader who fought French and Spanish colonization in North Africa.
Madrassas of Pakistan are Islamic seminaries in Pakistan, known as Madaris-e-Deeniya in Urdu.
The Maktab al-Khidamat, also Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-'Arab (Arabic: مكتب الخدمات or مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, MAK), also known as the Afghan Services Bureau, was founded in 1984 by Abdullah Azzam, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri to raise funds and recruit foreign mujahidin for the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan.
The Mayu is a river in Rakhine State, Myanmar (Burma).
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Mehmed V. Reşâd (Ottoman Turkish: محمد خامس Meḥmed-i ẖâmis, Beşinci Mehmet Reşat or Reşat Mehmet) (2 November 1844 – 3 July 1918) was the 35th and penultimate Ottoman Sultan.
Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.
Najibullah Ahmadzai (ډاکټر نجیب ﷲ احمدزی; February 1947 – 27 September 1996), commonly known as Najibullah or Dr.
Mullah Mohammed Omar (ملا محمد عمر, Mullā Muḥammad 'Umar; c. 1960 – 23 April 2013), widely known as Mullah Omar, was the supreme commander and spiritual leader of the Taliban.
The Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF; جبهة تحرير مورو الإسلامية Jabhat Taḥrīr Moro al-ʾIslāmiyyah) is a group based in Mindanao, Philippines seeking an autonomous region of the Moro people from the central government.
The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) is a political organization in the Philippines that was founded in 1972.
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; 12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885) was a religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, on 29 June 1881, proclaimed himself the Mahdi, the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith.
The Jaish al-Mujahideen (or Mujahideen Army) is a Sunni militant group in Iraq.
The Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC), (مجلس شورى المجاهدين في العراق), was an umbrella organization of at least six Sunni Islamic insurgent groups taking part in the Iraqi insurgency against U.S. and coalition and Iraqi forces: Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn ('al-Qaeda in Iraq'), Jaish al-Ta'ifa al-Mansurah, Katbiyan Ansar Al-Tawhid wal Sunnah, Saray al-Jihad Group, al-Ghuraba Brigades, and al-Ahwal Brigades.
Mullah (ملا, Molla, ملا / Mollâ, Molla, মোল্লা) is derived from the Arabic word مَوْلَى mawlā, meaning "vicar", "master" and "guardian".
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The National Front of Iran (Jebha-ye Mellī-e Īrān) is an opposition political organization in Iran, founded by Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1949.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
‘Omar al-Mukhṫār Muḥammad bin Farḥāṫ al-Manifī (عُمَرْ الْمُخْتَارْ مُحَمَّدْ بِنْ فَرْحَاتْ الْمَنِفِي; 20 August 1858 – 16 September 1931), called The Lion of the Desert, known among the colonial Italians as Matari of the Mnifa, was the leader of native resistance in Eastern Libya under the Senussids, against the Italian colonization of Libya.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.
Pan-Islamism (الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state – often a Caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
The People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran or the Mojahedin-e Khalq (Sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e khalq-e irān, abbreviated MEK, PMOI or MKO), commonly known in Iran as Munafiqin ("hypocrites"), is an Iranian political–militant organization in exile that advocates the violent overthrow of the current government in Iran, while claiming itself as the replacing government in exile.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
Qutbism (also called Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is an Islamist ideology developed by Sayyid Qutb, the figurehead of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Rakhine State (Rakhine pronunciation;; formerly Arakan) is a state in Myanmar (Burma).
Ransom is the practice of holding a prisoner or item to extort money or property to secure their release, or it may refer to the sum of money involved.
Rasim Delić (4 February 1949 – 16 April 2010) was the Chief of Staff of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Rohingya Solidarity Organisation (abbreviated RSO) is a Rohingya political organisation founded in 1982, following a large scale military operation conducted by the Tatmadaw (Myanmar Armed Forces).
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Second Chechen War (Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.
Soekarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo (January 7, 1905 – September 5, 1962) was an Indonesian Islamic mystic who led the Darul Islam rebellion against the Indonesian government from 1949 to 1962, with the objective of overthrowing the secular Pancasila ideology and establishing Negara Islam Indonesia (Islamic State of Indonesia) based on sharia law.
A sepoy was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier.
Shamil Salmanovich Basayev (Шамиль Басаев, Шамиль Салманович Басаев; 14 January 1965 – 10 July 2006) was a Chechen General militant Islamist and a leader of the Chechen movement.
Imam Shamil (also spelled Shamyl, Schamil, Schamyl or Shameel; Шейх Шамил; Şeyh Şamil; Имам Шамиль; الشيخ شامل) (pronounced "Shaamil") (26 June 1797 – 4 February 1871) was the political, military, and spiritual leader of Caucasian resistance to Imperial Russia in the 1800s, as well as the third Imam of the Caucasian Imamate (1840–1859).
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The final and complete withdrawal of Soviet combatant forces from Afghanistan began on 15 May 1988 and ended on 15 February 1989 under the leadership of Colonel-General Boris Gromov.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
The Students' Islamic Movement of India (abbreviated SIMI) is a banned Islamist organisation that was formed in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, in April 1977.
A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (TQJBR; (Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia", tanẓīm qā‘idat al-jihād fī bilād ar-rāfidayn), also referred to as Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) or Al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia, was an Iraqi Sunni Islamic Jihadist organization affiliated with al-Qaeda.
The San Diego Union-Tribune is an American metropolitan daily newspaper, published in San Diego, California. Its name derives from a 1992 merger between the two major daily newspapers at the time, The San Diego Union and the San Diego Evening Tribune. The name changed to U-T San Diego in 2012 but was changed again to The San Diego Union-Tribune in 2015. In 2015, it was acquired by Tribune Publishing, later renamed tronc. In February 2018 it was announced to be sold, along with the Los Angeles Times, to Patrick Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital LLC for $500 million plus $90m in pension liabilities. The sale closed on June 18, 2018.
United Nations Security Council resolution 713, adopted unanimously on 25 September 1991, after receiving representations from a number of Member States and commending the efforts of the European Community in the region, the Council decided to impose, under Chapter VII, an arms embargo on the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in light of the outbreak of fighting in the country.
The Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) is a data collection project on organized violence housed at Uppsala University in Sweden that has been collecting information on armed conflict since 1946 and making it publicly available through its annual report, States in Armed Conflict. Beginning in Since 2004, the constantly-updated UCDP is also publicly available.
Shaihu Usman dan Fodio, born Usuman ɓii Foduye, (also referred to as عثمان بن فودي, Shaikh Usman Ibn Fodio, Shehu Uthman Dan Fuduye, Shehu Usman dan Fodio or Shaikh Uthman Ibn Fodio) (15 December 1754, Senegal – 20 April 1817, Sokoto) was a religious teacher, writer and Islamic promoter, and the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The War of Dagestan began when the Chechnya-based Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade (IIPB), an Islamist group, led by warlords Shamil Basayev and Ibn al-Khattab, invaded the neighboring Russian republic of Dagestan, on 7 August 1999, in support of the Shura of Dagestan separatist rebels.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
Zenica is the fourth largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the administrative center of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
On 17 August 2005, around 500 bomb explosions occurred at 300 locations in 63 out of the 64 districts of Bangladesh.
The 2008 Mumbai attacks (also referred to as 26/11) were a group of terrorist attacks that took place in November 2008, when 10 members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, an Islamic terrorist organisation based in Pakistan, carried out a series of 12 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks lasting four days across Mumbai.
The 3rd Corps of the Bosnian Army was one of five, later seven.
The 7th Muslim Brigade (Sedma muslimanska brigada) was a brigade in the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH).
Afghan Jihad, Afghan Mujahideen, Afghan mujahideen, Afghan resistance, Burmese Mujahideen, Burmese mujahideen, Foreign Mujahideen, Foreign mujahideen, Huramentado, Huramentados, Mojahed, Mojahedin, Mojahidin, Moujahadin, Moujahedeen, Mudjahedin, Muhajadeen, Muhajeddin, Mujadeen, Mujahaddin, Mujahadeen, Mujahadin, Mujahdeen, Mujahed, Mujaheddin, Mujahedeen, Mujahedeen Army, Mujahedeens, Mujaheden, Mujahedin, Mujahedins, Mujaheedin Afghan, Mujahid, Mujahiddin, Mujahidin, Mujahids, Mujihadeen, Mujāhidīn, Sultan ul-Mujahidin, Union of Mujahadin.