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Index Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use. [1]

431 relations: A Practical Reference to Religious Diversity for Operational Police and Emergency Services, Abdurrahman Wahid, Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address, Abu Dhabi, Aeta people, African Americans, African independence movements, Aga Khan, Aga Khan IV, Age of Enlightenment, Ahmadiyya, Ainu people, Alain LeRoy Locke, Alternatives (journal), American Political Science Review, Americans in the Philippines, Angela Merkel, Aotearoa, Arabic, Architecture of India, Argentines of European descent, Assembly of People of Kazakhstan, Australasian Police Multicultural Advisory Bureau, Australia, Austroasiatic languages, Autonomous administrative division, Baden-Württemberg, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'í Faith in India, Bandung, Banya Bashi Mosque, BBC News, BBC News Online, Bengali language, Berlin, Bhikhu Parekh, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, Bicolano people, Bidayuh, Bombay riots, British Malaya, Broadcasting Act (1991), Bruneian Malay people, Buddhism, Bugis, Bulgaria, Bumiputera (Malaysia), Bunjevci, Canadian identity, Canadian Multiculturalism Act, ..., Canon of Dutch Literature, Caste, Caste system in India, Cathedral of St Joseph, Sofia, Cesar Chavez, Chancellor, Charles Sanders Peirce, Chettiar, Chinatown, Manhattan, Chinatown, Singapore, Chinese Filipino, Chinese Indonesian surname, Chinese Indonesians, Chinese New Year, Christian, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christianity in Indonesia, Christianity in the Philippines, Civil rights movement, Clothing in India, Colonial empire, Colorado, Columbia University, Communalism, Community cohesion, Constitution, Constitution of Malaysia, Contact hypothesis, Cosmopolitanism, Croats of Serbia, Cross-cultural, Cross-cultural communication, Cultural assimilation, Cultural conflict, Cultural diversity, Cultural exception, Cultural homogenization, Cultural mosaic, Cultural pluralism, Culture of Argentina, Culture of India, Dance in India, David Cameron, David Goodhart, Dayak people, Demographics of India, Denmark, Discrimination against Chinese Indonesians, Dravidian languages, Dubai, Dusun people, East Malaysia, Economic impact of immigration to Canada, Egalitarianism, Elsevier, Endogamy, English Canada, English language, English Wikipedia, Ethnic cleansing, Ethnic competition thesis, Ethnic conflict, Ethnic group, Ethnic groups in Indonesia, Ethnic groups in the Philippines, Ethnic groups in Vojvodina, Ethnic penalty, Ethnic studies, Ethnocentrism, Ethnocultural empathy, Ethnology, Ethnopluralism, Eurasians in Singapore, Europe, European Union, Europeanism, Federalist No. 2, Federation of Malaya, First Rutte cabinet, Folk hero, Founding Fathers of the United States, France, Frank Salter, Freedom of religion in Malaysia, French Canadians, French language, French people, Frits van Oostrom, Geography of India, George Santayana, German language, Germany, Geylang, Global Centre for Pluralism, Government of Canada, Government of Vojvodina, Greater Jakarta, Group Representation Constituency, Harvard University, Hindi, Hindu, Hinduism in Indonesia, Hindustani language, Historiography and nationalism, History of India, History of the Philippines (1898–1946), Homosexuality, Horace Kallen, Housing and Development Board, Humanism, Hungarians in Serbia, Hybridity, Iban people, Ibanag people, Igorot people, Ilocano people, Immigration to Argentina, Immigration to Australia, India, Indian cuisine, Indian English, Indian Filipino, Indian literature, Indian subcontinent, Indigenous Australians, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples of the Philippines, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesia, Indonesian language, Inga Clendinnen, Institutionalized discrimination, Intercultural competence, Intercultural relations, Interculturalism, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Islam, Islam in Indonesia, Islam in the Philippines, Isma'ilism, Italian language, Jainism, Japanese in the Philippines, Javanese people, Javanisation, Jāti, Jefferson Davis, Jews, Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science, John Dewey, John Howard, John Jay, Jonathan Sacks, JoongAng Ilbo, José María Aznar, Just society, Kadazan people, Kalimantan, Kangwon National University, Kapampangan people, Kedayan, Keith Windschuttle, Konrad Adenauer Foundation, Koreans in the Philippines, Languages of India, Languages of Indonesia, Latin America, Leitkultur, LGBT, Liberalism, Life in the United Kingdom test, Linguistic description, List of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level, List of national legal systems, Little India, Singapore, Little Italy, Manhattan, Lumad, Lund University, Madurese people, Makassar, Malabar rebellion, Malacca, Malagasy people, Malay Indonesian, Malay language, Malay Peninsula, Malayalam, Malays (ethnic group), Malaysia, Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, Malaysian New Economic Policy, Maluku sectarian conflict, Mangyan, Mauritian of African origin, Mauritian of French origin, Mauritians of Chinese origin, Mauritians of Indian origin, Mauritius, Māori people, Medan, Megawati Sukarnoputri, Meitei language, Melanau people, Melting pot, Metaphor, Mexico, Mexico City, Minangkabau people, Mindanao, Miscegenation, Monoethnicity, Montenegrins of Serbia, Montreal, Moro conflict, Moro people, Moro Rebellion, Multicultural art, Multicultural education, Multiculturalism in Canada, Multiculturalism Without Culture, Multikulti, Multilingualism, Multinational state, Multiple citizenship, Music of India, Muslim, Nation, Nation state, Nation-building, National language, National myth, National personal autonomy, Nationalism, Native Indonesians, Nazi concentration camps, Nazi Germany, Netherlands, New Labour, New Left Review, New York City, New Zealand, Nicolas Sarkozy, Ochpaniztli, One Australia, Orang Asli, Orang Ulu, Palembang, Pancasila (politics), Pangasinan people, Pannonian Rusyns, Parallel society, Parsi, Paul Gottfried, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia, Peranakan, Persian language, Philippines, Philosophy, Pierre Trudeau, Piet Hein Donner, Pim Fortuyn, Place of worship, Plural society, Pluralism (political philosophy), Pluralism (political theory), Pluriculturalism, Plurinationalism, Political philosophy, Polyethnicity, Portuguese language, Poso riots, Post-Suharto era, Postmodernism, Potsdam, Power (social and political), Pragmatism, Primary education, Primary school, Prime minister, Public holidays in Indonesia, Racial integration, Racial segregation, Radio Television of Vojvodina, Rainbow nation, Religion, Religion in India, Religious violence in India, Richard Lamm, Robert D. Putnam, Romani people in Serbia, Romanians of Serbia, Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, Ryukyuan people, SAGE Publications, Saint Patrick's Day, Salad bowl (cultural idea), Sama-Bajau, Sambal people, Sambas riots, Sampit conflict, Sarawak Malay, Scandinavian Political Studies, Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Self-determination, September 11 attacks, Serbia, Serbs, Sikh, Singapore, Sino-Tibetan languages, Slovaks in Serbia, Social contract (Malaysia), Social integration, Sociology, Sofia Synagogue, South Korea, Sovereignty, Spain, Spanish Filipino, Special Broadcasting Service, Sprachraum, St Nedelya Church, Standard Chinese, State (polity), Subculture, Suharto, Sultanate of Sulu, Sundanese people, Surabaya, Sweden Democrats, Tagalog language, Tagalog people, Tamil language, Tamils, Tarō Asō, Tariq Modood, Terrorism, The American Conservative, The Economist, The Globe and Mail, The Holocaust, The Korea Times, The Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States, Theo van Gogh (film director), Theodore C. Bestor, Thurgood Marshall, Torres Strait Islanders, Transculturation, Transmigration program, Trevor Phillips, UNESCO, United Arab Emirates, Unity in diversity, Unrooted Childhoods, Urbanization, Urdu, Value (ethics), Vezhdi Rashidov, Victor Davis Hanson, Vojvodina, W. E. B. Du Bois, War, Western imperialism in Asia, Western world, White Australia policy, Wikidata, Wikimedia Foundation, Wiley-Blackwell, William James, Xenocentrism, 13 May Incident, 1961 Census of India, 1984 anti-Sikh riots, 1997 Asian financial crisis, 2002 Gujarat riots, 2012 Assam violence, 2013 Muzaffarnagar riots, 7 July 2005 London bombings. Expand index (381 more) »

A Practical Reference to Religious Diversity for Operational Police and Emergency Services

A Practical Reference to Religious and Spiritual Diversity for Operational Police is a publication of the Australia New Zealand Policing Advisory Agency.

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Abdurrahman Wahid

Abdurrahman Wahid, born Abdurrahman ad-Dakhil (September 1940 – 30 December 2009), colloquially known as, was an Indonesian Muslim religious and political leader who served as the President of Indonesia from 1999 to 2001.

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Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address

Abraham Lincoln delivered his second inaugural address on March 4, 1865, during his second inauguration as President of the United States.

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Abu Dhabi

Abu Dhabi (أبو ظبي) is the capital and the second most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (the most populous being Dubai), and also capital of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the largest of the UAE's seven emirates.

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Aeta people

The Aeta (Ayta), or Agta, are an indigenous people who live in scattered, isolated mountainous parts of the island of Luzon, the Philippines.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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African independence movements

The African Independence Movements took place in the 20th century, when a wave of struggles for independence in European-ruled African territories were witnessed.

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Aga Khan

Aga Khan (آقاخان; also transliterated as Aqa Khan and Agha Khan) is a title used also as a name by the Imam of the Nizari Ismailis, whose current holder is the 49th Imam (1957–present), Prince Shah Karim Al Husseini Aga Khan IV (b. 1936).

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Aga Khan IV

Prince Shah Karim Al Hussaini, Aga Khan IV, (شاه كريم الحسيني، الآغاخان الرابع; شاه کریم حسینی، آقاخان چهارم; شاه کریم حسینی، آغاخان چهارم; Aga Khan is also transliterated as Aqa Khan and Agha Khan; born 13 December 1936) is the 49th and current Imam of Nizari Ismailism, a denomination of Isma'ilism within Shia Islam consisting of an estimated 10-15 million adherents (10—12% of the world's Shia Muslim population).

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.

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Ainu people

The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).

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Alain LeRoy Locke

Alain Leroy Locke (September 13, 1885 – June 9, 1954) was an American writer, philosopher, educator, and patron of the arts.

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Alternatives (journal)

Alternatives: Global, Local, Political is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of international relations.

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American Political Science Review

The American Political Science Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all areas of political science.

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Americans in the Philippines

American settlement in the Philippines (or Americo–Filipino) began during the Spanish period, when Americans came to the islands primarily to conduct business.

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Angela Merkel

Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.

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Aotearoa (commonly pronounced by some English speakers as) is the Māori name for New Zealand.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Architecture of India

The architecture of India is rooted in its history, culture and religion.

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Argentines of European descent

European Argentines belong to several communities which trace their origins to various migrations from Europe, and which have contributed to the country's cultural and demographic variety.

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Assembly of People of Kazakhstan

The Assembly of People of Kazakhstan (AKP) is a national political body in Kazakhstan consisting of delegates of the Regional Assemblies of the People.

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Australasian Police Multicultural Advisory Bureau

Australasian Police Multicultural Advisory Bureau (formerly the National Police Ethnic Advisory Bureau) is an agency of the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs of the Government of Australia.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Austroasiatic languages

The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.

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Autonomous administrative division

An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.

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Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.

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Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.

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Bahá'í Faith in India

Even though the Bahá'í Faith in India is tiny in proportion of the national population, it is numerically large and has a long history culminating in recent times with the notable Lotus Temple, various Bahá'í schools, and increasing prominence.

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Bandung (Sundanese:, Bandung, formerly Dutch: Bandoeng), is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia and Greater Bandung made up of 2 municipalities and 38 districts, making it Indonesia's 2nd largest metropolitan area with over 8.5 millions inhabitants listed in the 2015 Badan Pusat Statistik data.

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Banya Bashi Mosque

Banya Bashi Mosque (Баня баши джамия, Banya bashi dzhamiya; Banya Başı Camii) is a mosque in Sofia, Bulgaria, built by the architect and civil engineer Mimar Sinan.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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BBC News Online

BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.

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Bengali language

Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.

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Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Bhikhu Parekh

Bhikhu Chotalal Parekh, Baron Parekh (born 4 January 1935 in Amalsad, Gujarat) as the speaker for the Justice KT Desai Memorial Lecture 2009, Bombay Bar Association.

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Bhinneka Tunggal Ika

Bhinneka Tunggal Ika is the official national motto of Indonesia.

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Bicolano people

The Bicolanos are the fifth-largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group.

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Bidayuh is the collective name for several indigenous groups found in southern Sarawak, Malaysia and northern West Kalimantan, Indonesia, on the island of Borneo, that are broadly similar in language and culture (see also issues below).

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Bombay riots

The Bombay Riots usually refers to the riots in Mumbai, in December 1992 and January 1993, in which around 900 people died.

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British Malaya

The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.

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Broadcasting Act (1991)

The Broadcasting Act (long title: "An Act respecting broadcasting and to amend certain Acts in relation thereto and in relation to radiocommunication") is an Act of the Parliament of Canada regarding broadcasting of radiocommunications.

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Bruneian Malay people

Bruneian MalaysBrunei Malay in its various forms can be identified with a nation, an ethnic group, and a region.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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The Buginese people are an ethnic group—the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, in the southwestern province of Sulawesi, third largest island of Indonesia.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Bumiputera (Malaysia)

Bumiputera or Bumiputra (Jawi: بوميڤوترا) is a Malaysian term to describe Malays and other indigenous peoples of Southeast Asia, i.e. the Malay world, used similarly as in Indonesia and Brunei.

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Bunjevci are a South Slavic ethnic group living mostly in the Bačka region of Serbia (province of Vojvodina) and southern Hungary (Bács-Kiskun county, particularly in the Baja region).

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Canadian identity

Canadian identity refers to the unique culture, characteristics and condition of being Canadian, as well as the many symbols and expressions that set Canada and Canadians apart from other peoples and cultures of the world.

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Canadian Multiculturalism Act

The Canadian Multiculturalism Act (the Act) is a law of Canada, passed in 1988, that aims to preserve and enhance multiculturalism in Canada.

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Canon of Dutch Literature

The Basisbibliotheek (canon of Dutch literature) comprises a list of 1000 works of Dutch Literature culturally important to the cultural heritage of the Low Countries, and is published on the DBNL.

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Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.

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Caste system in India

The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.

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Cathedral of St Joseph, Sofia

The Cathedral of St Joseph (катедрала „Св.) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.

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Cesar Chavez

Cesar Chavez (born César Estrada Chávez,; March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was an American labor leader and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers union, UFW) in 1962.

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Chancellor (cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.

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Charles Sanders Peirce

Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".

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Chettiar or Chetti is a title used by various mercantile, agricultural and land owning castes in South India, especially in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

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Chinatown, Manhattan

Manhattan's Chinatown is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, bordering the Lower East Side to its east, Little Italy to its north, Civic Center to its south, and Tribeca to its west.

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Chinatown, Singapore

Chinatown (Kreta Ayer, சைனா டவுன்) is a subzone and ethnic enclave located within the Outram district in the Central Area of Singapore.

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Chinese Filipino

Chinese Filipinos (Filipino: Pilipinong Tsino, Tsinoy or Intsik) are Filipinos of Chinese descent, mostly born and raised in the Philippines.

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Chinese Indonesian surname

A large number of ethnic Chinese people have lived in Indonesia for many centuries.

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Chinese Indonesians

Chinese Indonesians (Indonesian: Orang Tionghoa-Indonesia) are Indonesians descended from various Chinese ethnic groups, primarily the Han Chinese.

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Chinese New Year

Chinese New Year, usually known as the Spring Festival in modern China, is an important Chinese festival celebrated at the turn of the traditional lunisolar Chinese calendar.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Christian Democratic Union of Germany

The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.

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Christianity in Indonesia

Christianity is Indonesia's second-largest religion, after Islam.

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Christianity in the Philippines

The Philippines is the 5th largest Christian country on Earth,Most Christians reside in the United States with 246.8 million, followed by Brazil with 175.8 million, Mexico with 107.8 million, and Russia with 105.2 million.

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Civil rights movement

The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.

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Clothing in India

Clothing in India varies depending on the different ethnicity, geography, climate and cultural traditions of the people of each region of India.

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Colonial empire

A colonial empire is a collective of territories (often called colonies), mostly overseas, settled by the population of a certain state and governed by that state.

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Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Communalism usually refers to a system that integrates communal ownership and federations of highly localized independent communities.

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Community cohesion

The concept of community cohesion was established in the United Kingdom following a number of riots and disturbances in England in 2001.

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A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.

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Constitution of Malaysia

The Federal Constitution of Malaya, which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaya.

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Contact hypothesis

In criminology, psychology, and sociology, the Intergroup Contact Theory has been described as one of the best ways to improve relations among groups that are experiencing conflict.

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Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.

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Croats of Serbia

The Croats of Serbia (Hrvati u Srbiji, Хрвати у Србији / Hrvati u Srbiji) or Serbian Croats (Srpski Hrvati, Српски Хрвати / Srpski Hrvati) are the recognized Croat national minority in Serbia, a status they received in 2002.

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Cross-cultural may refer to.

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Cross-cultural communication

Cross-cultural communication is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, and how they endeavour to communicate across cultures.

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Cultural assimilation

Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.

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Cultural conflict

Cultural conflict is a type of conflict that occurs when different cultural values and beliefs clash.

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Cultural diversity

Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural decay.

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Cultural exception

Cultural exception (l’exception culturelle) is a political concept introduced by France in General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations in 1993 to treat culture differently from other commercial products.

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Cultural homogenization

Cultural homogenisation is an aspect of cultural globalisation, listed as one of its main characteristics, and refers to the reduction in cultural diversity through the popularization and diffusion of a wide array of cultural symbols—not only physical objects but customs, ideas and values.

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Cultural mosaic

"Cultural mosaic" ("la mosaïque culturelle") is the mix of ethnic groups, languages, and cultures that coexist within society.

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Cultural pluralism

Cultural pluralism is a term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture provided they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society.

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Culture of Argentina

The culture of Argentina is as varied as the country's geography and is composed of a mix of ethnic groups.

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Culture of India

The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India.

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Dance in India

Dance in India comprises numerous styles of dances, generally classified as classical or folk.

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David Cameron

David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.

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David Goodhart

David Goodhart (born 12 September 1956) is a British journalist, commentator, and author.

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Dayak people

The Dayak or Dyak or Dayuh are the native people of Borneo.

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Demographics of India

India is the second most populated country in the world with nearly a fifth of the world's population.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Discrimination against Chinese Indonesians

Discrimination and violence against people of Chinese descent in Indonesia has been recorded since at least 1740, when the Dutch Colonial Government killed up to 10,000 people of Chinese descent during the Chinezenmoord.

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Dravidian languages

The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.

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Dubai (دبي) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

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Dusun people

Dusun is the collective name of a tribe or ethnic and linguistic group in the Malaysian state of Sabah of North Borneo.

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East Malaysia

East Malaysia (Malaysia Timur), also known as Sabah, Sarawak and Labuan (Sabah, Sarawak dan Labuan) or Malaysian Borneo, is the part of Malaysia on the island of Borneo, the world's third largest island.

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Economic impact of immigration to Canada

The economic impact of immigration is an important topic in Canada.

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Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.

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English Canada

English Canada is a term referring to one of the following.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English Wikipedia

The English Wikipedia is the English-language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia.

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Ethnic cleansing

Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.

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Ethnic competition thesis

The ethnic competition thesis, also known as ethnic competition theory or ethnic competition hypothesis, is an academic theory that posits that individuals support far-right political parties because they wish to reduce competition from immigrants over scarce resources such as jobs, housing and welfare benefits.

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Ethnic conflict

An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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Ethnic groups in Indonesia

There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia including Javanese, Sundanese, and Batak.

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Ethnic groups in the Philippines

The Philippines is inhabited by more than 175 ethnolinguistic nations, the majority of whose languages are Malay in origin, then Han Chinese, then European (mostly Spanish).

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Ethnic groups in Vojvodina

Vojvodina is a province in Republic of Serbia and one of the most ethnically diverse regions in Europe, home to 25 different ethnicities.

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Ethnic penalty

Ethnic penalty in sociology is defined as the economic and non-economic disadvantages that ethnic minorities experience in the labour market compared to other ethnic groups.

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Ethnic studies

Ethnic studies, in the United States, is the interdisciplinary study of difference—chiefly race, ethnicity, and nation, but also sexuality, gender, and other such markings—and power, as expressed by the state, by civil society, and by individuals.

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Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.

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Ethnocultural empathy

Ethnocultural empathy refers to the understanding of feelings of individuals that are ethnically and/or culturally different from oneself.

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Ethnology (from the Greek ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "nation") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationship between them (cf. cultural, social, or sociocultural anthropology).

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Ethnopluralism or ethno-pluralism is a hypothetical far right and neo-fascist-associated model where self-governing regions divided by ethnicity would be established.

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Eurasians in Singapore

Eurasians in Singapore are individuals of mixed European and Asian descent.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Europeanism is a political neologism, coined in c. 2002 by the "Center for Dialogue and Universalism" at Warsaw University, coined for ideological support for the process of European integration as pursued by the European Union.

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Federalist No. 2

Federalist No.

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Federation of Malaya

The Federation of Malaya (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; Jawi: ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو) was a federation of 11 states (nine Malay states and two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca)See: Cabinet Memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

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First Rutte cabinet

The First Rutte cabinet, also called the Rutte–Verhagen cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 14 October 2010 until 5 November 2012.

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Folk hero

A folk hero or national hero is a type of hero – real, fictional or mythological – with the sole salient characteristic being the imprinting of his or her name, personality and deeds in the popular consciousness of a people.

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Founding Fathers of the United States

The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frank Salter

Frank Kemp Salter is an Australian academic and researcher at the former Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology, Andechs, Germany, best known for his writings on ethnicity and ethnic interests.

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Freedom of religion in Malaysia

Freedom of religion is enshrined in the Malaysian Constitution.

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French Canadians

French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French people

The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.

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Frits van Oostrom

Frits van Oostrom (born, May 15, 1953), born in Utrecht, Netherlands, is University Professor for the Humanities at the Utrecht University.

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Geography of India

India lies on the Indian Plate, the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, whose continental crust forms the Indian subcontinent.

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George Santayana

Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (December 16, 1863September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Geylang (கேலாங்) is a planning area and township located on the eastern fringe of the Central Region of Singapore, bordering Hougang and Toa Payoh in the north, Marine Parade in the south, Bedok in the east, and Kallang in the west.

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Global Centre for Pluralism

The Global Centre for Pluralism (Centre mondial du pluralisme) is an international centre for research, education and exchange about the values, practices and policies that underpin pluralist societies.

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Government of Canada

The Government of Canada (Gouvernement du Canada), formally Her Majesty's Government (Gouvernement de Sa Majesté), is the federal administration of Canada.

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Government of Vojvodina

The Government of Vojvodina (Влада Војводине / Vlada Vojvodine) is the executive organ of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, within the Republic of Serbia.

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Greater Jakarta

Greater Jakarta (Indonesian: Jakarta Raya) is the urban agglomeration surrounding Jakarta, Indonesia, the capital and largest city in the country, home to over 30 million people (2014).

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Group Representation Constituency

A Group Representation Constituency (GRC) is a type of electoral division or constituency in Singapore in which teams of candidates, instead of individual candidates, compete to be elected into Parliament as the Members of Parliament (MPs) for the constituency.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hinduism in Indonesia

Hinduism in Indonesia is practised by 1.7% of the total population, and by 83.5% of the population in Bali as of the 2010 census.

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Hindustani language

Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.

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Historiography and nationalism

Historiography is the study of how history is written.

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History of India

The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.

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History of the Philippines (1898–1946)

The history of the Philippines from 1898 to 1946 covers the period of American rule in the Philippines and began with the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in April 1898, when the Philippines was still part of the Spanish East Indies, and concluded when the United States formally recognised the independence of the Republic of the Philippines on July 4, 1946.

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Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.

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Horace Kallen

Horace Meyer Kallen (August 11, 1882 – February 16, 1974) was an American philosopher.

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Housing and Development Board

The Housing & Development Board (Abbreviation: HDB; Lembaga Pembangunan dan Perumahan;; வீடமைப்பு வளர்ச்சிக் கழகம்) is the statutory board of the Ministry of National Development responsible for public housing in Singapore.

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Hungarians in Serbia

Hungarians in Serbia are the second largest ethnic group in the country if not counting Kosovo.

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Hybridity, in its most basic sense, refers to mixture.

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Iban people

The Ibans or Sea Dayaks are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo.

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Ibanag people

The Ibanag (also Ybanag and Ybanak or Ibanak) are an ethnolinguistic minority numbering a little more than half a million people, who inhabit the provinces of Cagayan, Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya.

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Igorot people

Igorot, or Cordillerans, is the collective name of several Austronesian ethnic groups in the Philippines, who inhabit the mountains of Luzon.

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Ilocano people

The Ilocanos (Tattao nga Iloko/Ilokano), Ilokanos, or Iloko people are the third largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group that mostly reside within the Ilocos Region in the northwestern seaboard of Luzon, Philippines.

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Immigration to Argentina

Immigration to Argentina began in several millennia BC with the arrival of cultures from Asia to the Americas through Beringia, according to the most accepted theories, and were slowly populating the continent.

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Immigration to Australia

Immigration to Australia began when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of Maritime Southeast Asia and New Guinea.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian cuisine

Indian cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent.

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Indian English

Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.

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Indian Filipino

Indian Filipinos refers to Filipinos of Indian descent who have historical connections with and have established themselves in what is now the Philippines.

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Indian literature

Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the Republic of India thereafter.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indigenous Australians

Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Indigenous peoples of the Philippines

The Philippines consist of a large number of upland and lowland ethnolinguistic groups living in the country.

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Indo-Aryan languages

The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Indonesian language

Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.

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Inga Clendinnen

Inga Vivienne Clendinnen, (17 August 1934 – 8 September 2016) was an Australian author, historian, anthropologist, and academic.

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Institutionalized discrimination

Institutionalized discrimination refers to the unjust and discriminatory mistreatment of an individual or group of individuals by society and its institutions as a whole, through unequal selection or bias, intentional or unintentional; as opposed to individuals making a conscious choice to discriminate.

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Intercultural competence

U.S. Military Academy Center for Languages, Cultures, and Regional Studies.

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Intercultural relations

Intercultural Relations, sometimes called Intercultural Studies, is a relatively new formal field of social science studies.

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Interculturalism refers to support for cross-cultural dialogue and challenging self-segregation tendencies within cultures.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islam in Indonesia

Islam is the most adhered to religion in Indonesia, with 87.2% of Indonesian population identifying themselves as Muslim in 2010 estimate.

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Islam in the Philippines

Islam is the oldest recorded monotheistic religion in the Philippines.

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Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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Japanese in the Philippines

Japanese settlement in the Philippines refers to the branch of the Japanese diaspora having historical contact with and having established themselves in what is now the Philippines.

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Javanese people

The Javanese (Ngoko Javanese:, Madya Javanese:,See: Javanese language: Politeness Krama Javanese:, Ngoko Gêdrìk: wòng Jåwå, Madya Gêdrìk: tiyang Jawi, Krama Gêdrìk: priyantun Jawi, Indonesian: suku Jawa) are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java.

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Javanisation (Jawanisasi or Penjawaan) is the process in which Javanese culture dominates, assimilates, or influences other cultures in general.

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Jāti (in Devanagari: जाति, Bengali: জাতি, Telugu:జాతి, Kannada:ಜಾತಿ, Malayalam: ജാതി, Tamil:ஜாதி, literally "birth") is a group of clans, tribes, communities and sub-communities, and religions in India.

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Jefferson Davis

Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as the only President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science

The Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science (Skytteanska priset) was established in 1995 by the Johan Skytte Foundation at Uppsala University.

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John Dewey

John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.

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John Howard

John Winston Howard, (born 26 July 1939) is a former Australian politician who served as the 25th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1996 to 2007.

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John Jay

John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, negotiator and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, second Governor of New York, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–1795).

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Jonathan Sacks

Jonathan Henry Sacks, Baron Sacks, (Hebrew: Yaakov Zvi, יעקב צבי; born 8 March 1948) is a British Orthodox rabbi, philosopher, theologian, author and politician.

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JoongAng Ilbo

JoongAng Ilbo (The Central Times) is a South Korean daily newspaper published in Seoul, South Korea.

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José María Aznar

José María Alfredo Aznar López (born 25 February 1953) is a Spanish politician who served as the Prime Minister of Spain from 1996 to 2004.

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Just society

The idea of a just society first gained modern attention when philosophers such as John Stuart Mill asked, "What is a 'just society'?" Their writings covered several different perspectives including allowing individuals to live their lives as long as they didn't infringe on the rights to others, to the idea that the resources of society should be distributed to all, including those most deserving first.

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Kadazan people

The Kadazans are an ethnic group indigenous to the state of Sabah in Malaysia.

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Kalimantan is the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo.

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Kangwon National University

Kangwon National University (KNU) was established in 1947 in Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, South Korea.

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Kapampangan people

The Kapampangan people (Taung Kapampangan), also known as Pampangueños or Pampangos, are the fifth largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines, numbering about 2.89 million.

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The Kedayan (also known as Kadayan, Kadaian or Kadyan) are an ethnic group residing in Brunei, Labuan, Sabah, and parts of Sarawak on the island of Borneo.

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Keith Windschuttle

Keith Windschuttle (born 1942) is an Australian writer, historian, and former ABC board member.

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Konrad Adenauer Foundation

The Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e.V. (KAS; Konrad Adenauer Foundation) is a German political party foundation associated with but independent of the centrist Christian Democratic Union (CDU).

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Koreans in the Philippines

Koreans in the Philippines, largely consisting of expatriates from South Korea, form the largest Korean diaspora community in Southeast Asia and the ninth-largest in the world, after Koreans in Kazakhstan and before Koreans in Vietnam.

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Languages of India

Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.

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Languages of Indonesia

More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia.

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Latin America

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.

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Leitkultur is a German concept, which can be translated as 'guiding culture' or 'leading culture', less literally as 'common culture', 'core culture' or 'basic culture'.

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LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.

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Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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Life in the United Kingdom test

The Life in the United Kingdom test is a computer-based test constituting one of the requirements for anyone seeking Indefinite Leave to Remain in the UK or naturalisation as a British citizen.

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Linguistic description

In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.

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List of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level

This page contains lists of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level.

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List of national legal systems

The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.

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Little India, Singapore

Little India (Tamil: லிட்டில் இந்தியா) is an ethnic district in Singapore.

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Little Italy, Manhattan

Little Italy is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, once known for its large population of Italian Americans.

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The Lumad are a group of non-Muslim indigenous people in the southern Philippines.

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Lund University

Lund University (Lunds universitet) is a public university, consistently ranking among the world's top 100 universities.

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Madurese people

The Madurese (sometimes Madurace or Madhure) also known as Orang Madura and Suku Madura in Indonesian are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic group by population.

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Makassar (Buginese-Makassar language: ᨀᨚᨈ ᨆᨀᨔᨑ) – sometimes spelled Macassar – is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

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Malabar rebellion

The Malabar rebellion (also known as the Moplah rebellion and Māppila Lahaḷa in Malayalam) was a mass uprising to form an independent state of decolonised India.It was a lahala against British authority in the Malabar region of Southern India by Mappilas and the culmination of a series of Mappila revolts that recurred throughout the 19th century and early 20th century.

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Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.

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Malagasy people

The Malagasy (Malgache) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the island and country of Madagascar.

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Malay Indonesian

Malay Indonesians (Malay: orang Melayu Indonesia; Jawi script: اورڠ ملايو ايندونيسيا) are ethnic Malays living throughout Indonesia as one of the indigenous peoples of the island nation.

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Malay language

Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

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Malay Peninsula

The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.

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Malays (ethnic group)

Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Malaysian Chinese

The Malaysian Chinese consist of people of full or partial Chinese—particularly Han Chinese—ancestry who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia.

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Malaysian Indians

The Malaysian Indians or Indian Malaysians (Tamil: மலேசிய இந்தியர்கள்) consist of people of full or partial Indian through paternal descent —particularly Tamil Indians who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia from Tamil Nadu.

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Malaysian New Economic Policy

The New Economic Policy (NEP) (Dasar Ekonomi Baru (DEB)) was a social re-engineering and affirmative action program formulated by the National Operations Council (NOC) in the aftermath of 13 May Incident in Malaysia.

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Maluku sectarian conflict

The Maluku Islands sectarian conflict was a period of ethno-political conflict along religious lines, which spanned the Indonesian islands that compose the Maluku archipelago, with particularly serious disturbances in Ambon and Halmahera Islands.

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Mangyan is the generic name for the eight indigenous groups found on the island of Mindoro, southwest of the island of Luzon, the Philippines, each with its own tribal name, language, and customs.

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Mauritian of African origin

Mauritians of African origin, also known as Creole, are Mauritian people whose ancestors are from African countries, mainly from Madagascar and Mozambique.

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Mauritian of French origin

A Mauritian of French origin, as the name implies, is a Mauritian person whose ancestors are from France.

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Mauritians of Chinese origin

Mauritians of Chinese origin, also known as Sino-Mauritians, are Mauritians who trace their ethnic ancestry to China.

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Mauritians of Indian origin

Mauritians of Indian origin, also known as Indo-Mauritians, are Mauritians whose ancestors are from the Indian subcontinent.

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Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.

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Māori people

The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.

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Medan; is the capital of North Sumatra province in Indonesia.

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Megawati Sukarnoputri

Diah Permata Megawati Setiawati Sukarnoputri, usually shortened to Megawati Sukarnoputri (born 23 January 1947), generally known as Megawati, is an Indonesian politician who served as president of Indonesia from 23 July 2001 to 20 October 2004.

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Meitei language

Meitei (also Manipuri, Census of India, 2001, Meithei, Meetei, Meeʁteilon) is the predominant language and lingua franca in the southeastern Himalayan state of Manipur, in northeastern India.

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Melanau people

Melanau or A-Likou (meaning River people) are an ethnic group indigenous to Sarawak, Malaysia.

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Melting pot

The melting pot is a monocultural metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" into a harmonious whole with a common culture or vice versa, for a homogeneous society becoming more heterogeneous through the influx of foreign elements with different cultural background with a potential creation of disharmony with the previous culture.

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A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Mexico City

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.

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Minangkabau people

Minangkabau people (Minangkabau: Urang Minang; Indonesian: Suku Minang; Jawi script: اورڠ مينڠ), also known as Minang, are an ethnic group indigenous to the Minangkabau Highlands of West Sumatra, Indonesia.

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Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines.

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Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.

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Monoethnicity is the existence of a single ethnic group in a given region or country.

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Montenegrins of Serbia

The Montenegrins of Serbia (Montenegrin and Serbian: Crnogorci u Srbiji / Црногорци у Србији) are a national minority in the country.

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Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.

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Moro conflict

The Moro conflict is an insurgency in the Mindanao region of the Philippines.

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Moro people

The Moro, also called the Bangsamoro or Bangsa Moro, are the Muslim population of the Philippines, forming the largest non-Catholic group in the country and comprising about 11% (as of the year 2012) of the total Philippine population.

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Moro Rebellion

The Moro Rebellion (1899–1913) was an armed conflict between the Moro people and the United States military during the Philippine-American War.

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Multicultural art

Multicultural art concentrates on pieces of creativity that have an essence of a certain cultural theme.

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Multicultural education

Multicultural education is a set of educational strategies developed to assist teachers when responding to the many issues created by the rapidly changing demographics of their students.

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Multiculturalism in Canada

A policy of multiculturalism was officially adopted by the Government of Canada under Pierre Trudeau during the 1970s and 1980s.

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Multiculturalism Without Culture

Multiculturalism without Culture is a book written by Anne Phillips.

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Multikulti is a slogan of the multiculturalism public policy approach.

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Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.

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Multinational state

A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.

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Multiple citizenship

Multiple citizenship, dual citizenship, multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states.

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Music of India

The music of India includes multiple varieties of classical music, folk music, filmi, Indian rock and Indian pop.

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.

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Nation state

A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.

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Nation-building is constructing or structuring a national identity using the power of the state.

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National language

A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.

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National myth

A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nation's past.

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National personal autonomy

The Austromarxist principle of national personal autonomy ("personal principle"), developed by Otto Bauer in his 1907 book Die Nationalitätenfrage und die Sozialdemokratie (The Nationalities Question and Social Democracy) was seen by him a way of gathering the geographically divided members of the same nation to "organize nations not in territorial bodies but in simple association of persons", thus radically disjoining the nation from the territory and making of the nation a non-territorial association.

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Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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Native Indonesians

Native Indonesians, or Pribumi/Bumiputra (literally "inlanders"), are members of the population group in Indonesia that shares a similar sociocultural and ethnic heritage whose members are considered natives of the country.

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Nazi concentration camps

Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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New Labour

New Labour refers to a period in the history of the British Labour Party from the late-1990s until 2010 under the leadership of Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.

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New Left Review

The New Left Review is a bimonthly political academic journal covering world politics, economy, and culture which was established in 1960.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nicolas Sarkozy

Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.

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Ochpaniztli is the Eleventh Month of the Aztec calendar.

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One Australia

One Australia was the immigration and ethnic affairs policy of the Liberal-National Opposition in Australia, released in 1988.

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Orang Asli

Orang Asli (lit. "original people", "natural people" or "aboriginal people" in Malay) are the indigenous people and the oldest inhabitants of Peninsular Malaysia.

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Orang Ulu

Orang Ulu ("people of the interior" in Malay) is an ethnic designation politically coined to group together roughly 27 very small but ethnically diverse tribal groups in northeastern Sarawak, Malaysia with populations ranging from less than 300 persons to over 25,000 persons.

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Palembang (Indonesian pronunciation: palɛmˈbaŋ) is the capital city of South Sumatra province of Indonesia.

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Pancasila (politics)

Pancasila is the official, foundational philosophical theory of the Indonesian state.

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Pangasinan people

The Pangasinan people (Totoon Pangasinan), also known as Pangasinense, are a ethnolinguistic group native to the the Philippines.

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Pannonian Rusyns

Rusyns in Pannonia, or simply Rusyns or Ruthenians (Rusyn: Руснаци or Русини, Serbian: Русини/Rusini, Croatian: Rusini), are a regional minority subgroup of the Rusyns, an Eastern Slavic peoples.

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Parallel society

Parallel society (Parallelgesellschaft) refers to the self-organization of an ethnic or religious minority, often immigrant groups, with the intent of a reduced or minimal spatial, social and cultural contact with the majority society into which they immigrate.

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A Parsi (or Parsee) means "Persian" in the "Persian Language", which today mainly refers to a member of a Zoroastrian community, one of two (the other being Iranis) mainly located in India, with a few in Pakistan.

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Paul Gottfried

Paul Edward Gottfried (born November 21, 1941) is an American paleoconservative philosopher, historian, and columnist.

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Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait.

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Peninsular Malaysia

Peninsular Malaysia also known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands.

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Peranakan Chinese, or Straits-born Chinese, are the descendants of Chinese immigrants who came to the Malay archipelago including British Malaya (now Malaysia and Singapore, where they are also referred to as Baba-Nyonya) and Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia; where they are also referred as Kiau-Seng) and southern Thailand, primarily in Phuket and Ranong between the 15th and 17th centuries.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Pierre Trudeau

Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), often referred to by the initials PET, was a Canadian statesman who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada (1968–1979 and 1980–1984).

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Piet Hein Donner

Jan Pieter Hendrik "Piet Hein" Donner (born 20 October 1948) is a Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).

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Pim Fortuyn

Wilhelmus Simon Petrus Fortuijn, known as Pim Fortuyn (19 February 1948 – 6 May 2002), was a Dutch politician, civil servant, sociologist, author and professor who formed his own party, Pim Fortuyn List (Lijst Pim Fortuyn or LPF) in 2002.

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Place of worship

A place of worship is a specially designed structure or consecrated space where individuals or a group of people such as a congregation come to perform acts of devotion, veneration, or religious study.

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Plural society

A plural society is defined by Fredrik Barth as a society combining ethnic contrasts: the economic interdependence of those groups, and their ecological specialization (i.e., use of different environmental resources by each ethnic group).

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Pluralism (political philosophy)

Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.

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Pluralism (political theory)

Classical pluralism is the view that politics and decision making are located mostly in the framework of government, but that many non-governmental groups use their resources to exert influence.

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Pluriculturalism is an approach to the self and others as complex rich beings which act and react from the perspective of multiple identifications.

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Plurinationality, plurinational, or plurinationalism is defined as the coexistence of two or more sealed or preserved national groups within a polity (an organized community or body of peoples).

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Political philosophy

Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

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Polyethnicity refers to the proximity of people from different ethnic backgrounds within a country or other specific geographic region.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Poso riots

The Poso riots is a name given to a series of riots that occurred in Poso, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

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Post-Suharto era

The Post-Suharto era in Indonesia began with the fall of Suharto in 1998 during which Indonesia has been in a period of transition, an era known in Indonesia as Reformasi (English: Reform).

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Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.

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Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.

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Power (social and political)

In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.

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Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.

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Primary education

Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).

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Primary school

A primary school (or elementary school in American English and often in Canadian English) is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about seven to twelve, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school.

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Prime minister

A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.

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Public holidays in Indonesia

The following table indicates declared Indonesian government national holidays for the year 2018 only—cultural variants also provide opportunity for holidays tied to local events.

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Racial integration

Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation).

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Racial segregation

Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.

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Radio Television of Vojvodina

Radio Television of Vojvodina (Радио Телевизија Војводине (РТВ)/Radio Televizija Vojvodine (RTV), Vajdasági rádió és televízió, Radio Televizia Vojvodiny, Radio Televizija Vojvodine, Radioteleviziunea Voivodinei, Rusyn: Радіо Телебачення Воєводини) is the regional public broadcaster in the Serbian province of Vojvodina.

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Rainbow nation

Rainbow nation is a term coined by Archbishop Desmond Tutu to describe post-apartheid South Africa, after South Africa's first fully democratic election in 1994.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religion in India

Religion in India is characterised by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices.

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Religious violence in India

Religious violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting.

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Richard Lamm

Richard Douglas "Dick" Lamm (born August 3, 1935) is an American politician, writer, Certified Public Accountant, college professor, and lawyer.

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Robert D. Putnam

Robert David Putnam (born January 9, 1941) is an American political scientist.

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Romani people in Serbia

Romani people or Roma (Роми/Romi) are the third largest ethnic group in Serbia, numbering 147,604 (2.1%) according to the 2011 census.

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Romanians of Serbia

Romanians (Românii din Serbia, Румуни у Србији / Rumuni u Srbiji) are a recognised national minority in Serbia.

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Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism

The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (Commission royale d’enquête sur le bilinguisme et le biculturalisme, also known as the Bi and Bi Commission and the Laurendeau-Dunton Commission.) was a Canadian royal commission established on 19 July 1963, by the government of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson to "inquire into and report upon the existing state of bilingualism and biculturalism in Canada and to recommend what steps should be taken to develop the Canadian Confederation on the basis of an equal partnership between the two founding races, taking into account the contribution made by the other ethnic groups to the cultural enrichment of Canada and the measures that should be taken to safeguard that contribution".

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Ryukyuan people

The; also Lewchewan or) are the indigenous peoples of the Ryukyu Islands between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan. Politically, they live in either Okinawa Prefecture or Kagoshima Prefecture. Their languages make up the Ryukyuan languages, considered to be one of the two branches of the Japonic language family, the other being Japanese and its dialects. Ryukyuans are not a recognized minority group in Japan, as Japanese authorities consider them just a subgroup of the Japanese people, akin to the Yamato people and Ainu. Although unrecognized, Ryukyuans constitute the largest ethnolinguistic minority group in Japan, with 1.3 million living in Okinawa Prefecture alone. There is also a considerable Ryukyuan diaspora. As many as 600,000 more ethnic Ryukyuans and their descendants are dispersed elsewhere in Japan and worldwide; mostly in Hawaii and, to a lesser extent, in other territories where there is also a sizable Japanese diaspora. In the majority of countries, the Ryukyuan and Japanese diaspora are not differentiated so there are no reliable statistics for the former. Recent genetic and anthropological studies indicate that the Ryukyuans are significantly related to the Ainu people and share the ancestry with the indigenous prehistoric Jōmon period (pre 10,000–1,000 BCE) people, who arrived from Southeast Asia, and with the Yamato people who are mostly an admixture of the Yayoi period (1,000 BCE–300 CE) migrants from East Asia (specifically China and the Korean peninsula). The Ryukyuans have a specific culture with some matriarchal elements, native religion, and cuisine which had fairly late 12th century introduction of rice. The population lived on the islands in isolation for many centuries, and in the 14th century from the three divided Okinawan political polities emerged the Ryukyu Kingdom (1429–1879) which continued the maritime trade and tributary relations started in 1372 with Ming dynasty China. In 1609 the kingdom was invaded by Satsuma Domain which allowed its independence being in vassal status because the Tokugawa Japan was prohibited to trade with China, being in dual subordinate status between both China and Japan. During the Meiji period, the kingdom became Ryukyu Domain (1872–1879), after which it was politically annexed by the Empire of Japan. In 1879, after the annexation, the territory was reorganized as Okinawa Prefecture with the last king Shō Tai forcibly exiled to Tokyo. China renounced its claims to the islands in 1895. During this period, Okinawan ethnic identity, tradition, culture and language were suppressed by the Meiji government, which sought to assimilate the Ryukyuan people as Japanese (Yamato). After World War II, the Ryūkyū Islands were occupied by the United States between 1945–1950 and 1950–1972. During this time, there were many violations of human rights. Since the end of World War II, there exists strong resentment against the Japanese government and US military facilities stationed in Okinawa, as seen in the Ryukyu independence movement. United Nations special rapporteur on discrimination and racism Doudou Diène in his 2006 report, noted perceptible level of discrimination and xenophobia against the Ryukyuans, with the most serious discrimination they endure linked to their dislike of American military installations in the archipelago. An investigation into fundamental human rights was suggested.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Saint Patrick's Day

Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Lá Fhéile Pádraig, "the Day of the Festival of Patrick"), is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick (AD 385–461), the foremost patron saint of Ireland.

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Salad bowl (cultural idea)

The salad bowl concept suggests that the integration of the many different cultures of United States residents combine like a salad, as opposed to the more traditional notion of a cultural melting pot.

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The Sama-Bajau refers to several Austronesian ethnic groups of Maritime Southeast Asia with their origins from the southern Philippines.

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Sambal people

The Sambal people are a Filipino ethnolinguistic group living primarily in the province of Zambales and the Pangasinense municipalities of Bolinao and Anda.

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Sambas riots

The Sambas riots were an outbreak of inter-ethnic violence in Indonesia, in 1999.

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Sampit conflict

The Sampit conflict was an outbreak of inter-ethnic violence in Indonesia, beginning in February 2001 and lasting throughout the year.

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Sarawak Malay

Sarawak Malay (Standard Malay: Bahasa Melayu Sarawak or Bahasa Sarawak, Jawi: بهاس ملايو سراوق, Sarawak Malay: Kelakar Sarawak) is a Malayan language native to the State of Sarawak, Malaysia.

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Scandinavian Political Studies

Scandinavian Political Studies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering political science in the Nordic countries published by Wiley-Blackwell.

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Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is a section of the Charter that, as part of a range of provisions within the section 25 to section 31 bloc, helps determine how rights in other sections of the Charter should be interpreted and applied by the courts.

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The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.

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A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Sino-Tibetan languages

The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.

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Slovaks in Serbia

According to the 2011 census, Slovaks (Словаци/Slovaci) in Serbia number 52,750, constituting 0.7% of the country's population.

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Social contract (Malaysia)

The social contract in Malaysia refers to the supposedly understanding made by Malaya's founding fathers in the Constitution, nearing its independence.

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Social integration

Social integration is the process during which newcomers or minorities are incorporated into the social structure of the host society.

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Sofia Synagogue

The Sofia Synagogue (Софийска синагога, Sofiyska sinagoga) is the largest synagogue in Southeastern Europe, one of two functioning in Bulgaria (with the one in Plovdiv) and the third-largest in Europe.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spanish Filipino

A Spanish Filipino (Spanish and Chavacano: Español Filipino o Hispano Filipino; Tagalog: Kastila, Tisoy o Conio; Cebuano and Hiligaynon: Cachila) is a Filipino who has Spanish or Hispanic lineage, mostly born and raised in the Philippines.

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Special Broadcasting Service

The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting radio, online, and television network.

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In linguistics, a sprachraum ("language space") is a geographical region where a common first language (mother tongue), with dialect varieties, or group of languages is spoken.

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St Nedelya Church


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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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State (polity)

A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

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A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.

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Muhammad Suharto (also written Soeharto;, or Muhammad Soeharto; 8 June 1921 – 27 January 2008) was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998.

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Sultanate of Sulu

The Sultanate of Sulu (Tausūg: Kasultanan sin Sūg, Jawi: کسلطانن سولو دار الإسلام, Kesultanan Sulu, سلطنة سولك) was a Muslim state that ruled the islands in the Sulu Archipelago, parts of Mindanao, certain portions of Palawan and north-eastern Borneo (present-day the certain parts of Sabah and North Kalimantan).

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Sundanese people

The Sundanese (Sundanese:, Urang Sunda) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of Java.

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Surabaya (formerly Dutch: Soerabaia and later Surabaja) is a port city and the capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) province of Indonesia.

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Sweden Democrats

Sweden Democrats or Swedish Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna, SD) is a nationalist political party in Sweden that was founded in 1988.

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Tagalog language

Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.

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Tagalog people

The Tagalog people (Baybayin) are a major ethnolingustic group in the Philippines.

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Tamil language

Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.

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The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.

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Tarō Asō

is a Japanese politician who is the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance.

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Tariq Modood

Tariq Modood, (born 1952) is a British Pakistani Professor of Sociology, Politics and Public Policy at the University of Bristol (1997–). Modood is the founding director of the Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship and one of the leading authorities on ethnic minorities in Britain.

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Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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The American Conservative

The American Conservative (TAC) is a bi-monthly magazine founded in 2002 and published by the American Ideas Institute, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, 501(c)(3) organization based in Washington, D.C., which states that it exists to promote a conservatism that opposes unchecked power in government and business; promotes the flourishing of families and communities through vibrant markets and free people; and embraces realism and restraint in foreign affairs based on America's vital national interests.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Globe and Mail

The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.

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The Korea Times

The Korea Times is the oldest of three English-language newspapers published daily in South Korea.

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The Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States

The Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States (MELUS) is a scholarly society established in 1974.

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Theo van Gogh (film director)

Theodoor "Theo" van Gogh (23 July 1957 – 2 November 2004) was a Dutch film director, film producer, television director, television producer, television presenter, screenwriter, actor, critic and author.

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Theodore C. Bestor

Theodore C. Bestor (born 1951) is a Professor of Anthropology and Japanese Studies at Harvard University.

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Thurgood Marshall

Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908January 24, 1993) was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991.

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Torres Strait Islanders

Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia.

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Transculturation is a term coined by Cuban anthropologist Fernando Ortiz in 1947 to describe the phenomenon of merging and converging cultures.

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Transmigration program

The transmigration program (Transmigrasi, from Dutch, transmigratie) was an initiative of the Dutch colonial government, and later continued by the Indonesian government to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the country.

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Trevor Phillips

Mark Trevor Phillips (born 31 December 1953) is a British writer, broadcaster and former politician.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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Unity in diversity

Unity in diversity is a concept of "unity without uniformity and diversity without fragmentation" that shifts focus from unity based on a mere tolerance of physical, cultural, linguistic, social, religious, political, ideological and/or psychological differences towards a more complex unity based on an understanding that difference enriches human interactions.

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Unrooted Childhoods

Unrooted Childhoods: Memoirs of Growing up Global is a book of memoirs of people who grew up in multiple countries, or moving frequently between distant regions within the same country, also known as third culture kids, and is edited by Faith Eidse and Nina Sichel.

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Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

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Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.

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Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

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Vezhdi Rashidov

Vezhdi Letif Rashidov (Вежди Летиф Рашидов, Vecdi Latif Raşidoğlu; b. 14 December 1951) is a Bulgarian sculptor, GERB politician and Minister of Culture of Bulgaria.

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Victor Davis Hanson

Victor Davis Hanson (born September 5, 1953) is an American classicist, military historian, columnist, and farmer.

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Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina; Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.

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W. E. B. Du Bois

William Edward Burghardt "W.

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War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.

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Western imperialism in Asia

Western imperialism in Asia as presented in this article pertains to Western European entry into what was first called the East Indies.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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White Australia policy

The term White Australia policy comprises various historical policies that effectively barred people of non-European descent from emigrating into Australia.

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Wikidata is a collaboratively edited knowledge base hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation.

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Wikimedia Foundation

The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (WMF, or simply Wikimedia) is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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William James

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.

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Xenocentrism is the preference for the products, styles, or ideas of someone else's culture rather than of one's own.

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13 May Incident

The 13 May 1969 incident refers to the Sino-Malay sectarian violence in Kuala Lumpur (then part of the state of Selangor), Malaysia.

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1961 Census of India

The 1961 Census of India was the 10th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1871.

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1984 anti-Sikh riots

The 1984 anti-Sikh riots, also known as the 1984 Sikh Massacre, was a series of organised pogroms against Sikhs in India by anti-Sikh mobs (notably Congress Party members and temporarily released convicts) in response to the assassination of Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards.

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1997 Asian financial crisis

The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.

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2002 Gujarat riots

The 2002 Gujarat riots, also known as the 2002 Gujarat violence and the Gujarat pogrom, was a three-day period of inter-communal violence in the western Indian state of Gujarat.

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2012 Assam violence

In July 2012, violence in the Indian state of Assam broke out with riots between indigenous Bodos and Bengali speaking Muslims.

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2013 Muzaffarnagar riots

The clashes between the Hindu and Muslim communities in Muzaffarnagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India in August–September 2013, resulted in at least 62 deaths including 42 Muslims and 20 Hindus and injured 93 and left more than 50,000 displaced.

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7 July 2005 London bombings

The 7 July 2005 London bombings, often referred to as 7/7, were a series of coordinated terrorist suicide attacks in London, United Kingdom, which targeted commuters travelling on the city's public transport system during the morning rush hour.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiculturalism

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