146 relations: A. J. Aitken, Abstand and ausbau languages, Afrikaans, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, Assamese language, Balkans, Bangladesh, Bengali language, Bengalis, Bilingual name, Bilingual sign, Blackmail, Bosnian language, Calque, Cambridge University Press, Catalan language, China, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Code-switching, Cognition, Communication accommodation theory, Connotation, Critical period hypothesis, Croatian language, Cultural diversity, Curaçao, Czech language, Czechoslovakia, Danish language, Diglossia, Diversity (business), Dutch language, Eastern Herzegovinian dialect, Economics of language, Empathy, Ems Ukaz, English in computing, English language, English-only movement, Eponym, Ethnic groups in Europe, Europe, European Day of Languages, European Union, First language, Framing effect (psychology), François Grosjean, Frisia, Frisian languages, German language, ..., Hebrew language, Helsinki slang, Idiom, Immigration, India, International Journal of Bilingualism, Internationalization and localization, Jared Diamond, John Wiley & Sons, Joseph Brodsky, Journal of Communication, JSTOR, Language, Language acquisition, Language acquisition device, Language contact, Language education, Language immersion, Language in Society, Language legislation in Belgium, Languages of Finland, Languages of the European Union, Lingua franca, Linguapax Prize, Linguistic relativity, Linguistics, List of artworks known in English by a foreign title, List of European Commission portfolios, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of multilingual bands and artists, List of multilingual countries and regions, List of territorial entities where English is an official language, List of territorial entities where French is an official language, List of territorial entities where German is an official language, Logic, Lusatia, Luxembourg, Macaronic language, Malays (ethnic group), Malaysia, Martha's Vineyard, Martha's Vineyard Sign Language, Middle High German, Minority language, Modern Standard Arabic, Monolingualism, Montenegrin language, Multilingual Education, Multilingualism in Luxembourg, Mutual intelligibility, Netherlands, Noam Chomsky, Non-convergent discourse, Non-English-based programming languages, Norwegian language, Occitan language, Official bilingualism in Canada, Open-mindedness, Papiamento, Pidgin, Plurilingualism, Polyglotism, Productivity software, Pronunciation, Puberty, Regional language, Rhetoric, Rod Ellis, Scandinavia, Scots language, Second language, Serbian language, Serbo-Croatian, Singapore, Singlish, Slovak language, Sorbian languages, South Slavic languages, Spanish language in the United States, Standard language, Stephen Krashen, Sub-Saharan Africa, Swedish language, The Multilingual Library, The World Until Yesterday, Translanguaging, Troika (album), Trolley problem, Tsar, Ukrainian language, Vivian Cook (academic), Vladimir Nabokov, Web browser, Yiddish, Yugoslavia, 2020 Summer Olympics. Expand index (96 more) » « Shrink index
Adam Jack Aitken (19 June 1921 – 11 February 1998) was a Scottish lexicographer and leading scholar of the Scots language.
In sociolinguistics, an abstand language is a language variety or cluster of varieties with significant linguistic distance from all others, while an ausbau language is a standard variety, possibly with related dependent varieties.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language (ABSL) is a village sign language used by about 150 deaf and many hearing members of the al-Sayyid Bedouin tribe in the Negev desert of southern Israel.
Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.
A bilingual name is a name of a person that is spelled, if not pronounced, exactly the same in two languages.
A bilingual sign (or, by extension, a multilingual sign) is the representation on a panel (sign, usually a traffic sign, a safety sign, an informational sign) of texts in more than one language.
Blackmail is an act, often criminal, involving unjustified threats to make a gain—most commonly money or property—or cause loss to another unless a demand is met.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) is a public research university in Shatin, Hong Kong formally established in 1963 by a charter granted by the Legislative Council of Hong Kong.
In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Communication accommodation theory (CAT) is a theory of communication developed by Howard Giles.
A connotation is a commonly understood cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to its explicit or literal meaning, which is its denotation.
The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long-standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural decay.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.
The "business case for diversity" stems from the progression of the models of diversity within the workplace since the 1960s.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Eastern Herzegovinian dialect (Serbo-Croatian: istočnohercegovački/источнохерцеговачки or istočnohercegovačko-krajiški/источнохерцеговачко-крајишки) is the most widespread subdialect of the Shtokavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian, both by territory and the number of speakers.
The economics of language is an emerging field of study concerning a range of topics such as the effect of language skills on income and trade, and the costs and benefits of language planning options, preservation of minority languages, etc.
Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.
The Ems Ukaz, or Ems Ukase (Эмский указ, Emskiy ukaz; Емський указ, Ems’kyy ukaz), was a secret decree (ukaz) of Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued in 1876, banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print, with the exception of reprinting of old documents.
The English language is sometimes described as the lingua franca of computing.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The English-only movement, also known as the Official English movement, is a political movement for the use of only the English language in official United States government operations through the establishment of English as the only official language in the US.
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Day of Languages is 26 September, as proclaimed by the Council of Europe on 6 December 2001, at the end of the European Year of Languages (2001), which had been jointly organised by the Council of Europe and the European Union.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The framing effect is an example of cognitive bias, in which people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on how it is presented; e.g. as a loss or as a gain.
François Grosjean is a Professor Emeritus and former Director of the Language and Speech Processing Laboratory at the University of Neuchâtel (Switzerland).
Frisia (Fryslân, Dutch and Friesland) is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of northern Germany.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Helsinki slang or stadin slangi ("Helsinki's slang", from Swedish stad, "city"; see etymology) is a local dialect and a sociolect of the Finnish language mainly used in the capital city of Helsinki.
An idiom (idiom, "special property", from translite, "special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity", f. translit, "one's own") is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The International Journal of Bilingualism is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of linguistics.
In computing, internationalization and localization are means of adapting computer software to different languages, regional differences and technical requirements of a target locale.
Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky (Ио́сиф Алекса́ндрович Бро́дский; 24 May 1940 – 28 January 1996) was a Russian and American poet and essayist.
The Journal of Communication is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes articles and book reviews on a broad range of issues in communication theory and research.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
The Language Acquisition Device (LAD) is a hypothetical module of the human mind posited to account for children's innate predisposition for language acquisition.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
Language education refers to the process and practice of acquiring a second or foreign language.
Language immersion, or simply immersion, is a technique used in bilingual language education in which two languages are used for instruction in a variety of topics, including math, science, or social studies.The languages used for instruction are referred to as the L1 and the L2 for each student, with L1 being the native language of the student and L2 being the second language to be acquired through immersion programs and techniques.
Language in Society is a peer-reviewed academic journal of sociolinguistics.
This article outlines the legislative chronology concerning the use of official languages in Belgium.
The two main official languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish.
The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The International Linguapax Award is awarded annually on International Mother Language Day (21 February) by Linguapax (Linguapax Institute) "which recognises and awards the actions carried out in different areas in favour of the preservation of linguistic diversity, revitalization and reactivation of linguistic communities and the promotion of multilingualism".
The hypothesis of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers' world view or cognition.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
The following is an alphabetical list of works of art that are often called by a non-English name in an English context.
A portfolio in the European Commission is an area of responsibility assigned to a European Commissioner, usually connected to one or several Directorates-General (DGs).
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
This is a list of multilingual bands and artists.
This is an incomplete list of areas with either multilingualism at the community level or at the personal level.
The following is a list of territories where English is an official language, that is, a language used in citizen interactions with government officials.
As of 2015, there are 29 independent nations where French is an official language.
The following is a list of the territorial entities where German is an official language.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Łużyce, Lužice) is a region in Central Europe.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Macaronic refers to text using a mixture of languages, particularly bilingual puns or situations in which the languages are otherwise used in the same context (rather than simply discrete segments of a text being in different languages).
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Martha's Vineyard (Wampanoag: Noepe; often called just the Vineyard) is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts that is known for being an affluent summer colony.
Martha's Vineyard Sign Language (MVSL) was a village sign language that was once widely used on the island of Martha's Vineyard off the coast of Massachusetts, U.S., from the early 18th century to 1952.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Monoglottism (Greek μόνοσ monos, "alone, solitary", + γλώττα glotta, "tongue, language") or, more commonly, monolingualism or unilingualism, is the condition of being able to speak only a single language, as opposed to multilingualism.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.
Multilingual Education typically refers to "first-language-first" education, that is, schooling which begins in the mother tongue and transitions to additional languages.
Multilingualism is a part of everyday life for the population of Luxembourg.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
A non-convergent discourse (NCD) is a discourse in which the participants do not converge in their language, which results in the use of different languages.
Non-English-based programming languages are computer programming languages that, unlike better-known programming languages, do not use keywords taken from, or inspired by, the English vocabulary.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
The official languages of Canada are English and French, which "have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all institutions of the Parliament and Government of Canada," according to Canada's constitution.
Open-mindedness is receptiveness to new ideas.
Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
Plurilingualism is a situation wherein a person who has competence in more than one language can switch between languages – from one language to another and vice versa – according to the circumstances at hand for the purpose of coping with a social matter.
Polyglotism or polyglottism is the ability to master, or the state of having mastered, multiple languages.
Productivity software (sometimes called personal productivity software or office productivity software) is application software dedicated to producing information, such as documents, presentations, worksheets, databases, charts, graphs, digital paintings, electronic music and digital video.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Rod Ellis is currently a Research Professor in the School of Education, Curtin University in Perth Australia.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Colloquial Singaporean English, better known as Singlish, is an English-based creole language spoken in Singapore.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
The Sorbian languages (Serbska rěč, Serbska rěc) are two closely related, but only partially mutually intelligible, West Slavic languages spoken by the Sorbs, a West Slavic minority in the Lusatia region of eastern Germany.
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
The Spanish language in the United States has forty-five million Hispanic and Latino Americans speak Spanish as their first, second or heritage language, and there are six million Spanish language students in the United States.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Stephen Krashen (born 1941) is professor emeritus at the University of Southern California, who moved from the linguistics department to the faculty of the School of Education in 1994.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
The Multilingual Library in Oslo, Norway (Det flerspråklige bibliotek) is a competence centre for multicultural library services, and acts as an advisor to libraries.
The World Until Yesterday: What Can We Learn from Traditional Societies? is a 2012 popular science book by American intellectual Jared Diamond.
Translanguaging is the process whereby multilingual speakers utilize their languages as an integrated communication system.
Troika: Russia’s westerly poetry in three orchestral song cycles is a 2011 album of contemporary classical songs performed by soprano Julia Kogan, who also conceived the project.
The trolley problem is a thought experiment in ethics.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Vivian James Cook (born 13 June 1940) is Emeritus Professor of Applied Linguistics at Newcastle University in the United Kingdom.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin; 2 July 1977) was a Russian-American novelist, poet, translator and entomologist.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020.
Ambilingual, Ambilingualism, Bi-lingual, Bilangual, Bilingual, Bilingualism, Bilingualness, M17n, Multi-lingual, Multi-lingualism, Multilanguage, Multilingual, Multilingual computer-mediated communication, Multilingual computer-mediated interaction, Multilingual language, Multilingual person, Multilinguality, Multilinguism, New speaker, Polylingual, Quadrilingual, Trilingual, Trilingualism.