271 relations: A. H. Belo, Accidental American, Afroyim v. Rusk, Age of majority, Alternative minimum tax, American diaspora, Andorran nationality law, Antigua and Barbuda, Arab world, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Australia, Australian Law Reports, Australian nationality law, Australian Senate, Austria, Austrian nationality law, Azerbaijani nationality law, Åland Islands, Baby bonus, Bancroft Treaties, Bantustan, Belonger status, Birth tourism, Bosnia and Herzegovina, British Nationality Act 1948, British nationality law, British Overseas Territories, British passport, Bulgaria, By-election, Cambodia, Canada, Canadians of convenience, Chief Justice, China, Chinese passport, Citizenship, Citizenship Act (Slovakia), Citizenship of the European Union, Commonwealth citizen, Commonwealth Law Reports, Commonwealth of Independent States, Commonwealth of Nations, Compulsory voting, Conscription, Constitution of Australia, Constitution of India, Constitution of Lithuania, Consular assistance, Croatia, ..., Crown dependencies, Cultural assimilation, Culture, Cyprus, Czech nationality law, Czech Republic, Czechoslovakia, Dallas, David McAllister, Death of Ben Zygier, Denmark, Developed country, Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Diversity jurisdiction, Dominica, Double taxation, Dutch nationality law, East Malaysia, Egypt, Elizabeth II, Estonia, Europe, European Court of Justice, European Free Trade Association, European Union, Expatriation Act of 1868, Faroe Islands, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Fenian Rising, Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand, Finland, Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Freedom of movement for workers in the European Union, Germany, Global citizenship, Governor General of Canada, Governor of California, Graham Holdings Company, Grenada, Guernsey, Haiti, Harry Duynhoven, Heather Hill (politician), High Court of Australia, History of citizenship, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport, Hukou system, Hungary, Ibero-America, Iceland, Icelandic nationality law, Immigration, Immigration to Europe, Immigration to the United States, Income tax, Indian nationality law, Indonesian nationality law, Internal passport, Internal Revenue Code, Internal Revenue Service, International adoption, Iran, Ireland, Irish nationality law, Irish passport, Islam and clothing, Isle of Man, Israel, Israeli nationality law, Israeli Navy, Japan, Japanese nationality law, Jean-Daniel Lafond, Jersey, John Rutledge, John Turner, Juan Mari Brás, Jus sanguinis, Jus soli, Karta Polaka, Kazakhstani nationality law, Khmer language, Latvia, Law of Return, League of Nations Codification Conference, 1930, Lebanese nationality law, Legislative Assembly of Singapore, Liberal Party of Canada, List of Canadian expatriates in foreign political positions, List of federally recognized tribes, List of Latin phrases (V), List of Law Reports in Australia, Lithuania, Loss of citizenship, Macao Special Administrative Region passport, Mainland China, Malaysia, Malta, Master Nationality Rule, Member of parliament, Member state of the European Union, Michaëlle Jean, Microstate, Middle East, Military, Monégasque nationality law, Montenegro, Multiculturalism, Myanmar nationality law, Napoleonic Code, National Health Service, National identity, National service, Nationality, Nationality law, Nationality law of the People's Republic of China, Naturalization, Nepali nationality law, New Democratic Party, New Zealand, New Zealand Labour Party, New Zealand nationality law, Newly industrialized country, Nordic Passport Union, Northern Ireland, Norway, Norwegian nationality law, Oath of Allegiance (United States), Official Opposition (Canada), Overseas Citizenship of India, Pakistani nationality law, Parliament of Australia, Parliament of Malaysia, Passport, Peninsular Malaysia, People's Republic of China Permit for Proceeding to Hong Kong and Macao, Permanent residence (United States), Permanent residency, Philippine nationality law, Poland, Police, Prohibitionism, Public administration, Public health, Puerto Rican citizenship, Puerto Rico, Renunciation of citizenship, Republic of Macedonia, Republika Srpska, Right of return, Romania, Sabah, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Sarawak, Saudi Arabian nationality law, Schaffhausen, Section 44 of the Constitution of Australia, Security clearance, Sephardi Jews, Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro, Sham marriage, Singapore, Singapore in Malaysia, Singaporean nationality law, Slovakia, Slovenia, Social integration, South African nationality law, South Korean nationality law, Sovereign state, Soviet Union, Spanish nationality law, Special administrative regions of China, States and federal territories of Malaysia, Stéphane Dion, Submarine, Sue v Hill, Suriname, Sweden, Swiss Guards, Swiss nationality law, Switzerland, Taiwan, Talbot v. Janson, Tax, Tax treaty, Tănase v. Moldova, Ted Cruz, The Dallas Morning News, The Hague, The Washington Post, Third culture kid, Titular nation, Tom Mulcair, Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, Treason, Tribal sovereignty in the United States, U.S. state, Ukrainian nationality law, United Kingdom, United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016, United Nations, United States Attorney General, United States Department of Defense, United States Department of State, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States nationality law, Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, Valdas Adamkus, Vatican City, War of 1812, Welfare fraud, Wen Wei Po, Yugoslavia, 2017–18 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis. Expand index (221 more) » « Shrink index
An accidental American is a citizen of a country other than the United States who may also be considered a U.S. citizen or eligible for U.S. citizenship under U.S. nationality law but is not aware of having such status, or has only become aware of it recently during adulthood.
Afroyim v. Rusk, 387 U.S. 253 (1967), is a major United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that citizens of the United States may not be deprived of their citizenship involuntarily.
The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as recognized or declared in law.
The alternative minimum tax (AMT) is a supplemental income tax imposed by the United States federal government required in addition to baseline income tax for certain individuals, corporations, estates, and trusts that have exemptions or special circumstances allowing for lower payments of standard income tax.
The American diaspora or overseas Americans refers to the population of United States citizens who relocate, temporarily or permanently, to foreign countries.
Andorran nationality law is based primarily on the principle of jus sanguinis.
Antigua and Barbuda is a sovereign state in the West Indies in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, filmmaker, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician, and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Law Reports are an unauthorised series of law reports which report cases from the High Court of Australia, Federal Court of Australia and the Supreme Courts of the states and territories exercising federal jurisdiction.
Australian nationality law determines who is and who is not an Australian citizen.
The Australian Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Nationality law (German: Staatsbürgerschaftsgesetz) in the Republic of Austria is based on the principle of jus sanguinis.
Azerbaijani nationality law is a nationality law which determines who is a citizen of Azerbaijan.
The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.
A baby bonus is a government payment to parents of a newborn baby or adopted child to assist with the costs of childrearing.
The Bancroft treaties, also called the Bancroft conventions, were a series of agreements made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries between the United States and other countries.
A Bantustan (also known as Bantu homeland, black homeland, black state or simply homeland) was a territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia), as part of the policy of apartheid.
Belonger status is a legal classification normally associated with British Overseas Territories.
Birth tourism is travel to another country for the purpose of giving birth in that country.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The British Nationality Act 1948 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that created the status of "Citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies" (CUKC) as the national citizenship of the United Kingdom and its colonies.
British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
British passports are passports issued by the United Kingdom to those holding any form of British nationality.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
By-elections, also spelled bye-elections (known as special elections in the United States, and bypolls in India), are used to fill elected offices that have become vacant between general elections.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The term "Canadians of convenience" was popularized by Canadian politician Garth Turner in 2006 in conjunction with the evacuation of Canadian citizens from Lebanon during the 2006 Israel–Lebanon conflict.
The Chief Justice is the presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of Singapore, the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong, the Supreme Court of Japan, the Supreme Court of India, the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Supreme Court of Nigeria, the Supreme Court of Nepal, the Constitutional Court of South Africa, the Supreme Court of Ireland, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of the United States, and provincial or state supreme courts.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The People's Republic of China passport, commonly referred to as the Chinese passport, is the passport issued to nationals of the People's Republic of China (PRC) who have registered as a resident of Mainland China hence hold a hukou, for the purpose of the international travel and entitles the bearer to the protection of China's consular officials overseas.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Slovak nationality law is the law governing the acquisition, transmission and loss of Slovak citizenship.
Citizenship of the European Union (EU) is afforded to qualifying citizens of European Union member states.
In general, a Commonwealth citizen is a citizen of a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Commonwealth Law Reports (CLR) are the authorised reports of decisions of the High Court of Australia.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Compulsory voting refers to laws which require eligible citizens to register and vote in national and/or local elections.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucija) defines the legal foundation for all laws passed in the Republic of Lithuania.
Consular assistance is help and advice provided by the diplomatic agents of a country to citizens of that country who are living or traveling overseas.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The citizenship law of the Czech Republic is based on the principles of jus sanguinis or "right by blood".
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.
David James "Mac" McAllister (born 12 January 1971) is a German politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Germany.
Ben Zygier was an Australian-Israeli citizen who was a veteran of the Israel Defense Forces and allegedly an agent of Mossad.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
The Dissolution of Czechoslovakia (Rozdělení Československa, Rozdelenie Česko-Slovenska), which took effect on 1 January 1993, was an event that saw the self-determined split of the federal state of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, entities that had arisen before as the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic in 1969 within the framework of Czechoslovak federalisation.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
In the law of the United States, diversity jurisdiction is a form of subject-matter jurisdiction in civil procedure in which a United States district court in the federal judiciary has the power to hear a civil case when the amount in controversy exceeds $75,000 and where the persons that are parties are "diverse" in citizenship or state of incorporation (for corporations being legal persons), which generally indicates that they differ in state and/or nationality.
Dominica (Island Carib), officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island republic in the West Indies.
Double taxation is the levying of tax by two or more jurisdictions on the same declared income (in the case of income taxes), asset (in the case of capital taxes), or financial transaction (in the case of sales taxes).
Dutch nationality law is based primarily on the principle of jus sanguinis and is governed by the Kingdom Act on the Netherlands nationality (Rijkswet op het Nederlanderschap), which was signed by the monarch on 19 December 1984 and officially publicised on 27 December 1984.
East Malaysia (Malaysia Timur), also known as Sabah, Sarawak and Labuan (Sabah, Sarawak dan Labuan) or Malaysian Borneo, is the part of Malaysia on the island of Borneo, the world's third largest island.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Expatriation Act of 1868 was an act of the 40th United States Congress regarding the right to renounce one's citizenship.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (abbreviated FB&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH) / Федерација Боснa и Херцеговина (ФБиХ), Croatian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH)) is one of the two political entities that compose Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska.
The Fenian Rising of 1867 (Éirí Amach na bhFíníní, 1867) was a rebellion against British rule in Ireland, organised by the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB).
The Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand between 10 December 1999 and 19 November 2008.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) is a 2010 United States federal law requiring all non-U.S. ('foreign') financial institutions (FFIs) to search their records for customers with indicia of 'U.S.-person' status, such as a U.S. place of birth, and to report the assets and identities of such persons to the U.S. Department of the Treasury.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
The freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communautaire of the European Union.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Global citizenship is the idea of all persons having rights and civic responsibilities that come with being a member of the world, with whole-world philosophy and sensibilities, rather than as a citizen of a particular nation or place.
The Governor General of Canada (Gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the.
The Governor of California is the head of government of the U.S. state of California.
Graham Holdings Company (formerly The Washington Post Company) is a diversified American conglomerate, best known for formerly owning the newspaper for which it was once named, The Washington Post, and Newsweek.
Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Harry James Duynhoven (born 1955) is a New Zealand politician and member of the New Zealand Labour Party.
Heather Hill (nee Rafe; born 9 August 1960) is an English-born Australian former politician.
The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.
History of citizenship describes the changing relation between an individual and the state, commonly known as citizenship.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passport is a passport issued only to the permanent residents of Hong Kong who also hold Chinese citizenship.
Hukou is a system of household registration in mainland China and Taiwan, although the system itself is more properly called "huji", and has origins in ancient China.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Ibero-America (Iberoamérica, Ibero-América) or Iberian America is a region in the Americas comprising countries or territories where Spanish or Portuguese are predominant languages, usually former territories of Portugal or Spain.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Icelandic nationality law is based upon the principles of jus sanguinis.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Immigration to Europe has a long history, but increased substantially in the later 20th century.
Immigration to the United States is the international movement of individuals who are not natives or do not possess citizenship in order to settle, reside, study, or work in the country.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
The conferment of a person, as a citizen of India, is governed by Articles 5 to 11 (Part II) of the Constitution of India.
The Indonesian nationality law is a law regulating about who an Indonesian citizen is, the requirements and how to obtain Indonesian citizenship, the loss of Indonesian citizenship, the requirements and how to re-obtain Indonesian citizenship, and the penal provision.
An internal passport is an identity document.
The Internal Revenue Code (IRC), formally the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, is the domestic portion of federal statutory tax law in the United States, published in various volumes of the United States Statutes at Large, and separately as Title 26 of the United States Code (USC).
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service of the United States federal government.
International adoption (also referred to as intercountry adoption or transnational adoption) is a type of adoption in which an individual or couple becomes the legal and permanent parent(s) of a child who is a national of a different country.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Irish nationality law is contained in the provisions of the Irish Nationality and Citizenship Acts 1956 to 2004 and in the relevant provisions of the Irish Constitution.
An Irish passport is the passport issued to citizens of Ireland.
Islam says that the believing women should lower their gaze, guard their modesty, not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, Foster brother, and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israeli nationality law defines the criteria under which a person can be granted citizenship of Israel.
The Israeli Navy (חיל הים הישראלי, Ḥeil HaYam HaYisraeli (English: Sea Corps of Israel); البحرية الإسرائيلية) is the naval warfare service arm of the Israel Defense Forces, operating primarily in the Mediterranean Sea theater as well as the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea theater.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Japanese nationality is a legal designation and set of rights granted to those people who have met the criteria for citizenship by parentage or by naturalization.
Jean-Daniel Lafond CC (born 18 August 1944) is a French-born Canadian filmmaker, ex-teacher of philosophy, and the husband to the former Governor General Michaëlle Jean, making him the Viceregal Consort of Canada during her service.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
John Rutledge (September 17, 1739 – July 23, 1800) was the second Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and the first Governor of South Carolina after the Declaration of Independence.
John Napier Wyndham Turner (born June 7, 1929) is a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as the 17th Prime Minister of Canada, in office from June 30 to September 17, 1984.
Juan Mari Brás (December 2, 1927 – September 10, 2010) was an advocate for Puerto Rican independence from the United States who founded the Puerto Rican Socialist Party (PSP).
Jus sanguinis (right of blood) is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship is not determined by place of birth but by having one or both parents who are citizens of the state.
Jus soli, meaning "right of the soil", commonly referred to as birthright citizenship, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship.
Karta Polaka, literally meaning Pole's Card, but also translated as Polish Charter or Polish Card, is a document confirming belonging to the Polish nation, which may be given to individuals who cannot obtain dual citizenship in their own countries while belonging to the Polish nation according to conditions defined by law; and, who do not have prior Polish citizenship or permission to reside in Poland.
Kazakhstani nationality law is governed by the Constitution of Kazakhstan and the Law on Citizenship (of 1991, with updates in 2002).
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The Law of Return (חֹוק הַשְׁבוּת, ḥok ha-shvūt) is an Israeli law, passed on 5 July 1950, which gives Jews the right to come and live in Israel and to gain Israeli citizenship.
The League of Nations Codification Conference was a conference that was held in The Hague from 13 March to 12 April 1930, for the purpose of formulating accepted rules in international law to subjects that until then were not addressed thoroughly.
Lebanese nationality law is the law governing the acquisition, transmission and loss of Lebanese citizenship.
The Legislative Assembly of the State of Singapore was the legislature of the government of Singapore from 1955 to 1965 and the predecessor of the Parliament of Singapore.
The Liberal Party of Canada (Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federal political party in Canada.
This page lists Canadians (those born in Canada or who have previously held Canadian Citizenship) who have served in political positions outside of Canada.
There is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States of America.
This is a list of Law reports covering the decisions of Australian Courts.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Loss of citizenship, also referred to as loss of nationality, is the event of ceasing to be a citizen of a country under the nationality law of that country.
The Macao Special Administrative Region passport, also known as the Macau Special Administrative Region passport (Passaporte da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau) is a passport issued to Chinese citizens who are permanent residents of Macau.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Master Nationality Rule is a consequence of Article 4 of the Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Laws of 1930.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
Michaëlle Jean (born September 6, 1957) is a Canadian stateswoman and former journalist who is the third and current Secretary-General of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, after succeeding Abdou Diouf in January 2015; she is the first woman to hold the position.
A microstate or ministate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very small land area, and usually both.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Monégasque nationality law determines entitlement to Monégasque citizenship.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
Myanmar nationality law currently recognises three categories of citizens, namely citizen, associate citizen and naturalised citizen, according to the 1982 Citizenship Law.
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
National identity is one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation.
National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service.
Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state.
Nationality law (or citizenship law) is the law in each country and in each jurisdiction within each country which defines the rights and obligations of citizenship within the jurisdiction and the manner in which citizenship is acquired as well as how citizenship may be lost.
The Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China regulates nationality of the People's Republic of China.
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
The Constitution of Nepal regulates provisions for Nepalese nationality in Articles 8, 9 and 10.
The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a social democraticThe party is widely described as social democratic.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The New Zealand Labour Party (Rōpū Reipa o Aotearoa), or simply Labour (Reipa), is a centre-left political party in New Zealand.
New Zealand nationality law determines who is and who is not a New Zealand citizen.
The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.
The Nordic Passport Union allows citizens of the Nordic countriesIceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finlandto travel and reside in another Nordic country (excluding Greenland and Svalbard) without any travel documentation (e.g. a passport or national identity card) or a residence permit.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Norwegian nationality law is based on the principle of jus sanguinis.
The United States Oath of Allegiance, officially referred to as the "Oath of Allegiance," 8 C.F.R. Part 337 (2008), is an allegiance oath that must be taken by all immigrants who wish to become United States citizens.
In Canada, Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (L'Opposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the House of Commons or a provincial legislative assembly that is not in government, either on its own or as part of a governing coalition.
The Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI) is an immigration status authorized for a foreign citizen of Indian origin to live and work in the Republic of India indefinitely.
The Pakistani nationality law governs citizenship of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament; also known as the Commonwealth Parliament or just Parliament) is the legislative branch of the government of Australia.
The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia) is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system.
A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel.
Peninsular Malaysia also known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands.
A People's Republic of China Permit for Proceeding to Hong Kong and Macao or One-way Permit is a document issued by the People's Republic of China allowing residents of mainland China to leave the mainland permanently to settle in Hong Kong or Macau.
United States lawful permanent residency, informally known as having a green card, is the immigration status of a person authorized to live and work in the United States of America permanently.
Permanent residency refers to a person's resident status in a country of which they are not a citizen.
The Philippine nationality law is based upon the principles of jus sanguinis (Latin for right of blood) and therefore descent from a parent who is a citizen or national of the Republic of the Philippines is the primary method of acquiring Philippine citizenship.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
Prohibitionism is a legal philosophy and political theory often used in lobbying which holds that citizens will abstain from actions if the actions are typed as unlawful (i.e. prohibited) and the prohibitions are enforced by law enforcement.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Puerto Rican citizenship was first legislated by the United States Congress in Article 7 of the Foraker Act of 1900 and later recognized in the Constitution of Puerto Rico.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
Renunciation is the voluntary act of relinquishing one's citizenship or nationality.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Republika Srpska (Република Српскa,; literally "Serb Republic") is one of two constitutional and legal entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The right of return is a principle in international law which guarantees peoples' right of voluntary return to or re-enter their country of origin or of citizenship.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo Island.
Saint Kitts and Nevis, also known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis, is an island country in the West Indies.
Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia.
Saudi nationality law, officially called the Saudi Arabian Citizenship System, is the law that determines who is a Saudi citizen.
Schaffhausen (Schafuuse; Schaffhouse; Sciaffusa; Schaffusa; Shaffhouse) is a town with historic roots, a municipality in northern Switzerland, and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 36,000.
Section 44 of the Australian Constitution lists the grounds for disqualification on who may become a candidate for election to the Parliament of Australia.
A security clearance is a status granted to individuals allowing them access to classified information (state or organizational secrets) or to restricted areas, after completion of a thorough background check.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbia and Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora, Србија и Црна Гора; SCG, СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992.
A sham marriage or fake marriage is a marriage of convenience entered into purely for the purpose of gaining a benefit or other advantage arising from that status.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Singapore was one of the 14 states of Malaysia from 1963 to 1965.
Singaporean nationality law is derived from the Constitution of Singapore and is based on jus sanguinis and a modified form of jus soli.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Social integration is the process during which newcomers or minorities are incorporated into the social structure of the host society.
South Africa rewrote its nationality law since the end of Apartheid in 1994 and the establishment of majority rule in the country under the African National Congress.
South Korean nationality law defines who is a South Korean citizen, as well as the procedures by which one may be naturalized into South Korean citizenship or renounce it.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spanish nationality law refers to all the laws of Spain concerning nationality.
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government, which enjoys the highest degree of autonomy, and no or less interference by either Central Government or the Communist Party of China.
The states and federal territories of Malaysia are the principal administrative divisions of Malaysia.
Stéphane Maurice Dion (born 28 September 1955) is a Canadian diplomat, political scientist, and former politician who has been the Canadian ambassador to Germany and special envoy to the European Union since May 2017.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Sue v Hill was an Australian court case decided in the High Court of Australia on 23 June 1999.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swiss Guards (Gardes Suisses; Schweizergarde) are the Swiss soldiers who have served as guards at foreign European courts since the late 15th century.
Swiss citizenship is the status of being a citizen of Switzerland and it can be obtained by birth or naturalisation.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Talbot v. Janson,, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the jurisdiction of the court extended to the seas and that a citizen of the United States could also hold the citizenship of another nation (in the case of Talbot, France).
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Many countries have entered into tax treaties (also called double tax agreements, or DTAs) with other countries to avoid or mitigate double taxation.
Tănase v. Moldova (application No. 7/08) was a case decided by the European Court of Human Rights in 2010.
Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz (born December 22, 1970) is an American politician and attorney serving as the junior United States Senator from Texas since 2013.
The Dallas Morning News is a daily newspaper serving the Dallas–Fort Worth area of Texas, with an average of 271,900 daily subscribers.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Third culture kid (TCK) refers individuals whose raised in a culture other than their parents' or the culture of the country named on their passport (where they are legally considered native) for a significant part of their early development years.
The titular nation is the single dominant ethnic group in the state, typically after which the state was named.
Thomas Joseph Mulcair (born October 24, 1954) is a Canadian politician who served as the leader of the New Democratic Party of Canada from 2012 to 2017.
Toomas Hendrik Ilves (born 26 December 1953) is an Estonian politician who served as the fourth President of Estonia from 2006 until 2016.
The Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement is an arrangement between Australia and New Zealand which allows for the free movement of citizens of one of these countries to the other.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
Tribal sovereignty in the United States is the concept of the inherent authority of indigenous tribes to govern themselves within the borders of the United States.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Ukrainian nationality law is the law of Ukraine which concerns citizenship.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum and the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the European Union (EU) under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Attorney General (A.G.) is the head of the United States Department of Justice per, concerned with all legal affairs, and is the chief lawyer of the United States government.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States nationality law is a uniform rule of naturalization of the United States set out in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, enacted under the power of Article I, section 8, clause 4 of the United States Constitution (also referred to as the Nationality Clause), which reads: Congress shall have Power - "To establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization..." The 1952 Act sets forth the legal requirements for the acquisition of, and divestiture from, American nationality.
Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga (born 1 December 1937) is a Latvian politician who served as the sixth President of Latvia and the first female President of Latvia.
Valdas Adamkus (born Voldemaras Adamkavičius; 3 November 1926) is a Lithuanian politician.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
Welfare fraud is the act of illegally using state welfare systems by knowingly withholding or giving information to obtain more funds than would otherwise be allocated.
Wen Wei Po is a Hong Kong-based Chinese language newspaper, first established in Shanghai in January 1938, with the Hong Kong version launched on 9 September 1948.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
In 2017, the eligibility of a number of Australian members of Parliament to be elected to the Parliament of Australia was called into question.
Double citizenship, Double nationality, Dual cit, Dual citizen, Dual citizens, Dual citizenship, Dual national, Dual nationality, Dual-citizen, Dual-citizenship, English–American, Multiple citizenships, Multiple nationality.