68 relations: Absolute value, Additive inverse, Algebra over a field, Algorithm, Bitwise operation, Calculus, Cavalieri's quadrature formula, Complex conjugate, Complex number, Constructivism (mathematics), Coprime integers, Cryptologia, Derivative, Determinant, Division (mathematics), Division algebra, Division algorithm, Division by zero, Division ring, E (mathematical constant), Encyclopædia Britannica, Euclid, Euclid's Elements, Exponential decay, Extended Euclidean algorithm, Field (mathematics), Finite set, Fraction (mathematics), Fractional part, French language, Group (mathematics), Henry Billingsley, Hyperbola, If and only if, Imaginary unit, Injective function, Integer, Inverse element, Inverse function, Inverse trigonometric functions, Involution (mathematics), Irrational number, List of sums of reciprocals, Long division, Mathematics, Maxima and minima, Modular arithmetic, Modular multiplicative inverse, Multiplication, Natural logarithm, ..., Newton's method, Power rule, Pseudorandomness, Rational number, Real number, Repeating decimal, Ring (mathematics), Safe prime, Sedenion, Square matrix, Surjective function, Trigonometric functions, Unit fraction, Zero divisor, Zero of a function, 0, 1, 6-sphere coordinates. Expand index (18 more) » « Shrink index
In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number is the non-negative value of without regard to its sign.
In mathematics, the additive inverse of a number is the number that, when added to, yields zero.
In mathematics, an algebra over a field (often simply called an algebra) is a vector space equipped with a bilinear product.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.
Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.
In calculus, Cavalieri's quadrature formula, named for 17th-century Italian mathematician Bonaventura Cavalieri, is the integral and generalizations thereof.
In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with an equal real part and an imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.
In the philosophy of mathematics, constructivism asserts that it is necessary to find (or "construct") a mathematical object to prove that it exists.
In number theory, two integers and are said to be relatively prime, mutually prime, or coprime (also written co-prime) if the only positive integer (factor) that divides both of them is 1.
Cryptologia is a journal in cryptography published quarterly since January 1977.
The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).
In linear algebra, the determinant is a value that can be computed from the elements of a square matrix.
Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the others being addition, subtraction, and multiplication.
In the field of mathematics called abstract algebra, a division algebra is, roughly speaking, an algebra over a field in which division, except by zero, is always possible.
A division algorithm is an algorithm which, given two integers N and D, computes their quotient and/or remainder, the result of division.
In mathematics, division by zero is division where the divisor (denominator) is zero.
In abstract algebra, a division ring, also called a skew field, is a ring in which division is possible.
The number is a mathematical constant, approximately equal to 2.71828, which appears in many different settings throughout mathematics.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".
The Elements (Στοιχεῖα Stoicheia) is a mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt c. 300 BC.
A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.
In arithmetic and computer programming, the extended Euclidean algorithm is an extension to the Euclidean algorithm, and computes, in addition to the greatest common divisor of integers a and b, also the coefficients of Bézout's identity, which are integers x and y such that This is a certifying algorithm, because the gcd is the only number that can simultaneously satisfy this equation and divide the inputs.
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.
In mathematics, a finite set is a set that has a finite number of elements.
A fraction (from Latin fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.
The fractional part or decimal part of a non‐negative real number x is the excess beyond that number's integer part.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.
Sir Henry Billingsley (died 22 November 1606) was an English merchant, Lord Mayor of London and the first translator of Euclid into English.
In mathematics, a hyperbola (plural hyperbolas or hyperbolae) is a type of smooth curve lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by equations for which it is the solution set.
In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if (shortened iff) is a biconditional logical connective between statements.
The imaginary unit or unit imaginary number is a solution to the quadratic equation.
In mathematics, an injective function or injection or one-to-one function is a function that preserves distinctness: it never maps distinct elements of its domain to the same element of its codomain.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
In abstract algebra, the idea of an inverse element generalises concepts of a negation (sign reversal) in relation to addition, and a reciprocal in relation to multiplication.
In mathematics, an inverse function (or anti-function) is a function that "reverses" another function: if the function applied to an input gives a result of, then applying its inverse function to gives the result, and vice versa.
In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric functions (occasionally also called arcus functions, antitrigonometric functions or cyclometric functions) are the inverse functions of the trigonometric functions (with suitably restricted domains).
In mathematics, an involution, or an involutory function, is a function that is its own inverse, for all in the domain of.
In mathematics, the irrational numbers are all the real numbers which are not rational numbers, the latter being the numbers constructed from ratios (or fractions) of integers.
In mathematics and especially number theory, the sum of reciprocals generally is computed for the reciprocals of some or all of the positive integers (counting numbers)—that is, it is generally the sum of unit fractions.
In arithmetic, long division is a standard division algorithm suitable for dividing multidigit numbers that is simple enough to perform by hand.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In mathematical analysis, the maxima and minima (the respective plurals of maximum and minimum) of a function, known collectively as extrema (the plural of extremum), are the largest and smallest value of the function, either within a given range (the local or relative extrema) or on the entire domain of a function (the global or absolute extrema).
In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).
In mathematics, in particular the area of number theory, a modular multiplicative inverse of an integer is an integer such that the product is congruent to 1 with respect to the modulus.
Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.
The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant ''e'', where e is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to.
In numerical analysis, Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method), named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson, is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function.
In calculus, the power rule is used to differentiate functions of the form f(x).
A pseudorandom process is a process that appears to be random but is not.
In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a non-zero denominator.
In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.
A repeating or recurring decimal is decimal representation of a number whose digits are periodic (repeating its values at regular intervals) and the infinitely-repeated portion is not zero.
In mathematics, a ring is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.
A safe prime is a prime number of the form 2p + 1, where p is also a prime.
In abstract algebra, the sedenions form a 16-dimensional noncommutative and nonassociative algebra over the reals obtained by applying the Cayley–Dickson construction to the octonions.
In mathematics, a square matrix is a matrix with the same number of rows and columns.
In mathematics, a function f from a set X to a set Y is surjective (or onto), or a surjection, if for every element y in the codomain Y of f there is at least one element x in the domain X of f such that f(x).
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.
A unit fraction is a rational number written as a fraction where the numerator is one and the denominator is a positive integer.
In abstract algebra, an element of a ring is called a left zero divisor if there exists a nonzero such that, or equivalently if the map from to that sends to is not injective.
In mathematics, a zero, also sometimes called a root, of a real-, complex- or generally vector-valued function f is a member x of the domain of f such that f(x) vanishes at x; that is, x is a solution of the equation f(x).
0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.
1 (one, also called unit, unity, and (multiplicative) identity) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
In mathematics, 6-sphere coordinates are the coordinate system created by inverting the Cartesian coordinates across the unit sphere.