327 relations: Abolitionism in the United States, African American Lives, African Americans, Afro-Panamanian, Afro-Puerto Ricans, Afro-textured hair, Afro-Trinidadians and Tobagonians, AfterEllen.com and TheBacklot.com, American Civil War, American Community Survey, American Indian boarding schools, American Journal of Human Genetics, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, Americans, Anatole Broyard, Anita Florence Hemmings, Anthony Janszoon van Salee, Anti-miscegenation laws, AOL, Apache, Armenians, Ashkenazi Jews, Asia, Asian Americans, Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian people, Associated Press, Augustus F. Hawkins, Auliʻi Cravalho, Barack Obama, Beneath the Underdog, Bill John Baker, Billy Bowlegs III, Black Hispanic and Latino Americans, Black Nova Scotians, Blond, Bobby Scott (politician), Boston University, Bushwick, Brooklyn, California, California State University, Cantonese people, Carlos Mencia, Carol Channing, Caucasian race, Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood, Charles Curtis, Charles Eastman, Charles Mingus, ..., Charles Steele Jr., Charles W. Chesnutt, Cher, Cherokee, Cherokee heritage groups, Cherokee Nation, Chinese Americans, Chinese Exclusion Act, Chinese people, Civil rights movement, Colored, Common law, Complex (magazine), Condoleezza Rice, Contactmusic.com, Creolization, Cultural assimilation, Cultural assimilation of Native Americans, Daily Mail, Dakota Territory, Daniel Hale Williams, David Ehrenstein, Dawes Rolls, Demographics of Africa, Diane Watson, Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era, Dreams from My Father, Dutch people, Dwayne Johnson, East Africa, Eastern United States, Edmonia Lewis, Elizabeth Key Grinstead, Emanuel Driggus, Endogamy, English Americans, English people, Entertainment Weekly, Ethel Waters, Ethnic group, Ethnic groups in Europe, Ethnic option, Ethnic origin, Eugenics, European Americans, Extra (TV program), Filipino Americans, Filipinos, Finns, First Families of Virginia, Forced assimilation, Forensic Science International, Fort Snelling, Frank S. Black, Fredi Washington, Free people of color, Fugitive slaves in the United States, G. K. Butterfield, George Galphin, George Herriman, George Washington Bush, George William Fairfax, Geraldo Rivera, Goodale Sisters, Gregory H. Williams, Hampton University, Hapa, Hawaiian language, Heather Locklear, Henry Louis Gates Jr., Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispaniola, Historical racial and ethnic demographics of the United States, History of the Jews in Russia, History of the United States, Houma people, House of Kamehameha, Huguenots, Hypergamy, Hypodescent, Identity (social science), Imitation of Life (1934 film), Indian people, Indian princess, Indian reservation, Indian Territory, Indian Wedding Blessing, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian, Interracial marriage in the United States, Irish Americans, Jamaican Americans, James Brown, James E. O'Hara, James Pleasants, Jamestown, Virginia, Japanese in the Philippines, Japanese people, Jason Momoa, Jennifer Beals, Jennifer Tilly, Jero, Jim Crow laws, Jimi Hendrix, John Lennon, John Mercer Langston, John Rolfe, John Young (Hawaii), Johnny Depp, Justice of the peace, Kaʻiulani, Kamala Harris, Kaw people, Keanu Reeves, Kip Fulbeck, Koreans, Language shift, Latin Americans, Lewis and Clark Expedition, List of ethnic groups of Africa, List of Principal Chiefs of the Cherokee, Los Angeles Times, Lou Diamond Phillips, Louisiana Creole people, Loving Day, Loving v. Virginia, Lumbee, Lydia Maria Child, Madison Hemings, Magical Negro, Maria Ewing, Maria Tallchief, Martin Luther King Jr., Mary Ellen Pleasant, Matrilineality, Métis in the United States, Melungeon, Mestizos in the United States, Miami Herald, Midwestern United States, Miscegenation, Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation, Mixed (United Kingdom ethnicity category), Monticello, Moon Bloodgood, Muhammad Ali, Mulatto, Multiracial, Muscogee, Native American identity in the United States, Native American reservation politics, Native Americans in the United States, Native Hawaiians, Navajo, Navajo Nation, Ne-Yo, Nicki Minaj, Nicolas Sarkozy, Northeastern United States, Northern Europe, Northern United States, Office of Management and Budget, Olaudah Equiano, Omaha, Nebraska, One-drop rule, Oprah Winfrey, Osage Nation, Osceola, Pacific Islander, Pacific Islands Americans, Parade (magazine), Partus sequitur ventrem, Passing (racial identity), Patrick Francis Healy, Patrilineality, Pío Pico, PBS, PDF, Pee Dee River, Peter Hall (director), Pocahontas, Portuguese Americans, Potawatomi, Powhatan, Praying Indian, President of the United States, Puerto Ricans, Quadroon, Queen Emma of Hawaii, Race (human categorization), Race and ethnicity in the United States, Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, Race of the future, Racial integration, Racial Integrity Act of 1924, Racial segregation, Racial whitening, Radmilla Cody, Randall L. Gibson, Rebecca Hall, Reconstruction era, Redd Foxx, Richard Rodriguez, Robert Purvis, Robert Stafford, Robert, Louisiana, Rocky Johnson, Rolling Stone, Rosa Parks, Rosie Perez, Ruth Gordon, Sacagawea, Sally Hemings, Salon (website), Samoans, San Francisco Chronicle, San Miguel de Guadalupe, Scandinavia, Scotch-Irish Americans, Scotland, Sean Lennon, Second Great Awakening, Seminole, Seth and Mary Eastman, Shreveport, Louisiana, Sioux, Slavery, Smithsonian Institution, Sonja Sohn, South Carolina, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Southern Europe, Southern United States, Spaniards, Squaw, Stanley Crouch, Stock character, Sub-Saharan Africa, Supreme Court of the United States, Synonym, Tatyana Ali, Telenovela, The Chronicle of Higher Education, The Daily Telegraph, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Rolfe, Tia Carrere, Tiger Woods, Tina Turner, Toussaint Charbonneau, Tragic mulatto, Tribal disenrollment, Ulster Scots people, United States, United States Armed Forces, United States Census, United States Census Bureau, Vanderbilt family, Vassar College, Virginia, Wentworth Cheswell, Western United States, White Americans, White Hispanic and Latino Americans, White people, White privilege, White slave propaganda, White supremacy, Whitney family, Whitney Houston, William Faulkner, Yoko Ono, YouTube, 2000 United States Census, 2009 Louisiana interracial marriage incident, 2010 United States Census, 23andMe. 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Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
African American Lives is a PBS television miniseries hosted by historian Henry Louis Gates, Jr., focusing on African-American genealogical research.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Afro-Panamanians are Panamanians of African descent.
The history of Puerto Ricans of African descent begins with free African men, known as libertos, who accompanied the Spanish Conquistadors in the invasion of the island.
Afro-textured hair is the natural hair texture of certain populations in Africa, the African diaspora, Oceania and Asia.
Afro-Trinidadians and Tobagonians (or just Afro-Trinbagonians) are people from Trinidad and Tobago who are largely of West African and Sub-Saharan descent.
AfterEllen.com, founded in April 2002, is a website that focuses on the portrayal of lesbian and bisexual women in the media.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing survey by the U.S. Census Bureau.
Native American boarding schools, also known as Indian Residential Schools were established in the United States during the late 19th and mid 20th centuries with a primary objective of assimilating Native American children and youth into Euro-American culture, while at the same time providing a basic education in Euro-American subject matters.
The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Americans are citizens of the United States of America.
Anatole Paul Broyard (July 16, 1920 – October 11, 1990) was an American writer, literary critic, and editor from New Orleans who wrote for The New York Times.
Anita Florence Hemmings, (June 8, 1872 – 1960) was the first African-American woman to graduate from Vassar College and was a librarian/foreign cataloger at the Boston Public Library.
Anthony Janszoon van Salee (1607–1676) was an original settler of and prominent landholder, merchant, and creditor in New Netherlands.
Anti-miscegenation laws or miscegenation laws are laws that enforce racial segregation at the level of marriage and intimate relationships by criminalizing interracial marriage and sometimes also sex between members of different races.
AOL (formerly a company known as AOL Inc., originally known as America Online, and stylized as Aol.) is a web portal and online service provider based in New York.
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent.
Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans are Hispanic and Latino Americans having Asian ancestry and for those Hispanics who consider themselves or were officially classified by the United States Census Bureau, Office of Management and Budget, and other U.S. government agencies as Asian Americans.
Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Augustus Freeman Hawkins (August 31, 1907 – November 10, 2007) was a prominent American Democratic Party politician and a figure in the history of Civil Rights and organized labor.
Aulii Cravalho (born November 22, 2000) is an American actress and singer.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Beneath the Underdog: His World as Composed by Mingus is the autobiography of jazz bassist and composer Charles Mingus.
Bill John Baker (born February 9, 1952) is the current Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation.
Billy Bowlegs III, Billy Fewell, aka Cofehapkee (1862–1965), was a Seminole elder, also of African-American descent.
In the United States, a Black Hispanic or Afro-Hispanic (Afrohispano) is an American citizen or resident who is officially classified by the United States Census Bureau, Office of Management and Budget and other U.S. government agencies as a Black person or racially black of Hispanic descent." Hispanicity, which is independent of race, is the only ethnic category, as opposed to racial category, which is officially collated by the U.S. Census Bureau.
Black Nova Scotians are Black Canadians whose ancestors primarily date back to the Colonial United States as slaves or freemen, and later arrived in Nova Scotia, Canada during the 18th and early 19th centuries.
Blond (male), blonde (female), or fair hair, is a hair color characterized by low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin.
Robert Cortez Scott (born April 30, 1947) is the U.S. Representative from.
Boston University (commonly referred to as BU) is a private, non-profit, research university in Boston, Massachusetts.
Bushwick is a working-class neighborhood in the northern part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
California State University (Cal State or CSU) is a public university system in California.
The Cantonese people are Han Chinese people originating from or residing in the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi (together known as Liangguang), in southern mainland China.
Ned Arnel Mencia (born October 22, 1967), known professionally as Carlos Mencia (and previously Ned Holness) is a Honduran-born American comedian, writer, and actor.
Carol Elaine Channing (born January 31, 1921) is an American actress, singer, dancer and comedian.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
A Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood or Certificate of Degree of Alaska Native Blood (both abbreviated CDIB) is an official U.S. document that certifies an individual possesses a specific degree of Native American blood of a federally recognized Indian tribe, band, nation, pueblo, village, or community.
Charles Curtis (January 25, 1860February 8, 1936) was an American attorney and politician, who served as the 31st Vice President of the United States from 1929 to 1933.
Charles Alexander Eastman (born Hakadah and later named Ohíye S’a; February 19, 1858 – January 8, 1939) was a Santee Dakota physician educated at Boston University, writer, national lecturer, and reformer.
Charles Mingus Jr. (April 22, 1922 – January 5, 1979) was an American jazz double bassist, pianist, composer and bandleader.
Charles Steele Jr. (born August 3, 1946) is an American businessman, politician and civil rights leader.
Charles Waddell Chesnutt (June 20, 1858 – November 15, 1932) was an African-American author, essayist, political activist and lawyer, best known for his novels and short stories exploring complex issues of racial and social identity in the post-Civil War South.
Cher (born May 20, 1946 as Cherilyn Sarkisian, Շերիլին Սարգիսեան) is an American singer and actress.
The Cherokee (translit or translit) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
Cherokee heritage groups are associations, societies and other organizations located primarily in the United States, which are made up of people who may have distant heritage from a Cherokee tribe, or who identify as having such ancestry.
The Cherokee Nation (Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, Tsalagihi Ayeli), also known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States.
Chinese Americans, which includes American-born Chinese, are Americans who have full or partial Chinese ancestry.
The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
Colored is an ethnic descriptor historically used in the United States (predominantly during the Jim Crow era) and the United Kingdom.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
Complex is an American New York-based media platform for youth culture which was founded as a bi-monthly magazine by fashion designer Marc (Ecko) Milecofsky.
Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.
Contactmusic.com is an online magazine of cultural criticism based in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
Creolization is the process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
The cultural assimilation of Native Americans was an assimilation effort by the United States to transform Native American culture to European–American culture between the years of 1790 and 1920.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the reduced territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota.
Daniel Hale Williams (January 18, 1856 – August 4, 1931) was an African-American general surgeon, who in 1893 performed the first documented, successful pericardium surgery in the United States to repair a wound.
David Ehrenstein (born February 18, 1947) is an American critic who focuses primarily on LGBTQ issues in cinema.
The Dawes Rolls (or Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes, or Dawes Commission of Final Rolls) were created by the United States Dawes Commission.
The population of Africa has grown rapidly over the past century, and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries.
Diane Edith Watson (born November 12, 1933) is a former US Representative for, serving from 2003 until 2011.
Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era in the United States of America was based on a series of laws, new constitutions, and practices in the South that were deliberately used to prevent black citizens from registering to vote and voting.
Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance (1995) is a memoir by Barack Obama, who was elected as U.S. President in 2008.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
Dwayne Douglas Johnson (born May 2, 1972), also known by his ring name The Rock, is an American actor, producer, and semi-retired professional wrestler.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
The Eastern United States, commonly referred to as the American East or simply the East, is a region roughly coinciding with the boundaries of the United States established in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which bounded the new country to the west along the Mississippi River.
Mary Edmonia Lewis (c. July 4, 1844 – September 17, 1907) was an American sculptor who worked for most of her career in Rome, Italy.
Elizabeth Key Grinstead (1630 – after 1665) was one of the first persons of African ancestry in the North American colonies to sue for freedom from slavery and win.
Emanuel Driggus (surname was possibly derived from Rodriguez) (b. c. 1620s-d. 1673) and his wife Frances were Atlantic Creole slaves in the mid-seventeenth century in Virginia, of the Chesapeake Bay Colony.
Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.
English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England, a country that is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
Entertainment Weekly (sometimes abbreviated as EW) is an American magazine, published by Meredith Corporation, that covers film, television, music, Broadway theatre, books and popular culture.
Ethel Waters (October 31, 1896 – September 1, 1977) was an American singer and actress.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Ethnic option is a term coined by sociologist Mary C. Waters to express her conception that ethnic identity of the descendants of immigrants is flexible, symbolic and voluntary, not a definitive aspect of their identity.
The concept of ethnic origin is an attempt to classify people, not according to their current nationality, but according to commonalities in their social background.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.
Extra (originally titled Extra: The Entertainment Magazine from 1994 to 1996) is an American syndicated television newsmagazine that is distributed by Warner Bros. Television Distribution and premiered on September 5, 1994.
Filipino Americans (Mga Pilipinong Amerikano) are Americans of Filipino descent.
Filipinos (Mga Pilipino) are the people who are native to, or identified with the country of the Philippines.
Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.
First Families of Virginia (FFV) were those families in Colonial Virginia who were socially prominent and wealthy, but not necessarily the earliest settlers.
Forced assimilation is a process of cultural assimilation of religious or ethnic minority groups that is forced into an established and generally larger community.
Forensic Science International is a peer-reviewed academic journal of forensic science.
Fort Snelling, originally known as Fort Saint Anthony, was a United States military fortification located at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers in Hennepin County, Minnesota.
Frank Swett Black (March 8, 1853March 22, 1913) was an American newspaper editor, lawyer and politician.
Fredericka Carolyn Washington (December 23, 1903 – June 28, 1994) was an African-American dramatic film actress, one of the first to gain recognition for her work in film and on stage.
In the context of the history of slavery in the Americas, free people of color (French: gens de couleur libres, Spanish: gente libre de color) were people of mixed African and European descent who were not enslaved.
The phenomenon of slaves running away and seeking to gain freedom is as old as the institution of slavery itself.
George Kenneth Butterfield Jr. (born April 27, 1947) is a United States Congressman elected in 2004.
George Galphin (1708–1780) was an American businessman specializing in Indian Trade, an Indian Commissioner, and plantation owner who lived and conducted business in the colonies of Georgia and South Carolina, primarily around the area known today as Augusta, Georgia.
George Joseph Herriman (August 22, 1880 – April 25, 1944) was an American cartoonist best known for the comic strip Krazy Kat (1913–1944).
George Washington Bush (1779 – April 5, 1863) was an American pioneer and one of the first multiracial (Irish and African) non-Amerindian settlers.
George William Fairfax (January 2, 1724April 3, 1787) was a member of the landed gentry of late colonial Virginia and a planter.
Geraldo Rivera (born Gerald Michael Rivera; July 4, 1943) is an American attorney, reporter, author, and talk show host.
Elaine Goodale Eastman Elaine Goodale Eastman (1863–1953) and Dora Read Goodale (1866–1953) were American poets and sisters from Massachusetts.
Gregory Howard Williams is a scholar, attorney, law school professor, author, and formerly the 27th President of the University of Cincinnati (2009 to 2012) and the 11th President of the City College of New York (2001 - 2009).
Hampton University (HU) is a private historically black university in Hampton, Virginia.
Hapa is a term for a person of mixed ethnic heritage.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
Heather Deen Locklear (born September 25, 1961) is an American actress.
Henry Louis "Skip" Gates Jr. (born September 16, 1950) is an American literary critic, teacher, historian, filmmaker and public intellectual who currently serves as the Alphonse Fletcher University Professor and Director of the Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard University.
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
The racial and ethnic demographics of the United States have changed dramatically throughout its history.
Jews in the Russian Empire have historically constituted a large religious diaspora; the vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world.
The history of the United States began with the settlement of Indigenous people before 15,000 BC.
The Houma are a historic Native American tribe located in Louisiana on the east side of the Red River of the South.
The House of Kamehameha (Hale O Kamehameha), or the Kamehameha dynasty, was the reigning Royal Family of the Kingdom of Hawaiokinai, beginning with its founding by Kamehameha I in 1795 and ending with the death of Kamehameha V in 1872 and Lunalilo in 1874.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
Hypergamy (colloquially referred to as "marrying up") is a term used in social science for the act or practice of a woman marrying a man of higher caste or social status than themselves.
In societies that regard some races of people as dominant or superior and others as subordinate or inferior, hypodescent refers to the automatic assignment by the dominant culture of children of a mixed union or sexual relations between members of different socioeconomic groups or ethnic groups to the subordinate group.
In psychology, identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group).
Imitation of Life is a 1934 American drama film directed by John M. Stahl.
An Indian princess (or Native American Princess) is a representation of indigenous women of the Americas.
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located.
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land.
A poem known variously as the "Indian Wedding Blessing", "Apache Blessing", "Apache Wedding Prayer", "Benediction of the Apaches, "Cherokee Wedding Blessing","" on Google Images and with various forms, is commonly recited at weddings in the United States.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian (shortened as Indo-Trinidadian) are nationals of Trinidad and Tobago with ancestry from the Indian subcontinent.
Interracial marriage in the United States has been legal in all U.S. states since the 1967 Supreme Court decision Loving v. Virginia that deemed "anti-miscegenation" laws unconstitutional.
Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
Jamaican Americans are Americans who have full or partial Jamaican ancestry.
James Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006) was an American singer, songwriter, dancer, musician, record producer and bandleader.
James Edward O'Hara (February 26, 1844 – September 15, 1905) was an American politician and attorney who in 1882, after Reconstruction, was the second African American to be elected to Congress from North Carolina.
James Pleasants, Jr. (October 24, 1769November 9, 1836) was an American politician who served in the U.S. Senate from 1819 to 1822 and was the 22nd Governor of Virginia from 1822 to 1825.
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
Japanese settlement in the Philippines refers to the branch of the Japanese diaspora having historical contact with and having established themselves in what is now the Philippines.
are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.
Joseph Jason Namakaeha Momoa (born August 1, 1979) is an American actor, writer, director, producer and model.
Jennifer Beals (born December 19, 1963) is an American actress and a former teen model.
Jennifer Tilly (born Jennifer Ellen Chan; September 16, 1958) is an American-Canadian actress and poker player.
Jerome Charles White, Jr. (born September 4, 1981), better known by his stage name, is an American enka singer of African-American and Japanese descent.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
James Marshall "Jimi" Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix; November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American rock guitarist, singer, and songwriter.
John Winston Ono Lennon (9 October 19408 December 1980) was an English singer, songwriter, and peace activist who co-founded the Beatles, the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music.
John Mercer Langston (December 14, 1829 – November 15, 1897) was an abolitionist, attorney, educator, activist, diplomat, and politician in the United States.
John Rolfe (1585–1622) was one of the early English settlers of North America.
John Young (1742 – 17 December 1835) was a British subject who became an important military advisor to Kamehameha I during the formation of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
John Christopher Depp II (born June 9, 1963) is an American actor, producer, and musician.
A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer, of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.
Victoria Kawēkiu Kaiulani Lunalilo Kalaninuiahilapalapa Cleghorn (October 16, 1875 – March 6, 1899) was heir to the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaii and held the title of Crown Princess.
Kamala Devi Harris (born October 20, 1964) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the junior United States Senator from California since 2017.
The Kaw Nation (or Kanza, or Kansa) are a federally recognized Native American tribe in Oklahoma and parts of Kansas.
Keanu Charles Reeves (born September 2, 1964) is a Canadian actor, director, producer, and musician.
Kip Fulbeck is an American artist, spoken word performer, filmmaker and author.
Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
Latin Americans (Latinoamericanos, Latino-americanos) are the citizens of the Latin American countries and dependencies.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States.
The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture.
Principal Chief is today the title of the chief executives of the Cherokee Nation, of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, and of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians, the three federally recognized tribes of Cherokee.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Louis Diamond Phillips (né Upchurch; born February 17, 1962) is a Filipino-American actor and director.
Louisiana Creole people (Créoles de Louisiane, Gente de Louisiana Creole), are persons descended from the inhabitants of colonial Louisiana during the period of both French and Spanish rule.
Loving Day is an annual celebration held on June 12, the anniversary of the 1967 United States Supreme Court decision Loving v. Virginia which struck down all anti-miscegenation laws remaining in sixteen U.S. states." In the United States, anti-miscegenation laws were U.S. state laws banning interracial marriage, mainly forbidding marriage between non-whites and whites.
Loving v. Virginia, is a landmark civil rights decision of the United States Supreme Court, which invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
The Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina is a state-recognized tribe of obscure tribal origins numbering approximately 60,000 enrolled members, most of them living in Robeson and the adjacent counties in south-central North Carolina.
Lydia Maria Francis Child (born Lydia Maria Francis) (February 11, 1802October 20, 1880), was an American abolitionist, women's rights activist, Native American rights activist, novelist, journalist, and opponent of American expansionism.
Madison Hemings, born James Madison Hemings (18 January 1805 – 28 November 1877), was the son of the mixed-race slave Sally Hemings.
The Magical Negro is a supporting stock character in American cinema who is portrayed as coming to the aid of a film's white protagonists.
Maria Louise Ewing (born March 27, 1950) is an American opera singer who has sung both soprano and mezzo-soprano roles.
Elizabeth Marie "Betty" TallChief (Osage family name: Ki He Kah Stah Tsa; January 24, 1925 – April 11, 2013) was an American ballerina.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Mary Ellen Pleasant (19 August 1814 – 4 January 1904) was a very successful 19th-century African American entrepreneur, financier, real estate magnate and abolitionist whose life is shrouded in mystery.
Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.
The Métis in the United States are people descended from joint Native Americans and white parents.
Melungeon is a term traditionally applied to one of numerous "tri-racial isolate" groups of the Southeastern United States.
Mestizos in the United States are Latino Americans whose racial and/or ethnic identity is Mestizo, i.e. a mixed ancestry of white European and indigenous Latin American (usually Iberian-Indigenous mixed ancestry).
The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by the McClatchy Company and headquartered in Doral, Florida, a city in western Miami-Dade County and the Miami metropolitan area, several miles west of downtown Miami.
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation is a Mississauga Ojibwa First Nation located near Brantford in south-central Ontario, Canada.
Mixed is an ethnicity category that has been used by the United Kingdom's Office for National Statistics since the 1991 Census.
Monticello was the primary plantation of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, who began designing and building Monticello at age 26 after inheriting land from his father.
Korinna Moon Bloodgood (born September 20, 1975) is an American actress and model, known for her role as Lt.
Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.; January 17, 1942 – June 3, 2016) was an American professional boxer, activist, and philanthropist.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.
The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
Native American identity in the United States is an evolving topic based on the struggle to define "Native American" or "(American) Indian" both for people who consider themselves Native American and for people who do not.
Native American politics remain divided over different issues such as assimilation, education, healthcare, and economic factors that affect reservations.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Native Hawaiians (Hawaiian: kānaka ʻōiwi, kānaka maoli, and Hawaiʻi maoli) are the aboriginal Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants.
The Navajo (British English: Navaho, Diné or Naabeehó) are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States.
The Navajo Nation (Naabeehó Bináhásdzo) is a Native American territory covering about, occupying portions of northeastern Arizona, southeastern Utah, and northwestern New Mexico in the United States.
Shaffer Chimere Smith (born October 18, 1982), known professionally as Ne-Yo, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, and actor.
Onika Tanya Maraj (born December 8, 1982), known professionally as Nicki Minaj, is a Trinidadian-born American rapper, singer, songwriter, model, and actress.
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The Northern United States, commonly referred to as the American North or simply the North, can be a geographic or historical term and definition.
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP).
Olaudah Equiano (c. 1745 – 31 March 1797), known in his lifetime as Gustavus Vassa, was a writer and abolitionist from the Igbo region of what is today southeastern Nigeria according to his memoir, or from South Carolina according to other sources.
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County.
The one-drop rule is a social and legal principle of racial classification that was historically prominent in the United States asserting that any person with even one ancestor of sub-Saharan African ancestry ("one drop" of black blood)Davis, F. James.
Oprah Winfrey (born Orpah Gail Winfrey; January 29, 1954) is an American media proprietor, talk show host, actress, producer, and philanthropist.
The Osage Nation (Osage: Ni-u-kon-ska, "People of the Middle Waters") is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains who historically dominated much of present-day Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma.
Osceola (1804 – January 30, 1838), born as Billy Powell, became an influential leader of the Seminole in Florida.
Pacific Islanders or Pasifikas are the peoples of the Pacific Islands.
Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, Pacific Islander Americans, or Native Hawaiian and/or other Pacific Islander Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry among the indigenous peoples of Oceania (viz. Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians).
Parade is an American nationwide Sunday newspaper magazine, distributed in more than 700 newspapers in the United States.
Partus sequitur ventrem, often abbreviated to partus, in the British American colonies and later in the United States, was a legal doctrine which the English royal colonies incorporated in legislation related to the status of children born in the colonies and the definitions of slavery.
Racial passing occurs when a person classified as a member of one racial group is also accepted as a member of a different racial group.
Patrick Francis Healy (February 27, 1834 – January 10, 1910) was a Jesuit priest, educator, and the 29th President of Georgetown University (1874–1882), known for expanding the school following the American Civil War.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
Pío de Jesús Pico (May 5, 1801 – September 11, 1894) was a Californio rancher and politician, the last governor of Alta California (now the State of California) under Mexican rule.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The Pee Dee River, also known as the Great Pee Dee River, is a river in the U.S. states of North Carolina and South Carolina.
Sir Peter Reginald Frederick Hall CBE (22 November 1930 11 September 2017) was an English theatre, opera and film director whose obituary in The Times declared him "the most important figure in British theatre for half a century" and on his death a Royal National Theatre statement declared that Hall’s "influence on the artistic life of Britain in the 20th century was unparalleled".
Pocahontas (born Matoaka, known as Amonute, 1596 – March 1617) was a Native American woman notable for her association with the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia.
Portuguese Americans (portugueses-americanos), also known as Luso-americans (luso-americanos), are American citizens and residents of the United States who are connected to the country of Portugal by birth, ancestry, or citizenship.
ThePottawatomi, also spelled Pottawatomie and Potawatomi (among many variations), are a Native American people of the Great Plains, upper Mississippi River, and western Great Lakes region. They traditionally speak the Potawatomi language, a member of the Algonquian family. The Potawatomi called themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of the word Anishinaabe. The Potawatomi were part of a long-term alliance, called the Council of Three Fires, with the Ojibwe and Odawa (Ottawa). In the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi were considered the "youngest brother" and were referred to in this context as Bodéwadmi, a name that means "keepers of the fire" and refers to the council fire of three peoples. In the 19th century, they were pushed to the west by European/American encroachment in the late 18th century and removed from their lands in the Great Lakes region to reservations in Oklahoma. Under Indian Removal, they eventually ceded many of their lands, and most of the Potawatomi relocated to Nebraska, Kansas, and Indian Territory, now in Oklahoma. Some bands survived in the Great Lakes region and today are federally recognized as tribes. In Canada, there are over 20 First Nation bands.
The Powhatan People (sometimes Powhatans) (also spelled Powatan) are an Indigenous group traditionally from Virginia.
Praying Indian is a 17th-century term referring to Native Americans of New England, New York, Ontario, and Quebec who converted to Christianity.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Puerto Ricans (Puertorriqueños; or boricuas) are people from Puerto Rico, the inhabitants and citizens of Puerto Rico, and their descendants.
Historically in the context of slave societies of the Americas, a quadroon or quarteron was a person with one quarter African and three quarters European ancestry (or in the context of Australia, one quarter aboriginal ancestry).
Emma Kalanikaumakaamano Kaleleonālani Naea Rooke of Hawaii (January 2, 1836 – April 25, 1885) was queen consort of King Kamehameha IV from 1856 to his death in 1863.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
The United States of America has a racially and ethnically diverse population.
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin (the only categories for ethnicity).
The race of the future is a theoretical composite race which will result from ongoing racial admixture.
Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation).
On March 20, 1924, the Virginia General Assembly passed two laws that had arisen out of contemporary concerns about eugenics and race: SB 219, titled "The Racial Integrity Act" and SB 281, "An ACT to provide for the sexual sterilization of inmates of State institutions in certain cases", henceforth referred to as "The Sterilization Act".
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
Racial whitening, or "whitening" (branqueamento), is an ideology that was widely accepted in Brazil between 1889 and 1914, as the solution to the "Negro problem."Skidmore, Thomas.
Radmilla A. Cody is a Navajo model, award-winning singer, and anti-domestic violence activist who was the 46th Miss Navajo from 1997 to 1998.
Randall Lee Gibson (September 10, 1832 – December 15, 1892) was an attorney and politician, elected as a member of the House of Representatives and U.S. Senator from Louisiana.
Rebecca Maria Hall (born 3 May 1982) is a British-American actress.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
John Elroy Sanford (December 9, 1922 – October 11, 1991), better known by his screen name Redd Foxx, was an American stand-up comedian and actor, best remembered for his explicit comedy records and his starring role on the 1970s sitcom Sanford and Son.
Richard Rodriguez (born July 31, 1944) is an American writer who became famous as the author of Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez (1982), a narrative about his intellectual development.
Robert Purvis (August 4, 1810 – April 15, 1898) was an American abolitionist in the United States.
Robert Theodore Stafford (August 8, 1913 – December 23, 2006) was an American politician from Vermont.
Robert is an unincorporated community in Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana, United States.
Rocky Johnson (born Wayde Douglas Bowles; August 24, 1944) is a Canadian retired professional wrestler.
Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture.
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Rosa María "Rosie" Perez (born September 4, 1964) is an American actress, community activist, talk show host, author, dancer, and choreographer.
Ruth Gordon Jones (October 30, 1896 – August 28, 1985) was an American film, stage, and television actress, as well as a screenwriter and playwright.
Sacagawea (also Sakakawea or Sacajawea; May 1788 – December 20, 1812) was a Lemhi Shoshone woman who is known for her help to the Lewis and Clark Expedition in achieving their chartered mission objectives by exploring the Louisiana Territory.
Sarah "Sally" Hemings (1773 – 1835) was an enslaved woman of mixed race owned by President Thomas Jefferson of the United States.
Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.
Samoans or Samoan people (tagata Sāmoa) are a Polynesian ethnic group native to the Samoan Islands, an archipelago in Polynesia, who speak the Samoan language.
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
San Miguel de Guadalupe, founded in 1526 by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón,In early 1521, Ponce de León had made a poorly documented, disastrous attempt to plant a colony near Charlotte Harbor, Florida but was quickly repulsed by the native Calusa.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scotch-Irish (or Scots-Irish) Americans are American descendants of Presbyterian and other Ulster Protestant Dissenters from various parts of Ireland, but usually from the province of Ulster, who migrated during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
is an American singer, songwriter and actor.
The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States.
The Seminole are a Native American people originally from Florida.
Seth Eastman (1808–1875) and his second wife Mary Henderson Eastman (1818 – 24 February 1887) were instrumental in recording Native American life.
Shreveport is the third-largest city in the state of Louisiana and the 122nd-largest city in the United States.
The Sioux also known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Sonja Sohn (born Sonja Williams; May 9, 1964) is an American actress and director.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an African-American civil rights organization.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
The English word Squaw is an ethnic and sexual slur, historically used for Indigenous North American women.
Stanley Lawrence Crouch (born December 14, 1945) is an American poet, music and cultural critic, syndicated columnist, novelist and biographer, perhaps best known for his jazz criticism and his 2000 novel Don't the Moon Look Lonesome?.
A stock character is a stereotypical fictional character in a work of art such as a novel, play, or film, whom audiences recognize from frequent recurrences in a particular literary tradition.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
Tatyana Marisol Ali (born January 24, 1979) is an American actress and singer.
A telenovela is a type of limited-run television serial drama or soap opera produced primarily in Latin America.
The Chronicle of Higher Education is a newspaper and website that presents news, information, and jobs for college and university faculty and Student Affairs professionals (staff members and administrators).
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Thomas Rolfe (January 30, 1615 – 1680?) was the only child of Pocahontas and her English husband, John Rolfe.
Althea Rae Janairo (born January 2, 1967), known professionally as Tia Carrere, is an American actress, model, voice actress, and singer who obtained her first big break as a regular on the daytime soap opera General Hospital.
Eldrick Tont Woods (born December 30, 1975) better known as Tiger Woods, is an American professional golfer who is among the most successful golfers of all time.
Tina Turner (born Anna Mae Bullock; November 26, 1939) is an American-born Swiss singer-songwriter, dancer, actress, and author.
Toussaint Charbonneau (March 20, 1767 – August 12, 1843) was a French Canadian explorer and trader, and a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
The tragic mulatto is a stereotypical fictional character that appeared in American literature during the 19th and 20th centuries, from the 1840s.
In the United States, tribal disenrollment is a process by which a Native American individual loses citizenship or the right to belong within a Native American tribe.
The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots: Ulstèr-Scotch), also called Ulster-Scots people (Ulstèr-Scotch fowk) or, outside the British Isles, Scots-Irish (Scotch-Airisch), are an ethnic group in Ireland, found mostly in the Ulster region and to a lesser extent in the rest of Ireland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The Vanderbilt family is an American family of Dutch origin who gained prominence during the Gilded Age.
Vassar College is a private, coeducational, liberal arts college in the town of Poughkeepsie, New York, in the United States.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Wentworth Cheswell (11 April 1746 – 8 March 1817) was an American assessor, auditor, Justice of the Peace, teacher and Revolutionary War veteran in Newmarket, New Hampshire.
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.
In the United States, a White Hispanic is an American citizen or resident who is racially white and of Hispanic descent.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
White privilege (or white skin privilege) is the societal privilege that benefits people whom society identifies as white in some countries, beyond what is commonly experienced by non-white people under the same social, political, or economic circumstances.
White slave propaganda is the term given to publicity, especially photograph and woodcuts, and also novels, articles, and popular lectures, about mixed-race, white-looking slaves, which was used during and prior to the American Civil War to further the abolitionist cause and to raise money for the education of former slaves.
White supremacy or white supremacism is a racist ideology based upon the belief that white people are superior in many ways to people of other races and that therefore white people should be dominant over other races.
The Whitney family is an American family notable for their social prominence, wealth, business enterprises and philanthropy, founded by John Whitney (1592–1673), who came from London, England to Watertown, Massachusetts in 1635.
Whitney Elizabeth Houston (August 9, 1963 – February 11, 2012) was an American singer and actress.
William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi.
Yoko Ono (小野 洋子, born February 18, 1933) is a Japanese multimedia artist, singer, songwriter, and peace activist who is also known for her work in performance art and filmmaking.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
The Twenty-second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2% over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 Census.
In October 2009, Keith Bardwell, a Robert, Louisiana, Justice of the Peace, refused to officiate the civil wedding of an interracial couple because of his personal views; current state and federal laws have no restrictions against such a marriage in the United States.
The 2010 United States Census (commonly referred to as the 2010 Census) is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census.
23andMe is a privately held personal genomics and biotechnology company based in Mountain View, California.