92 relations: Adapter (rocketry), Anti-ship missile, Apogee kick motor, Apollo program, Ariane 5, Atlas I, Atlas II, Booster (rocketry), Cape Canaveral, Casimir Siemienowicz, Centaur (rocket stage), Choe Museon, Combustion chamber, Complexity, Conrad Haas, Crawler-transporter, Delta Cryogenic Second Stage, Delta-K, Delta-v, Dmitry Okhotsimsky, Dragon 2, Engine, Escape velocity, Expander cycle, Explosive material, Falcon 9, Federal government of the United States, Fregat, Gas-generator cycle, Geostationary transfer orbit, Germans, Hermann Oberth, History of China, HM7B, Huolongjing, Hypergolic propellant, Jiao Yu, Joseph Needham, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Launch escape system, Launch vehicle, Liquid rocket booster, Lithuanian Museum of Ethnocosmology, Low Earth orbit, Mikhail Tikhonravov, Mobile Launcher Platform, Modular rocket, Natural logarithm, Newton's laws of motion, Orbit, ..., Orbital Mechanics for Engineering Students, Passivation (spacecraft), Payload fairing, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Pressure-fed engine, Propellant, Pyrotechnic fastener, R-7 Semyorka, Reusable launch system, Risk, Robert H. Goddard, Rocket, Rocket engine, Rocket propellant, Rocketdyne J-2, RTV-G-4 Bumper, Russia, S-IVB, Saturn V, Sibiu, Singijeon, Single-stage-to-orbit, Solid rocket booster, Sounding rocket, Soviet Union, Soyuz (rocket family), Space debris, Space Shuttle, Space tug, Space vehicle, SpaceX, Sub-orbital spaceflight, Three-stage-to-orbit, Transylvania, Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, Two-stage-to-orbit, United States, Vehicle Assembly Building, WAC Corporal, White Sands Missile Range, Wiley-VCH, YJ-62. Expand index (42 more) » « Shrink index
In rocketry, an adapter is a hollow cylindrical or conical segment between rocket stages or between the top rocket stage and the shroud that houses a spacecraft.
Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats.
An apogee kick motor (AKM) refers to a rocket motor that is regularly employed on artificial satellites to provide the final impulse to change the trajectory from the transfer orbit into its final (most commonly circular) orbit.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
Ariane 5 is a European heavy-lift launch vehicle that is part of the Ariane rocket family, an expendable launch system used to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) or low Earth orbit (LEO).
The Atlas I was an American expendable launch system, used in the 1990s to launch a variety of different satellites.
Atlas II was a member of the Atlas family of launch vehicles, which evolved from the successful Atlas missile program of the 1950s.
A booster rocket (or engine) is either the first stage of a multistage launch vehicle, or else a shorter-burning rocket used in parallel with longer-burning sustainer rockets to augment the space vehicle's takeoff thrust and payload capability.
Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a cape in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast.
Kazimierz Siemienowicz (Casimirus Siemienowicz, Kazimieras Simonavičius, Kazimierz Siemienowicz, born 1600 – 1651), was a Polish–Lithuanian general of artillery, gunsmith, military engineer, and pioneer of rocketry.
Centaur has been designed to be the upper stage of space launch vehicles and is used on the Atlas V. Centaur was the world's first high-energy upper stage, burning liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX).
Choe Mu-Seon (1325–1395) was a medieval Korean scientist, inventor, and military commander during the late Goryeo Dynasty and early Joseon Dynasty.
A combustion chamber is that part of an internal combustion engine (ICE) in which the fuel/air mix is burned.
Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions.
Conrad Haas (1509–1576) was an Austrian or Transylvanian Saxon military engineer for the Kingdom of Hungary and Principality of Transilvania.
The crawler-transporters, formally known as the Missile Crawler Transporter Facilities, are a pair of tracked vehicles used to transport spacecraft from NASA's Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) along the Crawlerway to Launch Complex 39.
The Delta Cryogenic Second Stage (DCSS) is a family of cryogenic rocket stages used on the Delta III & Delta IV rockets, and which is planned to be used on the Block I Space Launch System.
The Delta-K is an American rocket stage, developed by McDonnell Douglas and Aerojet.
Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.
Dmitry Yevgenyevich Okhotsimsky (Дми́трий Евге́ньевич Охоци́мский) was a Soviet Russian aerospace engineer and scientist who was the pioneer of space ballistics in the USSR.
Dragon 2 (also Crew Dragon, Dragon V2, or formerly DragonRider) is the second version of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, which will be a human-rated vehicle.
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.
In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.
The expander cycle is a power cycle of a bipropellant rocket engine.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit medium lift launch vehicles, named for its use of nine Merlin first-stage engines, designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Fregat (Фрегат, frigate) is an upper stage developed by NPO Lavochkin in the 1990s, which is used in some Soyuz and Zenit rockets.
The gas-generator cycle is a power cycle of a bipropellant rocket engine.
A geosynchronous transfer orbit or geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit—an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane—used to reach geosynchronous or geostationary orbit using high-thrust chemical engines.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Hermann Julius Oberth (25 June 1894 – 28 December 1989) was an Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The HM7B is a European cryogenic upper stage rocket engine used in Ariane rocket family.
The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered in English as Fire Drake Manual or Fire Dragon Manual), also known as Huoqitu (“Firearm Illustrations”), is a 14th-century military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683).
A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.
Jiao Yu was a Chinese military officer, philosopher, and writer of the Ming dynasty under Zhu Yuanzhang, who founded the dynasty and became known as the Hongwu Emperor.
Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology.
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory of ethnic Polish descent.
A launch escape system (LES) or launch abort system (LAS) is a crew safety system connected to a space capsule, used to quickly separate the capsule from its launch vehicle rocket in case of a launch abort emergency, such as an impending explosion.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
A liquid rocket booster (LRB) consists of liquid fuel and oxidiser as booster to give a liquid-propellant rocket or a hybrid rocket an extra boost at take off.
The Lithuanian Museum of Ethnocosmology (Lietuvos etnokosmologijos muziejus) is a sky observatory and ethnocosmology museum in Kulionys village located about north of Vilnius, Lithuania.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
Mikhail Klavdievich Tikhonravov (July 29, 1900, Vladimir – March 3, 1974) was a Soviet aerospace engineer and scientist who was a pioneer of spacecraft design and rocketry.
The Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) is one of three two-story structures used by NASA at the Kennedy Space Center to support the Space Shuttle stack throughout the build-up and launch process: during assembly at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), while being transported to Launch Pads 39A and B, and as the vehicle's launch platform.
A modular rocket is a type of multistage rocket which features components that can be interchanged for specific mission requirements.
The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant ''e'', where e is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
Orbital Mechanics for Engineering Students is an aerospace engineering textbook by Howard D. Curtis, in its third edition.
The passivation of a spacecraft is the removal of any internal energy contained in the vehicle at the end of its mission or useful life.
A payload fairing is a nose cone used to protect a spacecraft (launch vehicle payload) against the impact of dynamic pressure and aerodynamic heating during launch through an atmosphere.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The pressure-fed engine is a class of rocket engine designs.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
A pyrotechnic fastener (also called an explosive bolt, or pyro, within context) is a fastener, usually a nut or bolt, that incorporates a pyrotechnic charge that can be initiated remotely.
The R-7 (Р-7 "Семёрка") was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.
A reusable launch system (RLS, or reusable launch vehicle, RLV) is a space launch system intended to allow for recovery of all or part of the system for later reuse.
Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value.
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.
The J-2 was a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine used on NASA's Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles.
The RTV-G-4 Bumper was a sounding rocket built by the United States.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The S-IVB (sometimes S-4B, always pronounced "ess four bee") was built by the Douglas Aircraft Company and served as the third stage on the Saturn V and second stage on the Saturn IB.
The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.
Sibiu (antiquated Sibiiu; Hermannstadt, Transylvanian Saxon: Härmeschtat, Nagyszeben) is a city in Transylvania, Romania, with a population of 147,245.
Singijeon or shinkichon (magical machine arrows) was a type of Korean (Joseon) fire arrow rocket, used during the era of the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1897).
A single-stage-to-orbit (or SSTO) vehicle reaches orbit from the surface of a body without jettisoning hardware, expending only propellants and fluids.
Solid-fuel rocket boosters (SRBs) are large solid propellant motors used to provide thrust in spacecraft launches from initial launch through the first ascent stage.
A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) is a family of expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1 and manufactured by Progress Rocket Space Centre in Samara, Russia.
Space debris (also known as space junk, space waste, space trash, space litter or space garbage) is a term for the mass of defunct, artificially created objects in space, most notably in Earth orbit, such as old satellites and spent rocket stages.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
A space tug is a type of spacecraft used to transfer spaceborne cargo from one orbit to another orbit with different energy characteristics.
A space vehicle or spaceship is a rocket-powered vehicle used to transport unmanned satellites or humans between the Earth's surface and outer space.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.
The three-stage-to-orbit launch system is a commonly used rocket system to attain Earth orbit.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, classical rocket equation, or ideal rocket equation, describes the motion of vehicles that follow the basic principle of a rocket: a device that can apply acceleration to itself using thrust by expelling part of its mass with high velocity and thereby move due to the conservation of momentum.
A two-stage-to-orbit or two-stage rocket launch vehicle is a spacecraft in which two distinct stages provide propulsion consecutively in order to achieve orbital velocity.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Vehicle (originally Vertical) Assembly Building, or VAB, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a building designed to assemble large space vehicles, such as the massive Saturn V and the Space Shuttle.
The WAC or WAC Corporal was the first sounding rocket developed in the United States.
White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is a United States Army military testing area of almost in parts of five counties in southern New Mexico.
Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.
The YJ-62 is a Chinese subsonic anti-ship cruise missile.
First stage (rocketry), Interstage, Multi stage, Multi stage rocket, Multi-stage, Multi-stage rocket, Multi-step rocket, Multistaged rocket, Multistep rocket, Parallel staging, Rocket stage, Rocket staging, Second stage, Separation event, Staged Rocket, Staging (rocketry), Staging rocket, Step rocket, Stepping rocket, Third stage, Two-stage, Upper stage, Upper-stage.