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Index Mummy

A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions. [1]

280 relations: Abdominal cavity, Africa, African sacred ibis, Alcohol, Aleiodes, Alexander Bogdanov, Alexey Shchusev, Altai Mountains, Altai Republic, Aluminium chloride, American Civil War, Ampato, Amulet, Anatomy, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian religion, Andes, Animal, Animal mummy, Animal style, Arabic, Argentina, Aspergillus niger, Asphalt, Atacama Desert, Australia, Autopsy, Aztec mummy, Aztecs, Ötzi, Ötztal Alps, Baviaanskloof Mega Reserve, Bioarchaeology, Biochemistry, Bob Brier, Bodice, Bodies: The Exhibition, Body Worlds, Bog, Bog body, Bradawl, Brain, British Columbia, Budapest, Cairo, Calcium oxide, Canada, Canary Islands, Canopic jar, Capacocha, ..., Capuchin Crypt in Brno, Caput mortuum, Carbon-14, Catacombe dei Cappuccini, Catholic Church, Cedrus, Central Asia, Cerro El Plomo, Champagne and Aishihik First Nations, Changsha, Channel 4, Chemical substance, Chicha, Children of Llullaillaco, Chile, China, Chinchorro mummies, Cinnamomum cassia, Claude Nowell, Coca, Coffin Texts, Conquistador, Cranial cavity, Cryonics, Crypt, CT scan, Cusco, Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, Czech Republic, Decapitation, Deer, Dehydration, Denmark, Desiccation, Disembowelment, Dominican Order, Double Fold, Dynasties in Chinese history, E. A. Wallis Budge, East-Central Europe, Edward Bleiberg, Egtved Girl, Embalming, Embalming chemicals, Encarnación de Díaz, Enema, Ethiopia, Fabrizio Mori, Fertilizer, Fetus, Flank (anatomy), Fossil, Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, Francis Trevelyan Buckland, Frankincense, Fuel, Gastrointestinal tract, Germany, Gottfried Knoche, Grafton Elliot Smith, Grahamstown, Gravity, Greco-Roman world, Griffin, Guanajuato City, Guanches, Guano, Gunther von Hagens, Han dynasty, Haplogroup R1a, Haraldskær Woman, Heather Pringle, Heidelberg, Heidelberg University, Herodotus, Histories (Herodotus), Howard Carter, HowStuffWorks, Human, Humidity, Hypoxia (environmental), Igorot people, Inca Empire, Incorruptibility, Indigenous peoples, Indus River, Inuit, Iran, Isotope, J. Paul Getty Museum, Jalisco, Jeremy Bentham, Jilin, Johan Reinhard, Jutland, Kabayan Mummies, Kabayan, Benguet, Khoikhoi, Klatovy, Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi, La Guaira, Lenin's Mausoleum, Leonid Krasin, Libya, Lima, Linen, List of DNA-tested mummies, List of Egyptian mummies, List of Egyptologists, List of mummies, Lotus position, Macquarie University, Mark Twain, Mawangdui, Māori people, Medical research, Medical University of Innsbruck, Medication, Mellified man, Middle Ages, Middle English, Mokomokai, Mummia, Mummies of Guanajuato, Mummy brown, Mummy Juanita, Myrrh, Natalia Polosmak, National Geographic, National Geographic Society, National Museum of Iran, Natron, Netherlands, Nevada State Museum, Carson City, New Zealand, Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov, Novosibirsk, Nucleic acid sequence, Nut (fruit), Oceania, Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, Organ (anatomy), Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Papyrus, Peru, Pievepelago, Pine, Plastination, Plomo Mummy, Pre-Columbian Mexico, Pseudoscience, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Puerto de la Cruz, Pyramid of Djoser, Qilakitsoq, Rectum, Republic of Ireland, Richard Hakluyt, Root, Rosalia Lombardo, Russian cosmism, Sabancaya, Sagada, Saint, Saltmen, Sarcophagus, Scythians, Second Dynasty of Egypt, Seed, Shaft tomb, Siberia, Siberian Ice Maiden, Skin, Skull, Social status, Society of Jesus, South Africa, South America, South Tyrol, Southern Tutchone, Soviet Union, Spanish Empire, Spirit Cave mummy, Sprang, Steam locomotive, Stereoscopy, Stomach, Suicide, Summum, Sweden, Tanning (leather), Tarim Basin, Tarim mummies, Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Park, Tehran, Tenerife, Terracotta, The Independent, The Ritual of Embalming Papyrus, The Straight Dope, Thutmose IV, Tollund Man, Tomb, Tomb of Cyrus, Torres Strait, Toxicodendron vernicifluum, TT23, Tumulus, Turkic languages, Tutankhamun, Uan Muhuggiag, Ukok Plateau, United Kingdom, University College London, University of Oxford, University of York, Utilitarianism, Uyghurs, Vamberk, Vác, Vejle, Victor H. Mair, Victorian era, Vladimir Lenin, Western esotericism, X-ray, Xin Zhui, Xinjiang, 5th millennium BC. Expand index (230 more) »

Abdominal cavity

The abdominal cavity is a large body cavity in humans and many other animals that contains many organs.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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African sacred ibis

The African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) is a species of ibis, a wading bird of the Threskiornithidae family.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Aleiodes (Greek ἀ "not", λείος "smooth", εἵδος "appearance") is a genus of the family Braconidae of parasitoid wasps described by Constantin Wesmael in 1838.

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Alexander Bogdanov

Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Богда́нов; born Alyaksandr Malinovsky, Алякса́ндр Алякса́ндравіч Маліно́ўскі) (– 7 April 1928) was a Russian and Soviet physician, philosopher, science fiction writer, and revolutionary of Belarusian ethnicity.

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Alexey Shchusev

Alexey Viktorovich Shchusev (Алексе́й Ви́кторович Щу́сев; – 24 May 1949) was an acclaimed Russian and Soviet architect whose works may be regarded as a bridge connecting Revivalist architecture of Imperial Russia with Stalin's Empire Style.

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Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.

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Altai Republic

The Altai Republic (Респу́блика Алта́й, Respublika Altay,; Altai: Алтай Республика, Altay Respublika) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Aluminium chloride

Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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Ampato (possibly from Quechua hamp'atu or from Aymara jamp'atu both meaning "frog") is a dormant stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru, about northwest of Arequipa.

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An amulet is an object that is typically worn on one's person, that some people believe has the magical or miraculous power to protect its holder, either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing; it is often also used as an ornament though that may not be the intended purpose of it.

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Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Egyptian religion

Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.

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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Animal mummy

Animal mummification originated in ancient Egypt.

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Animal style

Animal style art is an approach to decoration found from China to Northern Europe in the early Iron Age, and the barbarian art of the Migration Period, characterized by its emphasis on animal motifs.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.

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Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.

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Atacama Desert

The Atacama Desert (Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America (primarily in Chile), covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

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Aztec mummy

Aztec mummy refers to an intentionally prepared or naturally desiccated human body of Aztec origin.

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The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

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Ötzi (also called the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE.

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Ötztal Alps

The Ötztal Alps (Alpi Venoste, Ötztaler Alpen) are a mountain range in the Central Eastern Alps, in the State of Tyrol in southern Austria and the Province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.

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Baviaanskloof Mega Reserve

Baviaanskloof Mega Reserve is a protected area in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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The term bioarchaeology was first coined by British archaeologist Grahame Clark in 1972 as a reference to zooarchaeology, or the study of animal bones from archaeological sites.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Bob Brier

Robert Brier (born December 13, 1943) is an American Egyptologist specializing in paleopathology.

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A bodice is an article of clothing for women and girls, covering the body from the neck to the waist.

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Bodies: The Exhibition


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Body Worlds

Body Worlds (German title: Körperwelten) is a traveling exposition of dissected human bodies, animals, and other anatomical structures of the body that have been preserved through the process of plastination.

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A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.

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Bog body

A bog body is a human cadaver that has been naturally mummified in a peat bog.

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A bradawl is a woodworking hand tool with a blade similar to that of a straight screwdriver and a handle made from wood or plastic.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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British Columbia

British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.

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Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.

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Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Canopic jar

Canopic jars used by the ancient Egyptians during the mummification process to store and preserve the viscera of their owner for the afterlife.

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Capacocha or Qhapaq huchaOf Summits and Sacrifice: An Ethnohistoric Study of Inka Religious Practices, University of Texas Press, 2009 (Quechua qhapaq noble, principal, mighty, royal, hucha crime, sin, guilt Hispanicized spellings Capac cocha, Capaccocha, Capacocha, also qhapaq ucha) was an important sacrificial rite among the Inca that typically involved the sacrifice of children. The phrase Capacocha has also been translated to mean "solemn sacrifice" or "royal obligation." The rationale for this type of sacrificial rite has typically been understood as the Inca trying to ensure that humanity's best were sent to join their deities.

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Capuchin Crypt in Brno

The Capuchin Crypt in Brno is a funeral room mainly for Capuchin friars.

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Caput mortuum

Caput mortuum (plural capita mortua) is a Latin term whose literal meaning is "dead head" or "worthless remains", used in alchemy and also as the name of a pigment.

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Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.

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Catacombe dei Cappuccini

The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo (also Catacombe dei Cappuccini or Catacombs of the Capuchins) are burial catacombs in Palermo, Sicily, southern Italy.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cedrus (common English name cedar) is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae (subfamily Abietoideae).

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Cerro El Plomo

Cerro El Plomo is a mountain in the Andes near Santiago, Chile.

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Champagne and Aishihik First Nations

The Champagne and Aishihik First Nations (CAFN) is a First Nation band government in Yukon, Canada.

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Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China.

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Channel 4

Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.

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Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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In South and Central America, chicha is a fermented (alcoholic) or non-fermented beverage usually derived from grains, maize, or fruit.

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Children of Llullaillaco

The Children of Llullaillaco, also known as the Mummies of Llullaillaco, are three Inca child mummies rediscovered on 16 March 1999 by Dr.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinchorro mummies

The Chinchorro mummies are mummified remains of individuals from the South American Chinchorro culture, found in what is now northern Chile.

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Cinnamomum cassia

Cinnamomum cassia, called Chinese cassia or Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree originating in southern China, and widely cultivated there and elsewhere in southern and eastern Asia (India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Taiwan of China, Thailand, and Vietnam).

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Claude Nowell

Claude Rex Nowell (November 2, 1944 – January 29, 2008), also known as Corky King, Corky Ra, and Summum Bonum Amon Ra, was the American founder of Summum, a 501(c)(3), philosophical and religious organization that practices a modern form of mummification.

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Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.

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Coffin Texts

The Coffin Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian funerary spells written on coffins beginning in the First Intermediate Period.

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Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.

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Cranial cavity

The cranial cavity, also known as intracranial space, is the space within the skull.

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Cryonics (from Greek κρύος kryos meaning 'cold') is the low-temperature preservation (usually at −196°C) of human cadavers, with the hope that resuscitation and restoration to life and full health may be possible in the far future.

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A crypt (from Latin crypta "vault") is a stone chamber beneath the floor of a church or other building.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.

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Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences

Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (two volumes in folio) was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London in 1728, and reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.

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Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.

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In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.

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Disembowelment or evisceration is the removal of some or all of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract (the bowels, or viscera), usually through a horizontal incision made across the abdominal area.

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Dominican Order

The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.

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Double Fold

Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper is a non-fiction book by Nicholson Baker that was published in April 2001.

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Dynasties in Chinese history

The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.

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E. A. Wallis Budge

Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge (27 July 185723 November 1934) was an English Egyptologist, Orientalist, and philologist who worked for the British Museum and published numerous works on the ancient Near East.

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East-Central Europe

East-Central Europe is the region between German, West Slavic and Hungarian speaking Europe and the Eastern Slavic lands of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine.

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Edward Bleiberg

Edward "Ed" Bleiberg (born 1951) is an American archaeologist and Egyptologist.

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Egtved Girl

The Egtved Girl (c. 1390–1370 BC) was a Nordic Bronze Age girl whose well-preserved remains were discovered outside Egtved, Denmark in 1921.

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Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.

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Embalming chemicals

Embalming chemicals are a variety of preservatives, sanitising and disinfectant agents, and additives used in modern embalming to temporarily prevent decomposition and restore a natural appearance for viewing a body after death.

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Encarnación de Díaz

Encarnación de Díaz is a town and municipality located in the far northeast of the state of Jalisco in north central Mexico.

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An enema is the injection of fluid into the lower bowel by way of the rectum.

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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Fabrizio Mori

Fabrizio Mori (born 28 June 1969 in Livorno) is an Italian hurdler, best known for his gold medal at the 1999 World Championships.

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A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Flank (anatomy)

The flank or latus is the side of the body between the rib cage and the iliac bone of the hip (below the rib cage and above the ilium).

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Fourth Dynasty of Egypt

The Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IV or Dynasty 4) is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.

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Francis Trevelyan Buckland

Francis Trevelyan Buckland (17 December 1826 – 19 December 1880), better known as Frank Buckland, was an English surgeon, zoologist, popular author and natural historian.

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Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.

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A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gottfried Knoche

August Gottfried Knoche (17 March 1813, Halberstadt - 2 January 1901, near La Guaira) was a German doctor and surgeon.

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Grafton Elliot Smith

Sir Grafton Elliot Smith, FRS FRCP (15 August 1871 – 1 January 1937) was an Australian-British anatomist, Egyptologist and a proponent of the hyperdiffusionist view of prehistory.

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Grahamstown, never known as Makhanda (Grahamstad, iRhini) is a town of about 70,000 people in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.

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The griffin, griffon, or gryphon (Greek: γρύφων, grýphōn, or γρύπων, grýpōn, early form γρύψ, grýps; gryphus) is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion; the head and wings of an eagle; and an eagle's talons as its front feet.

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Guanajuato City

Guanajuato is a city and municipality in central Mexico and the capital of the state of the same name.

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Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands.

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Guano (from Quechua wanu via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.

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Gunther von Hagens

Gunther von Hagens (born Gunther Gerhard Liebchen; 10 January 1945) is a German anatomist who invented the technique for preserving biological tissue specimens called plastination.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Haplogroup R1a

Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia.

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Haraldskær Woman

The Haraldskær Woman (or Haraldskjaer Woman) is a bog body of a woman found naturally preserved in a bog in Jutland, Denmark, and dating from about 490 BC (pre-Roman Iron Age).

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Heather Pringle

Heather Pringle is a prize-winning Canadian non-fiction author and journalist, focusing on archaeology.

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Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.

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Heidelberg University

Heidelberg University (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; Universitas Ruperto Carola Heidelbergensis) is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Histories (Herodotus)

The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.

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Howard Carter

Howard Carter (9 May 18742 March 1939) was a British archaeologist and Egyptologist who became world-famous after discovering the intact tomb (designated KV62) of the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh, Tutankhamun (colloquially known as "King Tut" and "the boy king"), in November 1922.

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HowStuffWorks is an American commercial educational website founded by Marshall Brain to provide its target audience an insight into the way many things work.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.

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Hypoxia (environmental)

Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.

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Igorot people

Igorot, or Cordillerans, is the collective name of several Austronesian ethnic groups in the Philippines, who inhabit the mountains of Luzon.

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Inca Empire

The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.

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Incorruptibility is a Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox belief that divine intervention allows some human bodies (specifically saints and beati) to avoid the normal process of decomposition after death as a sign of their holiness.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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J. Paul Getty Museum

The J. Paul Getty Museum, commonly referred to as the Getty, is an art museum in California housed on two campuses: the Getty Center and Getty Villa.

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Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

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Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.

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Jilin, formerly romanized as Kirin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China.

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Johan Reinhard

Johan Reinhard (born December 13, 1943), is an Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society.

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Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.

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Kabayan Mummies

The Fire Mummies of the Philippines, also known as the Kabayan Mummies, Benguet Mummies, or Ibaloi Mummies, are a group of mummies found along the mountain slopes of Kabayan, a town in the northern part of the Philippines.

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Kabayan, Benguet

, officially the, (Ili ti Kabayan; Bayan ng Kabayan), is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.

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The Khoikhoi (updated orthography Khoekhoe, from Khoekhoegowab Khoekhoen; formerly also Hottentots"Hottentot, n. and adj." OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. Nienaber, 'The origin of the name “Hottentot” ', African Studies, 22:2 (1963), 65-90,. See also.) are the traditionally nomadic pastoralist non-Bantu indigenous population of southwestern Africa.

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Klatovy (Klattau) is a town in the Plzeň Region of the Czech Republic.

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Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi

Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi (meaning Long Ago Person Found in Southern Tutchone), or Canadian Ice Man, is a naturally mummified body found in Tatshenshini-Alsek Park in British Columbia, Canada, by a group of hunters in 1999.

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La Guaira

La Guaira is the capital city of the Venezuelan state of Vargas and the country's main port.

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Lenin's Mausoleum

Lenin's Mausoleum (formerly Lenin's & Stalin's Mausoleum (1953-1961)) (p), also known as Lenin's Tomb, situated in Red Square in the centre of Moscow, is a mausoleum that currently serves as the resting place of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin.

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Leonid Krasin

Leonid Borisovich Krasin (Леони́д Бори́сович Кра́син; – 24 November 1926) was a Russian engineer, social entrepreneur and Soviet Bolshevik politician and diplomat.

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Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.

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Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.

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List of DNA-tested mummies

This is a purported list of ancient humans remains, including mummies, that may have been DNA tested. Provided as evidence of the testing are links to the mitochondrial DNA sequences, and/or to the human haplogroups to which each case has been assigned.

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List of Egyptian mummies

The following is a list of notable mummies that have been found in Egypt dating to the Pharaoh dynasties.

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List of Egyptologists

This is a partial list of Egyptologists.

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List of mummies

This is a list of mummies – corpses whose skin and organs have been preserved intentionally, or incidentally.

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Lotus position

Padmasana or Lotus Position (पद्मासन) is a cross-legged sitting asana originating in meditative practices of ancient India, in which the feet are placed on the opposing thighs.

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Macquarie University

Macquarie University is a public research university based in Sydney, Australia, in the suburb of Macquarie Park.

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Mark Twain

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.

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Mawangdui is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China.

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Māori people

The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.

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Medical research

Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.

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Medical University of Innsbruck

The Medical University of Innsbruck (Medizinische Universität Innsbruck) is a university in Innsbruck, Austria.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Mellified man

Mellified man, or human mummy confection, was a legendary medicinal substance created by steeping a human cadaver in honey.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Mokomokai are the preserved heads of Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, where the faces have been decorated by tā moko tattooing.

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Mummia, mumia, or originally mummy referred to several different preparations in the history of medicine, from "mineral pitch" to "powdered human mummies".

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Mummies of Guanajuato

The Mummies of Guanajuato are a number of naturally mummified bodies interred during a cholera outbreak around Guanajuato, Mexico in 1833.

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Mummy brown

Mummy brown was a rich brown bituminous pigment, intermediate in tint between burnt umber and raw umber, which was one of the favorite colors of the Pre-Raphaelites.

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Mummy Juanita

Momia Juanita (Spanish for "Mummy Juanita"), also known as the Inca Ice Maiden and Lady of Ampato, is the well-preserved frozen body of an Inca girl who was killed as an offering to the Inca gods sometime between 1450 and 1480 when she was approximately 12–15 years old.

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Myrrh (from Aramaic, but see § Etymology) is a natural gum or resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.

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Natalia Polosmak

Natalia Viktorovna Polosmak (Наталья Викторовна Полосьмак; born 12 September 1956) is a Russian archaeologist specialising in the study of early Metal Age Eurasian nomads, especially those known as the Pazyryk Culture, an ancient people, often glossed as "Scythian," who lived in the Altay Mountains in Siberian Russia.

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National Geographic

National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.

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National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.

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National Museum of Iran

The National Museum of Iran (موزهٔ ملی ایران) is located in Tehran, Iran.

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Natron is a naturally occurring mixture of sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO3·10H2O, a kind of soda ash) and around 17% sodium bicarbonate (also called baking soda, NaHCO3) along with small quantities of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Nevada State Museum, Carson City

The Nevada State Museum in Carson City is one of seven Nevada State Museums operated by the Nevada Department of Tourism and Cultural Affairs.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov

Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov (Никола́й Фёдорович Фёдоров; surname also Anglicized as "Fedorov") (June 9, 1829 – December 28, 1903) was a Russian Orthodox Christian philosopher, who was part of the Russian cosmism movement and a precursor of transhumanism.

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Novosibirsk (p) is the third-most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Nut (fruit)

A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.

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Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.

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Order of Friars Minor Capuchin

The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (postnominal abbr. O.F.M.Cap.) is an order of friars within the Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Pievepelago (Frignanese: La Piéva or Piêvpèlegh) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Modena in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna in the heart of the northern Apennine Mountains.

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A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.

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Plastination is a technique or process used in anatomy to preserve bodies or body parts, first developed by Gunther von Hagens in 1977.

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Plomo Mummy

The Plomo Mummy (also known as Boy of El Plomo, El Plomo Mummy, or La Momia del Cerro El Plomo in Spanish) is the well preserved remains of an Incan child found on Cerro El Plomo near Santiago, Chile in 1954.

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Pre-Columbian Mexico

The pre-Columbian history of the territory now comprising contemporary Mexico is known through the work of archaeologists and epigraphers, and through the accounts of the conquistadors, clergymen, and indigenous chroniclers of the immediate post-conquest period.

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Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Ptolemaic Kingdom

The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.

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Puerto de la Cruz

Puerto de la Cruz is a city and municipality in the northern part of the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

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Pyramid of Djoser

The Pyramid of Djoser (or Djeser and Zoser), or step pyramid (kbhw-ntrw in Egyptian) is an archeological remain in the Saqqara necropolis, Egypt, northwest of the city of Memphis.

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Qilakitsoq is an archaeological site on Nuussuaq Peninsula, on the shore of Uummannaq Fjord in northwestern Greenland.

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The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Richard Hakluyt

Richard Hakluyt (1553 – 23 November 1616) was an English writer.

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In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.

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Rosalia Lombardo

Rosalia Lombardo (December 13, 1918 in Palermo, Italy – December 6, 1920) was an Italian child who died of pneumonia.

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Russian cosmism

Russian cosmism is a philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century.

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Sabancaya is an active stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru, about northwest of Arequipa.

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, officially the is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.

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A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.

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The Saltmen were discovered in the Chehrabad salt mines, located on the southern part of the Hamzehlu village, on the west side of the city of Zanjan, in the Zanjan Province in Iran.

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A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.

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or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.

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Second Dynasty of Egypt

The Second Dynasty of ancient Egypt (or Dynasty II, c. 2890 – c. 2686 BC) is the latter of the two dynasties of the Egyptian Archaic Period, when the seat of government was centred at Thinis.

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A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.

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Shaft tomb

A shaft tomb or shaft grave is a type of deep rectangular burial structure, similar in shape to the much shallower cist grave, containing a floor of pebbles, walls of rubble masonry, and a roof constructed of wooden planks.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Siberian Ice Maiden

The Siberian Ice Maiden, also known as the Princess of Ukok (Принце́сса Уко́ка), the Altai Princess (Алтайская принцесса), Devochka and Ochy-bala (Очы-бала, the heroine of the Altaic epic), is a mummy of a woman from the 5th century BC, found in 1993 in a kurgan of the Pazyryk culture in Republic of Altai, Russia.

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Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.

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The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.

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Social status

Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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South Tyrol

South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy.

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Southern Tutchone

The Southern TutchoneMcClellan, C. (2001) My Old People Say: an Ethnographic Survey of Southern Yukon Territory.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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Spirit Cave mummy

The Spirit Cave mummy is the oldest human mummy found in North America.

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Sprang is an ancient method of constructing fabric that has a natural elasticity.

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Steam locomotive

A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine.

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Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.

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The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.

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Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.

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Summum is a religion and philosophy that began in 1975 as a result of American citizen Claude "Corky" Nowell's claimed encounter with beings he described as "Summa Individuals".

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Tanning (leather)

Tanned leather in Marrakesh Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather.

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Tarim Basin

The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.

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Tarim mummies

The Tarim mummies are a series of mummies discovered in the Tarim Basin in present-day Xinjiang, China, which date from 1800 BCE to the first centuries BCE.

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Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Park

Tatshenshini-Alsek Park or Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Wilderness Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada.

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Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Tenerife is the largest and most populated island of the seven Canary Islands.

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Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The Ritual of Embalming Papyrus

The Ritual of Embalming Papyrus or Papyrus of the Embalming Ritual is one of only two extant papyri which detail anything at all about the practices of mummification used within the burial practices of Ancient Egyptian culture.

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The Straight Dope

"The Straight Dope" was an online question-and-answer newspaper column published from 1973 to 2018 in the Chicago Reader and syndicated in eight newspapers in the United States.

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Thutmose IV

Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian: /ḏḥwty.ms/ Djehutymes, meaning "Thoth is born") was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, who ruled in approximately the 14th century BC.

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Tollund Man

Tollund Man is a naturally mummified corpse of a man who lived during the 4th century BC, during the period characterised in Scandinavia as the Pre-Roman Iron Age.

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A tomb (from τύμβος tumbos) is a repository for the remains of the dead.

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Tomb of Cyrus

The Tomb of Cyrus (Persian: آرامگاه کوروش بزرگ translit. ārāmgāh-e kuroş-e bozorg) is the monument of Cyrus the Great approximately 1 km southwest of the palaces of Pasargadae.

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Torres Strait

The Torres Strait is a strait which lies between Australia and the Melanesian island of New Guinea.

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Toxicodendron vernicifluum

Toxicodendron vernicifluum (formerly Rhus verniciflua), also known by the common name Chinese lacquer tree, is an Asian tree species of genus Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) native to China and the Indian subcontinent, and cultivated in regions of China, Korea and Japan.

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The Theban Tomb TT23 is located in Sheikh Abd el-Qurna, part of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to Luxor.

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A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period.

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Uan Muhuggiag

Uan Muhuggiag is an archaeological site in Libya.

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Ukok Plateau

Ukok Plateau is a remote and pristine grasslands area located in the heart of southwestern Siberia, the Altai Mountains region of Russia near the borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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University College London

University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of York

The University of York (abbreviated as Ebor or York for post-nominals) is a collegiate plate glass research university located in the city of York, England.

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Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.

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The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.

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Vamberk (Wamberg) is a town in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic.

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Vác (Waitzen; Vacov; ווייצען) is a town in Pest county in Hungary with approximately 35,000 inhabitants.

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Vejle is a town in Denmark, in the southeast of the Jutland Peninsula at the head of Vejle Fjord, where the Vejle River and Grejs River and their valleys converge.

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Victor H. Mair

Victor Henry Mair (born March 25, 1943) is an American Sinologist and professor of Chinese at the University of Pennsylvania.

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Western esotericism

Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Xin Zhui

Xin Zhui (died 163 BCE), also known as Lady Dai or Marquise of Dai, was the wife of Li Cang (利蒼), the Marquis of Dai, during the Western Han dynasty of ancient China.

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Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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5th millennium BC

The 5th millennium BC spanned the years 5000 through 4001 BC.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mummy

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