187 relations: Abwehr, Adobe Flash, Adolf Hitler, Alfred Jodl, Anglo-Polish military alliance, Anschluss, Antonín Švehla, Appeasement, Arab–Israeli conflict, Austria, Austria-Hungary, Axis powers, Árva County, Édouard Daladier, Český Těšín, Bank of England, Barry Goldwater, Benito Mussolini, Benjamin Disraeli, Berchtesgaden, Berlin, Bohemia, British re-armament, Buckingham Palace, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Causes of World War II, Central Europe, Chicago Tribune, Clement Attlee, Client state, Condominium (international law), Congress of Berlin, Conservative Party (UK), Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic, Coup d'état, Cuban Missile Crisis, Czech Republic, Czech Silesia, Czechoslovak border fortifications, Czechoslovak government-in-exile, Czechoslovak koruna, Czechoslovakia, Czechs, Der Spiegel, Devon, Die hard (phrase), Diktat, Duce, Duff Cooper, ..., Edvard Beneš, Emil Hácha, European foreign policy of the Chamberlain ministry, Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia, F. L. Lucas, Fall Grün (Czechoslovakia), First Vienna Award, France, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Franz Halder, Frederic Maugham, 1st Viscount Maugham, Free City of Danzig, French Third Republic, French-German non-aggression pact, Fritz Wiedemann, Front organization, Galeazzo Ciano, Gallup (company), Georges Bonnet, German battleship Bismarck, German battleship Gneisenau, German battleship Scharnhorst, German battleship Tirpitz, German General Staff, German minority in Poland, German occupation of Czechoslovakia, Germans, Germans of Hungary, Germany, Gestapo, Godesberg Memorandum, Great Depression, Guilty Men, Hans Oster, Harlow, Heston Aerodrome, Hungarians, Hungary, Invasion of Poland, Italian East Africa, Italian invasion of Albania, Ivone Kirkpatrick, Jan Masaryk, Jan Syrový, Joachim von Ribbentrop, John F. Kennedy, John Kerry, Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, Joseph Stalin, Juliusz Łukasiewicz, Karl Hermann Frank, King's College, Cambridge, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Romania, Konrad Henlein, Korean War, Labour Party (UK), Lesson of Munich, List of free economic zones, List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia, London, Longman, Ludwig Beck, Lufthansa Flight 615, Lyndon B. Johnson, Macmillan Publishers (United States), Madeleine Albright, Max Domarus, Minority Treaties, Mobilization, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Moravia, Munich, Munich massacre, Nazi Germany, Neville Chamberlain, New York City, Night of the Long Knives, Nobel Peace Prize, Nothing About Us Without Us, Oster conspiracy, Ostrava, Paris, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Peace for our time, Pierre Cot, Poland, Poles, Polish Corridor, Prague, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Radio Prague, Rapprochement, Reich Chancellery, Reichsgau Sudetenland, Republican Party (United States), Runciman Mission, Ruthenia, Second Polish Republic, Secretary of state, Self-determination, Slovak Republic (1939–1945), Slovakia, Slovaks, Soviet Union, Spiš, Sudeten German Party, Sudetendeutsches Freikorps, Sudetenland, Sudetenland Medal, Suez Canal Company, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, The Second World War (book series), Treaty of Prague (1973), Treaty of Versailles, Trieste, Ukrainians, United Kingdom, University of Exeter Press, Vyvyan Adams, Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford, Wehrmacht, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, Western betrayal, Wilhelm Canaris, Wilhelm Keitel, William L. Shirer, Winston Churchill, Wolf-Heinrich Graf von Helldorff, World War I, World War II, Zaolzie, 10 Downing Street. Expand index (137 more) » « Shrink index
The Abwehr was the German military intelligence service for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945.
Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Alfred Josef Ferdinand Jodl (10 May 1890 – 16 October 1946) was a German general during World War II, who served as the Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht).
The military alliance between the United Kingdom and Poland was formalised by the Anglo-Polish Agreement in 1939 and subsequent addenda of 1940 and 1944, for mutual assistance in case of military invasion from Germany, as specified in a secret protocol.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Antonín Švehla (15 April 1873 in Prague – 12 December 1933 in Prague) was a Czechoslovak politician.
Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.
The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Árva County (Árva vármegye, Comitatus Arvensis, Oravská stolica/župa, Komitat Arwa, Komitat Orawa) was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary since the 14th century until 1918/1920.
Édouard Daladier (18 June 1884 – 10 October 1970) was a French "radical" (i.e. centre-left) politician and the Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War.
Český Těšín (Czeski Cieszyn, Tschechisch-Teschen) is a town in the Karviná District, Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
Barry Morris Goldwater (January 2, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was an American politician, businessman, and author who was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–65, 1969–87) and the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 1964.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Berchtesgaden is a municipality in the Bavarian Alps of southeastern Germany.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
In British history re-armament covers the period between 1934 and 1939, when a substantial programme of re-arming the nation was undertaken.
Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Among the causes of World War II were Italian fascism in the 1920s, Japanese militarism and invasion of China in the 1930s, and especially the political takeover in 1933 of Germany by Hitler and his Nazi Party and its aggressive foreign policy.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.
The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro).
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
The Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic (Ústavní soud České republiky) is a specialized type of court which primarily works to protect the people in the Czech Republic against violations of the Constitution by either the legislature, government or by any other subject that violates people's constitutional rights and freedoms.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Czech Silesia (České Slezsko; Czeski Ślůnsk; Tschechisch-Schlesien; Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region of Silesia presently located in the Czech Republic.
The Czechoslovak government built a system of border fortifications, as well as some fortified defensive lines inland, from 1935 to 1938 as a defensive countermeasure against the rising threat of Nazi Germany.
The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition.
The Czechoslovak koruna (in Czech and Slovak: Koruna československá, at times Koruna česko-slovenská; koruna means crown) was the currency of Czechoslovakia from April 10, 1919, to March 14, 1939, and from November 1, 1945, to February 7, 1993.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.
The phrase die hard was first used during the Battle of Albuera (1811) in the Peninsular War.
A diktat is a statute, harsh penalty or settlement imposed upon a defeated party by the victor, or a dogmatic decree.
Duce ("leader") is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux, and cognate with duke.
Alfred Duff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich, (22 February 1890 – 1 January 1954), known as Duff Cooper, was a British Conservative Party politician, diplomat and author.
Edvard Beneš, sometimes anglicised to Edward Benesh (28 May 1884 – 3 September 1948), was a Czech politician and statesman who was President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1945 to 1948.
Emil Dominik Josef Hácha (12 July 1872 – 27 June 1945) was a Czech lawyer, the third President of Czechoslovakia from 1938 to 1939.
The European foreign policy of the Chamberlain ministry from 1937 to 1940 was based on Neville Chamberlain's commitment to "peace for our time", pursuing a policy of appeasement and containment towards Nazi Germany while increasing the strength of Britain's armed forces, until in September 1939 he delivered an ultimatum over the invasion of Poland followed by a declaration of war against Germany.
The expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II was part of a series of evacuations and expulsions of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe during and after World War II.
Frank Laurence Lucas (28 December 1894 – 1 June 1967) was an English classical scholar, literary critic, poet, novelist, playwright, political polemicist, Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, and intelligence officer at Bletchley Park during World War II.
Fall Grün (English: "Case Green") was a German plan for an aggressive war against Czechoslovakia before World War II.
The First Vienna Award was a treaty signed on November 2, 1938, as a result of the First Vienna Arbitration.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Franz Halder (30 June 1884 – 2 April 1972) was a German general and the chief of the Oberkommando des Heeres staff (OKH, Army High Command) from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler.
Frederic Herbert Maugham, 1st Viscount Maugham, (20 October 1866 – 23 March 1958) was a British lawyer and judge who served as Lord Chancellor from March 1938 until September 1939.
The Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig; Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
A French-German non-aggression pact (also called the Franco-German Non-Aggression Agreement) was signed 6 December 1938 in Paris by the French Foreign Minister Georges Bonnet and the German Foreign Minister Ribbentrop.
Fritz Wiedemann (16 August 1891 in Augsburg – 17 January 1970 in Postmünster) was a German soldier and Nazi Party activist.
A front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agencies, organized crime groups, banned organizations, religious or political groups, advocacy groups, or corporations.
Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (18 March 1903 – 11 January 1944) was Foreign Minister of Fascist Italy from 1936 until 1943 and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law.
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
Georges-Étienne Bonnet (22/23 July 1889 – 18 June 1973) was a French politician and leading figure in the Radical Party.
Bismarck was the first of two s built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine.
Gneisenau was a German capital ship, alternatively described as a battleship and battlecruiser, of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine.
Scharnhorst was a German capital ship, alternatively described as a battleship and battlecruiser, of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine.
Tirpitz was the second of two s built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine (navy) during World War II.
The German General Staff, originally the Prussian General Staff and officially Great General Staff (Großer Generalstab), was a full-time body at the head of the Prussian Army and later, the German Army, responsible for the continuous study of all aspects of war, and for drawing up and reviewing plans for mobilization or campaign.
The registered German minority in Poland at the 2011 national census consisted of 148,000 people, of whom 64,000 declared both German and Polish ethnicities and 45,000 solely German ethnicity.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
German Hungarians (Ungarndeutsche, Magyarországi németek) are the German-speaking minority of Hungary sometimes called the Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben), (Hungarian: Dunai svábok) in Germany, many of whom call themselves "Shwoveh".
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
The Godesberg Memorandum is a document issued by Adolf Hitler in the early hours of 24 September 1938 concerning the Sudetenland and amounting to an ultimatum addressed to the government of Czechoslovakia.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Guilty Men is a short book published in Great Britain in July 1940 that attacked British public figures for their failure to re-arm and their appeasement of Nazi Germany in the 1930s.
Hans Paul Oster (9 August 1887 – 9 April 1945) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany who was also a leading figure of the German resistance from 1938 to 1943.
Harlow is a former Mark One New Town and local government district in the west of Essex, England.
Heston Aerodrome was a 1930s airfield located to the west of London, UK, operational between 1929 and 1947.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.
The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
Sir Ivone Augustine Kirkpatrick (1897 – 25 May 1964) was a British diplomat who served as the British High Commissioner in Germany after World War II, and as the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (the highest-ranking civil servant in the Foreign Office).
Jan Garrigue Masaryk (14 September 1886 – 10 March 1948) was a Czech diplomat and politician who served as the Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia from 1940 to 1948.
Jan Syrový (24 January 1888 – 17 October 1970) was a Czechoslovak Army four star general and the prime minister during the Munich Crisis.
Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946), more commonly known as Joachim von Ribbentrop, was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA; barnāmeye jāme‘e eqdāme moshtarak, acronym: برجام BARJAM), known commonly as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal, is an agreement on the nuclear program of Iran reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Juliusz Łukasiewicz (May 6, 1892 - April 6, 1951) was a Polish diplomat, an ambassador of Poland to the Soviet Union and France, and a Polish Freemason.
Karl Hermann Frank (24 January 1898 – 22 May 1946) was a prominent Sudeten German Nazi official in Czechoslovakia prior to and during World War II and an SS-Obergruppenführer.
King's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
Konrad Ernst Eduard Henlein (6 May 1898 – 10 May 1945) was a leading Sudeten German politician in Czechoslovakia.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
In international relations, the Lesson of Munich refers to the appeasement of Adolf Hitler at the Munich Conference in September 1938.
In special economic zones business and trades laws differ from the rest of the country.
The President of Czechoslovakia was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Ludwig August Theodor Beck (29 June 1880 – 21 July 1944) was a German general and Chief of the German General Staff during the early years of the Nazi regime in Germany before World War II.
The hijacking of Lufthansa Flight 615 was an act of terrorism committed by a Palestinian group that occurred on 29 October 1972 and aimed at the liberation of the three surviving perpetrators of the Munich massacre from a West German prison.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Macmillan Publishers USA was the former name of a now mostly defunct American publishing company.
Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright (born May 15, 1937) is an American politician and diplomat.
Maximilian Bernhard Domarus (1911–1992) was a German writer, historian, researcher, archivist, translator, and publicist.
Minority Treaties refer to the treaties, League of Nations Mandates, and unilateral declarations made by countries applying for membership in the League of Nations and United Nations.
Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The Munich massacre was an attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, in which the Palestinian terrorist group Black September took eleven Israeli Olympic team members hostage and killed them along with a German police officer.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The Night of the Long Knives (German), also called Operation Hummingbird (German: Unternehmen Kolibri) or, in Germany, the Röhm Putsch, was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934, when the National Socialist German Workers Party, or Nazis, carried out a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate Adolf Hitler's absolute hold on power in Germany.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
"Nothing About Us Without Us!" (Latin: "Nihil de nobis, sine nobis") is a slogan used to communicate the idea that no policy should be decided by any representative without the full and direct participation of members of the group(s) affected by that policy.
The Oster Conspiracy of 1938 was a proposed plan to overthrow German Führer Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime if Germany went to war with Czechoslovakia over the Sudetenland.
Ostrava (Ostrawa, Ostrau or Mährisch Ostrau) is a city in the north-east of the Czech Republic and is the capital of the Moravian-Silesian Region.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
"Peace for our time" was a declaration made by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Neville Chamberlain in his 30 September 1938 speech concerning the Munich Agreement and the Anglo-German Declaration.
Pierre Cot (20 November 1895, in Grenoble, Isère – 21 August 1977), was a French politician and leading figure in the Popular Front government of the 1930s.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Polish Corridor (Polnischer Korridor; Pomorze, Korytarz polski), also known as Danzig Corridor, Corridor to the Sea or Gdańsk Corridor, was a territory located in the region of Pomerelia (Pomeranian Voivodeship, eastern Pomerania, formerly part of West Prussia), which provided the Second Republic of Poland (1920–1939) with access to the Baltic Sea, thus dividing the bulk of Germany from the province of East Prussia.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939.
Radio Prague (Český rozhlas 7 - Radio Praha) is the official international broadcasting station of the Czech Republic.
In international relations, a rapprochement, which comes from the French word rapprocher ("to bring together"), is a re-establishment of cordial relations, as between two countries.
The Reich Chancellery (Reichskanzlei) was the traditional name of the office of the Chancellor of Germany (then called Reichskanzler) in the period of the German Reich from 1878 to 1945.
The Reichsgau Sudetenland was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1939 to 1945.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The Runciman Mission to Czechoslovakia was a British Government initiative aimed at resolving an international crisis threatening to lead to war in Europe in the summer of 1938.
Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The title secretary of state or state secretary is commonly used for senior or mid-level posts in governments around the world.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
The (First) Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), otherwise known as the Slovak State (Slovenský štát), was a client state of Nazi Germany which existed between 14 March 1939 and 4 April 1945.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Slovaks or Slovak people (Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spiš (Latin: Cips/Zepus/Scepus, Zips, Szepesség, Spisz) is a region in north-eastern Slovakia, with a very small area in south-eastern Poland (14 villages).
The Sudeten German Party (Sudetendeutsche Partei, SdP, Sudetoněmecká strana) was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront ("Front of the Sudeten German Homeland") on October 1, 1933, some months after the state of Czechoslovakia had outlawed the German National Socialist Workers' Party (Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei, DNSAP).
Sudetendeutsches Freikorps (Sudeten German Free Corps, also known as the Freikorps Sudetenland, Freikorps Henlein and Sudetendeutsche Legion) was a paramilitary Nazi organization founded on 17 September 1938 in Germany on direct order of Adolf Hitler.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.
The 1 October 1938 Commemorative Medal (Die Medaille zur Erinnerung an den 1.), commonly known as the Sudetenland Medal was a decoration of Nazi Germany awarded in the interwar period.
Participating certificate of the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez, issued 1. January 1889 The Universal Maritime Suez Canal Company (Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez, or simply Compagnie de Suez for short) was the corporation that constructed the Suez Canal between 1859 and 1869 and operated it until 1956.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, first published by the Oxford University Press in 1941, is an 1100-page book listing short quotations that are common in English language and culture.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the birth of Adolf Hitler in 1889 to the end of World War II in 1945.
The Second World War is a history of the period from the end of the First World War to July 1945, written by Winston Churchill.
The Treaty of Prague was a treaty signed on 11 December 1973, in Prague, by the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and Czechoslovakia, in which the two States recognized each other diplomatically and declared the 1938 Munich Agreements to be null and void – by acknowledging the inviolability of their common borders and abandoning all territorial claims.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
University of Exeter Press (UEP) is the academic press of the University of Exeter, England.
Samuel Vyvyan Trerice Adams (22 April 1900 – 13 August 1951), known as Vyvyan Adams, was a British Conservative Party politician.
Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford, (19 November 1870 – 14 November 1949) was a prominent Liberal and later National Liberal politician in the United Kingdom between the 1900s and 1930s.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd (established 1948), often shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books.
(Saint) Wenceslaus I (Václav; c. 907 – September 28, 935), Wenceslas I or Václav the Good was the duke (kníže) of Bohemia from 921 until his assassination in 935.
The concept of Western betrayal refers to the view that the United Kingdom and France failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish nations during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II.
Wilhelm Franz Canaris (1 January 1887 – 9 April 1945) was a German admiral and chief of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944.
Wilhelm Keitel (22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW) in Nazi Germany during World War II.
William Lawrence Shirer (February 23, 1904 – December 28, 1993) was an American journalist and war correspondent.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Wolf-Heinrich Graf von Helldorff (14 October 1896 – 15 August 1944) was a German police official and politician, who served as a Member of the Prussian Parliament during the Weimar Republic, as a Member of the German Parliament for the Nazi Party from 1933 and as president of police in Potsdam and Berlin.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zaolzie is the Polish name for an area now in the Czech Republic which was disputed between interwar Poland and Czechoslovakia.
10 Downing Street, colloquially known in the United Kingdom as Number 10, is the headquarters of the Government of the United Kingdom and the official residence and office of the First Lord of the Treasury, a post which, for much of the 18th and 19th centuries and invariably since 1905, has been held by the Prime Minister.
Accords de Munich, Chamberlain-Hitler Pact, Mnichovská dohoda, Mníchovská dohoda, Munich Accord, Munich Accords, Munich Collusion, Munich Conference, Munich Crisis, Munich Dictate, Munich Four-Power Agreement, Munich Pact, Munich Pact of 1938, Munich Treaty, Munich agreement, Munich betrayal, Munich crisis, Munich diktat, Munich settlement, Munich treaty, Münchner Abkommen, Sudeten Crisis, Sudeten crisis, The munich agreement, Treaty of Munich, Treaty of Munich (1938), Treaty of munich.