218 relations: Acetylcholine, Actin, Action potential, Adenosine triphosphate, Adipose tissue, Aerobic exercise, Amoebozoa, Anabolic steroid, Anaerobic exercise, Ancestor, Animal, Animal locomotion, Aponeurosis, Arrector pili muscle, Arthropod, Association football, Atrophy, Autonomic nervous system, Basal ganglia, Biceps, Bilateria, Blood vessel, Bodybuilding, Bone, Brain, Brainstem, Bronchus, Cachexia, Cancer, Capillary, Carbohydrate, Cardiac muscle, Cell (biology), Cellular respiration, Central nervous system, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Cis-regulatory element, Citric acid cycle, Cnidaria, Collagen, Connective tissue, Convergent evolution, Creatine kinase, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Cross education, Ctenophora, Cycling, Deep fascia, Delayed onset muscle soreness, ..., Density, Diploblasty, DNA, Ectoderm, Efferent nerve fiber, Elastography, Electroactive polymers, Electromyography, Embryo, Endoderm, Endomysium, Endoneurium, Energy, Epaxial and hypaxial muscles, Epimysium, Epineurium, Erector spinae muscles, Esophagus, Exercise, Extrapyramidal system, Fat, Fermentation, Food energy, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene regulatory network, Genetic testing, Germ layer, Glucose, Gluteus maximus, Glycogen, Glycolysis, Gross anatomy, Guinness World Records, Hand strength, Heart, Heart failure, Histology, HIV/AIDS, Homology (biology), Hormone, Human brain, Human digestive system, Human eye, Human musculoskeletal system, In vivo, Indoor rower, Infant, Intercalated disc, Jaw, Joule, Lactic acid, Lactic acid fermentation, Lateral plate mesoderm, List of hepato-biliary diseases, List of human positions, Mammal, Marathon, Mass, Masseter muscle, Meat, Mechanical efficiency, Mechanomyogram, Mesoderm, Metabolism, Mitochondrion, Monophyly, Motion (physics), Motor coordination, Motor neuron, Motor skill, Motor unit, Muscle biopsy, Muscle contraction, Muscle fascicle, Muscle hypertrophy, Muscle memory, Muscle spindle, Muscle tissue, Muscle tone, Muscle weakness, Muscular dystrophy, Myalgia, Myoclonus, Myocyte, Myofibril, Myogenesis, Myoglobin, Myometrium, Myopathy, Myosin, Myotomy, Neovascularization, Nerve, Neurological disorder, Neuromuscular disease, Neuromuscular junction, Neurotransmitter, Organ (anatomy), Oxygen, Palmaris longus muscle, Paralysis, Paraxial mesoderm, Parkinson's disease, Pennate muscle, Perimysium, Perineurium, Periosteum, Peripheral nervous system, Peristalsis, Phonomyography, Phosphocreatine, Physical fitness, Polyphyly, Preflexes, Primary motor cortex, Proprioception, Protein, Protein filament, Puberty, Pyramidal tracts, Pyruvic acid, Quadriceps femoris muscle, Rapid eye movement sleep, Red nucleus, Redox, Reflex, Rock climbing, Rohmert's law, Rowing, Saccade, Sarcomere, Sarcopenia, Scholarpedia, Segmentation (biology), Sense, Skeletal muscle, Skeleton, Smooth muscle tissue, Soft tissue, Somatic nervous system, Somite, Spasticity, Spinal cord, Spinal nerve, Stomach, Strength training, Striated muscle tissue, Stroke, Syncytium, Tendon, Testosterone, Tissue (biology), Tongue, Transverse plane, Triploblasty, Urethra, Urinary bladder, Uterus, Ventral ramus of spinal nerve, Vertebra, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Vibration, Watt, Weight training, Work (physics), Work loop, Year. Expand index (168 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
Amoebozoa is a major taxonomic group containing about 2,400 described species of amoeboid protists, often possessing blunt, fingerlike, lobose pseudopods and tubular mitochondrial cristae.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anaerobic exercise is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.
An aponeurosis (plural: aponeuroses) is a type or a variant of the deep fascia, in the form of a sheet of pearly-white fibrous tissue that attaches sheet-like muscles needing a wide area of attachment.
The arrector pili muscles are small muscles attached to hair follicles in mammals.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
The biceps, also biceps brachii is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow.
The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) are regions of non-coding DNA which regulate the transcription of neighboring genes.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme expressed by various tissues and cell types.
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is a universally fatal brain disorder.
Cross education is a neurophysiological phenomenon where an increase in strength is witnessed within an untrained limb following unilateral strength training in the opposite, contralateral limb.
Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.
Deep fascia (or investing fascia) is a fascia, a layer of dense connective tissue which can surround individual muscles, and also surround groups of muscles to separate into fascial compartments.
Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is the pain and stiffness felt in muscles several hours to days after unaccustomed or strenuous exercise.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Diploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are two primary germ layers: the ectoderm and endoderm.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
In the peripheral nervous system, an efferent nerve fiber is the axon of a motor neuron.
Elastography is a medical imaging modality that maps the elastic properties and stiffness of soft tissue.
Electroactive polymers, or EAPs, are polymers that exhibit a change in size or shape when stimulated by an electric field.
Electromyography (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
The endomysium, meaning within the muscle, is a wispy layer of areolar connective tissue that ensheaths each individual myocyte (muscle fiber, or muscle cell).
The endoneurium (also called endoneurial channel, endoneurial sheath, endoneurial tube, or Henle's sheath) a layer of delicate connective tissue around the myelin sheath of each myelinated nerve fiber.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Trunk muscles can be broadly divided into hypaxial muscles, which lie ventral to the horizontal septum of the vertebrae and epaxial muscles, which lie dorsal to the septum.
Epimysium (plural epimysia) (Greek epi- for on, upon, or above + Greek mys for muscle) The epimysium is the fibrous tissue envelope that surrounds skeletal muscle.
The epineurium is the outermost layer of dense irregular connective tissue surrounding a peripheral nerve.
The erector spinae or spinal erectors is a set of muscles that straighten and rotate the back.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
In anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a part of the motor system network causing involuntary actions.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A gene (or genetic) regulatory network (GRN) is a collection of molecular regulators that interact with each other and with other substances in the cell to govern the gene expression levels of mRNA and proteins.
Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.
A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
The gluteus maximus (also known collectively with the gluteus medius and minimus, as the gluteal muscles, and sometimes referred to informally as the "glutes") is the main extensor muscle of the hip.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy) is the study of anatomy at the visible (macroscopic) level.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
Hand strength measurements are of interest to study pathology of the hand that involves loss of muscle strength.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
An indoor rower, or rowing machine, is a machine used to simulate the action of watercraft rowing for the purpose of exercise or training for rowing.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Intercalated discs are microscopic identifying features of cardiac muscle.
The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactic acid fermentation is a metabolic process by which glucose and other six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution.
Lateral plate mesoderm is a type of mesoderm that is found at the periphery of the embryo.
Hepato-biliary diseases include liver diseases and biliary diseases.
Human positions refer to the different physical configurations that the human body can take.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In human anatomy, the masseter is one of the muscles of mastication.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
Mechanical efficiency measures the effectiveness of a machine in transforming the energy and power that is input to the device into an output force and movement.
The mechanomyogram (MMG) is the mechanical signal observable from the surface of a muscle when the muscle is contracted.
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.
Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
A motor skill is a learned ability to cause a predetermined movement outcome with maximum certainty.
A motor unit is made up of a motor neuron and the skeletal muscle fibers innervated by that motor neuron's axonal terminals.
In medicine, a muscle biopsy is a procedure in which a piece of muscle tissue is removed from an organism and examined microscopically.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
A muscle fascicle is a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers surrounded by perimysium, a type of connective tissue.
Muscle hypertrophy involves an increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in size of its component cells.
Muscle memory has been used synonymously with motor learning, which is a form of procedural memory that involves consolidating a specific motor task into memory through repetition.
Muscle spindles are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle.
Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that results in increasing weakening and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time.
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.
Myogenesis is the formation of muscular tissue, particularly during embryonic development.
Myoglobin (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals.
The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes), but also of supporting stromal and vascular tissue.
Myopathy is a disease of the muscle in which the muscle fibers do not function properly.
Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.
Myotomy describes a surgical procedure in which muscle is cut.
Neovascularization is the natural formation of new blood vessels (neo- + vascular + -ization), usually in the form of functional microvascular networks, capable of perfusion by red blood cells, that form to serve as collateral circulation in response to local poor perfusion or ischemia.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
Neuromuscular disease is a very broad term that encompasses many diseases and ailments that impair the functioning of the muscles, either directly, being pathologies of the voluntary muscle, or indirectly, being pathologies of nerves or neuromuscular junctions.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The palmaris longus is a muscle visible as a small tendon between the flexor carpi radialis and the flexor carpi ulnaris, although it is not always present.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Paraxial mesoderm, also known as presomitic or somitic mesoderm is the area of mesoderm in the neurulating embryo that flanks and forms simultaneously with the neural tube.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
A pennate or pinnate muscle (also called a penniform muscle) is a muscle with fascicles that attach obliquely (in a slanting position) to its tendon.
Perimysium is a sheath of connective tissue that groups muscle fibers into bundles (anywhere between 10 and 100 or more) or fascicles.
In the peripheral nervous system, the myelin sheath of each axon in a nerve is wrapped in a delicate protective sheath known as the endoneurium.
The periosteum is a membrane that covers the outer surface of all bones, except at the joints of long bones.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
Phonomyography (PMG) (also known as acoustic myography, sound myography, vibromyography, and surface mechanomyogram) is a technique to measure the force of muscle contraction by recording the low frequency sounds created during muscular activity.
Phosphocreatine, also known as creatine phosphate (CP) or PCr (Pcr), is a phosphorylated creatine molecule that serves as a rapidly mobilizable reserve of high-energy phosphates in skeletal muscle and the brain to recycle adenosine triphosphate, the energy currency of the cell.
Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.
A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.
Preflexes are the latent capacities in the musculoskeletal system that auto-stabilize movements through the use of the nonlinear visco-elastic properties of muscles when they contract.
The primary motor cortex (Brodmann area 4) is a brain region that in humans is located in the dorsal portion of the frontal lobe.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In biology, a filament is a "long chain of proteins, such as those found in hair, muscle, or in flagella".
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
The pyramidal tracts include both the corticobulbar tract and the corticospinal tract.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
The quadriceps femoris (also called the quadriceps extensor, quadriceps or quads), is a large muscle group that includes the four prevailing muscles on the front of the thigh.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
The red nucleus or nucleus ruber is a structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls.
Widely used in the human factors and ergonomics field, Rohmert's law states that the maximum force one's muscles can exert decreases exponentially from the time one begins continuously exerting the force.
Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water, displacing water, and propelling the boat forward.
A saccade (French for jerk) is a quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes between two or more phases of fixation in the same direction.
A sarcomere (Greek sarx "flesh", meros "part") is the basic unit of striated muscle tissue.
Sarcopenia is the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass (0.5–1% loss per year after the age of 50), quality, and strength associated with aging.
Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.
Segmentation in biology is the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
In anatomy, soft tissue includes the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being hard tissue such as bone.
The somatic nervous system (SNS or voluntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles.
Somites (outdated: primitive segments) are divisions of the body of an animal or embryo.
Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, and hypertonia.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Strength training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.
Striated muscle tissue is a muscle tissue that features repeating functional units called sarcomeres, in contrast with smooth muscle tissue which does not.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.
The transverse plane (also called the horizontal plane, axial plane, or transaxial plane) is an imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
Triploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
The ventral ramus (pl. rami) (Latin for branch) is the anterior division of a spinal nerve.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
Weight training is a common type of strength training for developing the strength and size of skeletal muscles.
In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.
The work loop technique is used in muscle physiology to evaluate the mechanical work and power output of skeletal or cardiac muscle contractions via ''in vitro'' muscle testing of whole muscles, fiber bundles or single muscle fibers.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
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