143 relations: Acceleration, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase, Achilles tendinitis, Actin, Action potential, Active transport, Adenosine triphosphate, Anatomical terms of motion, Andrew Huxley, Animal locomotion, Annelid, Arm, Asynchronous muscles, Atrioventricular node, Autonomic nervous system, Avulsion fracture, Bee, Beetle, Biceps, Biceps curl, Bioelectricity, Bivalvia, Blood vessel, Brain, Calcium, Calcium ATPase, Calcium buffering, Calcium channel, Calcium sparks, Calcium-binding protein, Calcium-induced calcium release, Calmodulin, Calsequestrin, Cardiac action potential, Cardiac muscle, Chemical synapse, Cramp, Delayed onset muscle soreness, Desmin, Diad, Dystonia, Earthworm, Elbow, Exercise physiology, Fasciculation, Fat, Fly, Forearm, Gap junction, ..., Gastrointestinal tract, Glucose, Golgi tendon organ, Hand, Hill's muscle model, Hugh Huxley, Hydrostatic skeleton, Hypnic jerk, In vitro muscle testing, Insect, Isotonic contraction, Jean Hanson, Joint, L-type calcium channel, Leech, Lombard's paradox, Luigi Galvani, Metabotropic receptor, Microfilament, Mollusca, Motor neuron, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Muscle, Muscle hypertrophy, Muscle tissue, Myoclonus, Myocyte, Myofibril, Myogenic response, Myosin ATPase, Myosin light-chain kinase, Nature (journal), Nematode, Nerve, Nervous system, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Overtraining, Pacemaker potential, Parasympathetic nervous system, Patellar tendinitis, Peristalsis, Phospholamban, Physical strength, Physiology, Pitcher, Positive feedback, Postganglionic nerve fibers, Potassium, Protein, Protein kinase C, Reflex, Renshaw cell, Resonance, Rho-associated protein kinase, Rigor mortis, Rolf Niedergerke, Ryanodine receptor, Saltatory conduction, Sarcomere, Sarcoplasmic reticulum, SERCA, Shoulder, Single-unit smooth muscle, Sinoatrial node, Skeletal muscle, Sliding filament theory, Slow-wave potential, Smooth muscle tissue, Sodium, Sodium-calcium exchanger, Spasm, Spinal cord, Strength training, Striated muscle tissue, Summation (neurophysiology), Sympathetic nervous system, Synapse, Synaptic vesicle, Syncytium, T-tubule, Tension (physics), Tetanic contraction, Titin, Triad (anatomy), Triceps, Tropomyosin, Troponin C, Unified atomic mass unit, Uterine contraction, Vertebrate, Voltage-gated calcium channel, Wasp, Work (physics). Expand index (93 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 22.214.171.124) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.
Achilles tendinitis is when the Achilles tendon, found at the back of the ankle, becomes irritated.
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms.
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (22 November 191730 May 2012) was a Nobel Prize-winning English physiologist and biophysicist.
Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.
The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.
In human anatomy, the arm is the part of the upper limb between the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) and the elbow joint.
Asynchronous muscles are muscles in which there is no one-to-one relationship between electrical stimulation and mechanical contraction.
The atrioventricular node, or AV node is a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart that coordinates the top of the heart.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
An avulsion fracture is a bone fracture which occurs when a fragment of bone tears away from the main mass of bone as a result of physical trauma.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
The biceps, also biceps brachii is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow.
The term "biceps curl" may refer to any of a number of weight training exercises that target the biceps brachii muscle.
In biology, developmental bioelectricity refers to the regulation of cell, tissue, and organ-level patterning and behavior as the result of endogenous electrically-mediated signaling.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Ca2+ ATPase is a form of P-ATPase that transfers calcium after a muscle has contracted.
Calcium buffering describes the processes which help stabilise the concentration of free calcium ions within cells, in a similar manner to how pH buffers maintain a stable concentration of hydrogen ions.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
A calcium spark is the microscopic release of calcium (Ca2+) from a store known as the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), located within muscle cells.
Calcium-binding proteins are proteins that participate in calcium cell signalling pathways by binding to Ca2+, the calcium ion that plays an important role in many cellular processes.
Calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) describes a biological process whereby calcium is able to activate calcium release from intracellular Ca2+ stores (e.g., endoplasmic reticulum or sarcoplasmic reticulum).
Calmodulin (CaM) (an abbreviation for calcium-modulated protein) is a multifunctional intermediate calcium-binding messenger protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Calsequestrin is a calcium-binding protein that acts as a calcium buffer within the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
The cardiac action potential is a brief change in voltage (membrane potential) across the cell membrane of heart cells.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
A cramp is a sudden, involuntary muscle contraction or over-shortening; while generally temporary and non-damaging, they can cause significant pain, and a paralysis-like immobility of the affected muscle.
Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is the pain and stiffness felt in muscles several hours to days after unaccustomed or strenuous exercise.
Desmin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DES gene.
The diad is a structure in the cardiac myocyte located at the sarcomere Z-line.
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.
The elbow is the visible joint between the upper and lower parts of the arm.
Exercise physiology is the physiology of physical exercise.
A fasciculation, or muscle twitch, is a small, local, involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation which may be visible under the skin.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist.
A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
The Golgi tendon organ (GTO) (also called Golgi organ, tendon organ, neurotendinous organ or neurotendinous spindle) is a proprioceptive sensory receptor organ that senses changes in muscle tension.
A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.
In biomechanics, Hill's muscle model refers to either Hill's equations for tetanized muscle contraction or to the 3-element model.
Hugh Esmor Huxley MBE FRS (25 February 1924 – 25 July 2013) was a British molecular biologist who made important discoveries in the physiology of muscle.
A hydrostatic skeleton, or hydroskeleton, is a skeleton supported by fluid pressure.
A hypnic jerk, hypnagogic jerk, sleep start, sleep twitch, myoclonic jerk, or night start is an involuntary twitch which occurs when a person is beginning to fall asleep, often causing them to jump and awaken suddenly for a moment.
In vitro muscle testing is a method used to characterize properties of living muscle tissue after having removed the tissue from an organism.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
In an isotonic contraction, tension remains the same, whilst the muscle's length changes.
Emmeline Jean Hanson (14 November 1919 – 10 August 1973), commonly known by her middle name Jean, was a biophysicist and zoologist known for her contributions to muscle research.
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.
The L-type calcium channel (also known as the dihydropyridine channel, or DHP channel) is part of the high-voltage activated family of voltage-dependent calcium channel.
Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.
Lombard's paradox describes a paradoxical muscular contraction in humans.
Luigi Aloisio Galvani (Aloysius Galvanus; 9 September 1737 – 4 December 1798) was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who discovered animal electricity.
A metabotropic receptor is a type of membrane receptor of eukaryotic cells that acts through a second messenger.
Microfilaments, also called actin filaments, are filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that form part of the cytoskeleton.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Muscle hypertrophy involves an increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in size of its component cells.
Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract.
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.
Myogenic response refers to a contraction initiated by the myocyte cell itself instead of an outside occurrence or stimulus such as nerve innervation.
Myosin ATPase is an enzyme with systematic name ATP phosphohydrolase (actin-translocating).
Myosin light-chain kinase also known as MYLK or MLCK is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that phosphorylates a specific myosin light chain, namely, the regulatory light chain of myosin II.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Overtraining occurs when a person exceeds their body's ability to recover from strenuous exercise.
In the pacemaking cells of the heart (e.g., the sinoatrial node), the pacemaker potential (also called the pacemaker current) is the slow, positive increase in voltage across the cell's membrane (the membrane potential) that occurs between the end of one action potential and the beginning of the next action potential.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Patellar tendinitis (patellar tendinopathy, also known as jumper's knee), is a relatively common cause of pain in the inferior patellar region in athletes.
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
Phospholamban, also known as PLN or PLB, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLN gene.
Physical strength is the measure of an animal's exertion of force on physical objects.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
In baseball, the pitcher is the player who throws the baseball from the pitcher's mound toward the catcher to begin each play, with the goal of retiring a batter, who attempts to either make contact with the pitched ball or draw a walk.
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the ganglion to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 126.96.36.199), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) is a kinase belonging to the AGC (PKA/ PKG/PKC) family of serine-threonine kinases.
Rigor mortis (Latin: rigor "stiffness", mortis "of death") or postmortem rigidity, the third stage of death, is one of the recognizable signs of death, caused by chemical changes in the muscles post mortem, which cause the limbs of the corpse to stiffen.
Rolf Nidergerke (30 April 1921 – 27 December 2011) was a German physiologist and physician, and one of the discoverers of the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction.
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form a class of intracellular calcium channels in various forms of excitable animal tissue like muscles and neurons.
Saltatory conduction (from the Latin saltare, to hop or leap) is the propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing the conduction velocity of action potentials.
A sarcomere (Greek sarx "flesh", meros "part") is the basic unit of striated muscle tissue.
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a membrane-bound structure found within muscle cells that is similar to the endoplasmic reticulum in other cells.
SERCA, or sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, or SR Ca2+-ATPase, is a calcium ATPase-type P-ATPase.
The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus (upper arm bone) as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons.
Single-unit smooth muscle, or visceral smooth muscle is a type of smooth muscle found in the uterus, gastro-intestinal tract, and the bladder.
The sinoatrial node (SA node), also known as sinus node, is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
The sliding filament theory explains the mechanism of muscle contraction based on muscle proteins that slide past each other to generate movement.
A slow wave potential is a rhythmic electrophysiological event in the gastrointestinal tract.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The sodium-calcium exchanger (often denoted Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, NCX, or exchange protein) is an antiporter membrane protein that removes calcium from cells.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Strength training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.
Striated muscle tissue is a muscle tissue that features repeating functional units called sarcomeres, in contrast with smooth muscle tissue which does not.
Summation, which includes both spatial and temporal summation, is the process that determines whether or not an action potential will be triggered by the combined effects of excitatory and inhibitory signals, both from multiple simultaneous inputs (spatial summation), and from repeated inputs (temporal summation).
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).
Transverse tubules (T-tubules) are extensions of the cell membrane that penetrate into the centre of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells.
In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.
A tetanic contraction (also called tetanized state, tetanus, or physiologic tetanus, the latter to differentiate from the disease called tetanus) is a sustained muscle contraction evoked when the motor nerve that innervates a skeletal muscle emits action potentials at a very high rate.
Titin, also known as connectin, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TTN gene.
In the histology of skeletal muscle, a triad is the structure formed by a T tubule with a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) known as the terminal cisterna on either side.
The triceps, also triceps brachii (Latin for "three-headed muscle of the arm"), is a large muscle on the back of the upper limb of many vertebrates.
Tropomyosin is a two-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil protein found in cell cytoskeletons.
Troponin C is a part of the troponin complex.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
A uterine contraction is a muscle contraction of the uterine smooth muscle.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.
Concentric contraction, Concentric exercise, Contractile proteins, Contraction of the muscles, E-C coupling, EC coupling, Eccentric (Sport), Eccentric (sport), Eccentric contraction, Eccentric exercises, Excitation contraction coupling, Excitation-contraction coupling, Excitation–contraction coupling, Isokinetic, M-response, Muscle contractions, Muscle physiology, Muscle stimuli, Muscular contraction.