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Mushroom

Index Mushroom

A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. [1]

218 relations: Adjuvant therapy, Agaric, Agaricales, Agaricomycetes, Agaricus, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus campestris, Agaritine, Allergen, Allergy, Amanita, Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Amatoxin, Anaphylaxis, Annulus (mycology), Anxiety, Armillaria ostoyae, Ascocarp, Ascomycota, Ascus, Asthma, B vitamins, Bard College at Simon's Rock, Basidiomycota, Basidiospore, Basidium, Bioluminescence, Black market, Bolete, Calocybe gambosa, Calorie, Cantharellales, Cantharellus, Carbohydrate, Carcinogen, Cell (biology), Central nervous system, Chemical test, Chemical test in mushroom identification, Chernobyl disaster, China, Chinese cuisine, Chromophore, Clavarioid fungi, Cluster headache, Cooking, Copper, Coprinus, Coprinus comatus, ..., Cortinarius, Critically endangered, Cuisine, Curandero, Curing (food preservation), Cystidium, Decurrent, Depressant, Dew, Discomycetes, Disease, Dissociative, Dutch language, Dye, Dyeing, England, English language, Enokitake, Ergocalciferol, Ergosterol, European cuisine, Extract, Fat, Fomes fomentarius, Food, Functional food, Fungiculture, Fungus, Gasteroid fungi, Geastrales, Genus, Germ pore, German language, Gleba, Gloeophyllales, Glycoprotein, Gomphales, Gomphus (fungus), Grifola frondosa, Grocery store, Hallucinogen, Heavy metals, Hepatotoxicity, Hericium erinaceus, Hydnoid fungi, Hydrazine, Hymenium, Hymenochaetales, Hypha, Hypnotic, Hypomyces lactifluorum, Ibotenic acid, IUCN Red List, Japanese cuisine, Jelly fungus, Korean cuisine, Lactarius, Lactifluus, Lamella (mycology), Largest fungal fruit bodies, Lentinellus, Lentinus, Lepiota, List of deadly fungus species, List of poisonous fungus species, List of psilocybin mushroom species, Macroscopic scale, Malheur National Forest, Marasmius oreades, Middle Ages, Migraine, Milk-cap, Molecular phylogenetics, Morchella, Morphology (biology), Moss, Muscimol, Mushroom dye, Mushroom hunting, Mushroom poisoning, Mycelial cord, Mycelium, Mycorrhiza, Mycotoxin, Neolentinus, Neurotoxicity, Niacin, Nidulariaceae, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Omphalotus, Pantothenic acid, Panus, Paraphyses, Parasitism, Parasola plicatilis, Partial veil, Pezizaceae, Phallaceae, Phallotoxin, Phosphorus, Pileus (mycology), Pleurotus, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Pluteus, Poland, Polyporales, Polypore, Polysaccharide, Polysaccharide peptide, Postharvest, Potassium, Primordium, Protein, Proteoglycan, Psilocybe, Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybin, Psilocybin mushroom, Psychedelic drug, Puffball, Reference Daily Intake, Religious experience, Riboflavin, Rickenella, Russula, Russulales, Schizophyllan, Secondary metabolite, Sedative, Selenium, Shamanism, Shiitake, Smart shop, Social anxiety disorder, Sodium, Sordariomycetes, Species, Spore, Spore print, Sporocarp (fungi), Sterigma, Stipe (mycology), Substrate (biology), Sunlight, Supermarket, Superstition, Taxonomy (biology), Ten Speed Press, Thallus, Thatch (lawn), Traditional Chinese medicine, Truffle, Type genus, Ultraviolet, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, Universal veil, Velada (Mazatec ritual), Victorian era, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Volva (mycology), Volvariella, Vomiting, William Delisle Hay, Wool, Z-drug, Zinc. Expand index (168 more) »

Adjuvant therapy

Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.

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Agaric

An agaric is a type of mushroom fungus fruiting body characterized by the presence of a pileus (cap) that is clearly differentiated from the stipe (stalk), with lamellae (gills) on the underside of the pileus.

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Agaricales

The fungal order Agaricales, also known as gilled mushrooms (for their distinctive gills) or euagarics, contains some of the most familiar types of mushrooms.

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Agaricomycetes

The Agaricomycetes are a class of fungi in the division Basidiomycota.

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Agaricus

Agaricus is a genus of mushrooms containing both edible and poisonous species, with possibly over 300 members worldwide.

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Agaricus bisporus

Agaricus bisporus is an edible basidiomycete mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America.

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Agaricus campestris

Agaricus campestris is a widely eaten gilled mushroom closely related to the cultivated button mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

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Agaritine

Agaritine (AGT) is an aromatic, antiviral, hydrazine-derivative mycotoxin and IARC Group 3 carcinogen that occurs in mushroom species of the genus Agaricus.

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Allergen

An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.

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Allergy

Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.

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Amanita

The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics including some of the most toxic known mushrooms found worldwide, as well as some well-regarded edible species.

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Amanita muscaria

Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.

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Amanita pantherina

Amanita pantherina, also known as the panther cap and false blusher due to its similarity to the true blusher (Amanita rubescens), is a species of fungus found in Europe and Western Asia.

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Amatoxin

Amatoxin is the collective name of a subgroup of at least eight related toxic compounds found in several genera of poisonous mushrooms, most notably the death cap (Amanita phalloides) and several other members of the genus Amanita, as well as some Conocybe, Galerina and Lepiota mushroom species.

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Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.

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Annulus (mycology)

An annulus is the ring-like structure sometimes found on the stipe of some species of mushrooms.

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Anxiety

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Armillaria ostoyae

Armillaria ostoyae (sometimes called Armillaria solidipes) is a species of plant pathogenic fungus in the Physalacriaceae family.

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Ascocarp

An ascocarp, or ascoma (plural: ascomata), is the fruiting body (sporocarp) of an ascomycete phylum fungus.

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Ascomycota

Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.

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Ascus

An ascus (plural asci; from Greek ἀσκός 'skin bag') is the sexual spore-bearing cell produced in ascomycete fungi.

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Asthma

Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

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B vitamins

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.

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Bard College at Simon's Rock

Bard College at Simon's Rock, more commonly known as Simon's Rock (see below), is a residential four-year liberal arts college located in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, USA.

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Basidiomycota

Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi.

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Basidiospore

A basidiospore is a reproductive spore produced by Basidiomycete fungi, a grouping that includes mushrooms, shelf fungi, rusts, and smuts.

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Basidium

Schematic showing a basidiomycete mushroom, gill structure, and spore-bearing basidia on the gill margins. A basidium (pl., basidia) is a microscopic sporangium (or spore-producing structure) found on the hymenophore of fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi which are also called tertiary mycellium, developed from secondary mycellium.

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Bioluminescence

Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.

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Black market

A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.

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Bolete

A bolete is a type of fungal fruiting body characterized by the presence of a pileus that is clearly differentiated from the stipe, with a spongy surface of pores (rather than gills) on the underside of the pileus.

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Calocybe gambosa

Calocybe gambosa, commonly known as St.

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Calorie

A calorie is a unit of energy.

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Cantharellales

The Cantharellales are an order of fungi in the class Agaricomycetes.

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Cantharellus

Cantharellus is a genus of popular edible mushrooms, commonly known as chanterelles, a name which can also refer to the type species, Cantharellus cibarius.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carcinogen

A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Chemical test

In chemistry, a chemical test is a qualitative or quantitative procedure designed to identify, quantify, or characterise a chemical compound or chemical group.

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Chemical test in mushroom identification

Chemical tests in mushroom identification are methods that aid in determining the variety of some fungi.

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Chernobyl disaster

The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese cuisine

Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.

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Chromophore

A chromophore is the part of a molecule responsible for its color.

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Clavarioid fungi

The clavarioid fungi are a group of fungi in the Basidiomycota typically having erect, simple or branched basidiocarps (fruit bodies) that are formed on the ground, on decaying vegetation, or on dead wood.

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Cluster headache

Cluster headache (CH) is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, severe headaches on one side of the head, typically around the eye.

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Cooking

Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Coprinus

Coprinus is a small genus of mushroom-forming fungi consisting of Coprinus comatus - the shaggy ink cap (British) or shaggy mane (American) - and several of its close relatives.

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Coprinus comatus

Coprinus comatus, the shaggy ink cap, lawyer's wig, or shaggy mane, is a common fungus often seen growing on lawns, along gravel roads and waste areas.

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Cortinarius

Cortinarius is a genus of mushrooms.

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Critically endangered

A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.

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Cuisine

A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region.

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Curandero

A curandero (f. curandera) or curandeiro (f. curandeira) is a traditional Native healer, shaman or Witch doctor found in Latin America, the United States and Southern Europe.

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Curing (food preservation)

Curing is any of various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such as meat, fish and vegetables, by the addition of combinations of salt, nitrates, nitrites,.

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Cystidium

A cystidium (plural cystidia) is a relatively large cell found on the sporocarp of a basidiomycete (for example, on the surface of a mushroom gill), often between clusters of basidia.

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Decurrent

Decurrent is a term used in botany and mycology to describe plant or fungal parts that extend downward.

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Depressant

A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.

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Dew

Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening due to condensation.

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Discomycetes

Discomycetes is a former taxonomic class of Ascomycete fungi which contains all of the cup, sponge, brain, and some club-like fungi.

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Disease

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Dissociative

Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Dye

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

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Dyeing

Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Enokitake

Enokitake (榎茸, エノキタケ), also enokidake (榎茸, エノキダケ) futu (in India found in wild at Bastar region of Chhattisgarh) or enoki (榎, エノキ), is a long, thin white mushroom used in East Asian cuisine (such as that of China, Japan, Vietnam and Korea).

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Ergocalciferol

Ergocalciferol, also known as vitamin D2 and calciferol, is a type of vitamin D found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Ergosterol

Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is a sterol found in cell membranes of fungi and protozoa, serving many of the same functions that cholesterol serves in animal cells.

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European cuisine

European cuisine, or alternatively Western cuisine, is a generalised term collectively referring to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries,.

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Extract

An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water.

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Fat

Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Fomes fomentarius

Fomes fomentarius (commonly known as the tinder fungus, false tinder fungus, hoof fungus, tinder conk, tinder polypore or ice man fungus) is a species of fungal plant pathogen found in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America. The species produces very large polypore fruit bodies which are shaped like a horse's hoof and vary in colour from a silvery grey to almost black, though they are normally brown. It grows on the side of various species of tree, which it infects through broken bark, causing rot. The species typically continues to live on trees long after they have died, changing from a parasite to a decomposer. Though inedible, F. fomentarius has traditionally seen use as the main ingredient of amadou, a material used primarily as tinder, but also used to make clothing and other items. The 5,000-year-old Ötzi the Iceman carried four pieces of F. fomentarius, concluded to be for use as tinder. It also has medicinal and other uses. The species is both a pest and useful in timber production.

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Food

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.

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Functional food

A functional food is a food given an additional function (often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients.

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Fungiculture

Fungiculture is the process of producing food, medicine, and other products by the cultivation of mushrooms and other fungi.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gasteroid fungi

The gasteroid fungi are a group of fungi in the Basidiomycota.

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Geastrales

Geastrales is an order of gasterocarpic basidiomycetes (fungi) that are related to Cantharellales.

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Genus

A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Germ pore

A germ pore is a small pore in the outer wall of a fungal spore through which the germ tube exits upon germination.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Gleba

Gleba is the fleshy spore-bearing inner mass of certain fungi such as the puffball or stinkhorn.

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Gloeophyllales

The Gloeophyllales are a phylogenetically defined order of wood-decay fungi that is characterized by the ability to produce a brown rot of wood.

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Glycoprotein

Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.

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Gomphales

The Gomphales are an order of basidiomycete fungi.

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Gomphus (fungus)

Gomphus is a genus of cantharelloid fungi in the family Gomphaceae.

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Grifola frondosa

Grifola frondosa is a polypore mushroom that grows in clusters at the base of trees, particularly oaks.

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Grocery store

A grocery store or grocer's shop is a retail shop that primarily sells food.

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Hallucinogen

A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.

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Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

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Hepatotoxicity

Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.

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Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus (also called lion's mane mushroom, monkey head, bearded tooth mushroom, satyr's beard, bearded hedgehog mushroom, pom pom mushroom, or bearded tooth fungus) is an edible and medicinal mushroom belonging to the tooth fungus group.

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Hydnoid fungi

The hydnoid fungi are a group of fungi in the Basidiomycota with basidiocarps (fruit bodies) producing spores on pendant, tooth-like or spine-like projections.

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Hydrazine

Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.

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Hymenium

The hymenium is the tissue layer on the hymenophore of a fungal fruiting body where the cells develop into basidia or asci, which produce spores.

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Hymenochaetales

The Hymenochaetales are an order of fungi in the class Agaricomycetes.

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Hypha

A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, "web") is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.

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Hypnotic

Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.

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Hypomyces lactifluorum

The Lobster mushroom, Hypomyces lactifluorum, contrary to its common name, is not a mushroom, but rather a parasitic ascomycete fungus that grows on certain species of mushrooms, turning them a reddish orange color that resembles the outer shell of a cooked lobster.

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Ibotenic acid

Ibotenic acid or (S)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)acetic acid, also referred to as ibotenate, is a chemical compound and psychoactive drug which occurs naturally in Amanita muscaria and related species of mushrooms typically found in the temperate and boreal regions of the northern hemisphere.

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IUCN Red List

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.

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Japanese cuisine

Japanese cuisine encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan, which have developed through centuries of social and economic changes.

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Jelly fungus

Jelly fungi are a paraphyletic group of several heterobasidiomycete fungal orders from different classes of the subphylum Agaricomycotina: Tremellales, Dacrymycetales, Auriculariales and Sebacinales.

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Korean cuisine

Korean cuisine has evolved through centuries of social and political change.

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Lactarius

Lactarius is a genus of mushroom-producing, ectomycorrhizal fungi, containing several edible species.

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Lactifluus

Lactifluus is one of three genera of mushroom-forming fungi containing species commonly named "milk-caps", the others being Lactarius and Multifurca.

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Lamella (mycology)

A lamella, or gill, is a papery hymenophore rib under the cap of some mushroom species, most often but not always agarics.

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Largest fungal fruit bodies

The largest mushrooms and conks are the largest known individual fruit bodies.

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Lentinellus

Lentinellus is a genus of white rot, wood decay, lamellate agaric in the family Auriscalpiaceae, further characterized in part by rough-walled, amyloid spores produced on lamellae with jagged edges.

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Lentinus

Lentinus is a genus of fungi in the family Polyporaceae.

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Lepiota

Lepiota is a genus of gilled mushrooms in the family Agaricaceae.

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List of deadly fungus species

Although many people have a fear of mushroom poisoning by "toadstools", only a small number of the many macroscopic fruiting bodies commonly known as mushrooms and toadstools have proven fatal to humans.

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List of poisonous fungus species

This is a compendium of poisonous fungi accompanied by pictures that will help you avoid them.

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List of psilocybin mushroom species

Psilocybin mushrooms are mushrooms which contain the hallucinogenic substances psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin and norbaeocystin.

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Macroscopic scale

The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.

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Malheur National Forest

The Malheur National Forest is a National Forest in the U.S. state of Oregon.

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Marasmius oreades

Marasmius oreades, the Scotch bonnet, is also known as the fairy ring mushroom or fairy ring champignon.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Migraine

A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.

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Milk-cap

Milk-cap (also milk cap, milkcap, or milky) is a common name that refers to mushroom-forming fungi of the genera Lactarius, Lactifluus, and Multifurca, all in the family Russulaceae.

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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Morchella

Morchella, the true morels, is a genus of edible sac fungi closely related to anatomically simpler cup fungi in the order Pezizales (division Ascomycota).

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Moss

Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.

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Muscimol

Muscimol (also known as agarin or pantherine) is one of the principal psychoactive constituents of Amanita muscaria and related species of mushroom.

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Mushroom dye

Mushrooms can be used to create color dyes via color-extraction with a solvent (often ammonia) as well as particulation of raw material.

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Mushroom hunting

Mushroom hunting, Houby hunting, mushrooming, mushroom picking, mushroom foraging, and similar terms describe the activity of gathering mushrooms in the wild, typically for food.

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Mushroom poisoning

Mushroom poisoning (also known as mycetism or mycetismus) refers to harmful effects from ingestion of toxic substances present in a mushroom.

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Mycelial cord

Mycelial cords are linear aggregations of parallel-oriented hyphae.

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Mycelium

Fungal mycelium Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus or fungus-like bacterial colony, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae.

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Mycorrhiza

A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.

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Mycotoxin

A mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus" and τοξικόν toxikon, "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungus kingdom and is capable of causing disease and death in both humans and other animals.

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Neolentinus

Neolentinus is a genus of wood-decaying agarics with tough (leathery to woody) fruit bodies composed of dimitic tissue, serrated lamella edges, and nonamyloid white binucleate basidiospores among other features.

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Neurotoxicity

Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.

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Niacin

Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

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Nidulariaceae

The Nidulariaceae ('nidulus' - small nest) are a family of fungi in the order Agaricales.

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Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").

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Omphalotus

Omphalotus is a genus of basidiomycete mushroom formally circumscribed by Victor Fayod in 1889.

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Pantothenic acid

Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin.

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Panus

Panus is a genus of fungi in the family Polyporaceae.

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Paraphyses

Paraphyses are erect sterile filament-like support structures occurring among the reproductive apparatuses of fungi, ferns, bryophytes and some thallophytes.

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Parasitism

In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Parasola plicatilis

Parasola plicatilis is a small saprotrophic mushroom with a plicate cap (diameter up to 35 mm).

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Partial veil

In mycology, a partial veil (also called an inner veil, to differentiate it from the "outer" veil, or velum) is a temporary structure of tissue found on the fruiting bodies of some basidiomycete fungi, typically agarics.

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Pezizaceae

The Pezizaceae (commonly referred to as cup fungi) are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota which produce mushrooms that tends to grow in the shape of a "cup".

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Phallaceae

Phallaceae is a family of fungi, commonly known as stinkhorn mushrooms, within the order Phallales.

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Phallotoxin

The phallotoxins consist of at least seven compounds, all of which are bicyclic heptapeptides (seven amino acids), isolated from the death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides).

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Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Pileus (mycology)

The pileus is the technical name for the cap, or cap-like part, of a basidiocarp or ascocarp (fungal fruiting body) that supports a spore-bearing surface, the hymenium.

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Pleurotus

Pleurotus is a genus of gilled mushrooms which includes one of the most widely eaten mushrooms, P. ostreatus.

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Pleurotus nebrodensis

Pleurotus nebrodensis, commonly known as Funciu di basilicu is a fungus that was declared by the IUCN as critically endangered in 2006.

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Pluteus

Pluteus is a large genus of fungi with over 300 species.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polyporales

The Polyporales are an order of about 1800 species of fungi in the division Basidiomycota.

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Polypore

Polypores are a group of fungi that form fruiting bodies with pores or tubes on the underside (see Delimitation for exceptions).

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Polysaccharide

Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Polysaccharide peptide

Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) is a protein-bound polysaccharide extracted from the edible mushroom Coriolus versicolor.

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Postharvest

In agriculture, postharvest handling is the stage of crop production immediately following harvest, including cooling, cleaning, sorting and packing.

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Potassium

Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Primordium

A primordium (plural: primordia; synonym: anlage) in embryology, is defined as an organ or tissue in its earliest recognizable stage of development.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Proteoglycan

Proteoglycans are proteins that are heavily glycosylated.

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Psilocybe

Psilocybe is a genus of gilled mushrooms growing worldwide.

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Psilocybe cubensis

Psilocybe cubensis is a species of psychedelic mushroom whose principal active compounds are psilocybin and psilocin.

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Psilocybin

Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.

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Psilocybin mushroom

A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin.

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Psychedelic drug

Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.

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Puffball

A puffball is a member of any of several groups of fungi in the division Basidiomycota.

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Reference Daily Intake

The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.

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Religious experience

A religious experience (sometimes known as a spiritual experience, sacred experience, or mystical experience) is a subjective experience which is interpreted within a religious framework.

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Riboflavin

Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Rickenella

Rickenella is a genus of brightly colored bryophilous agarics in the Hymenochaetales that have an omphalinoid morphology.

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Russula

Around 750 worldwide species of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms compose the genus Russula.

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Russulales

The Russulales are an order of the Agaricomycetes, (which include the agaric genera Russula and Lactarius and their polyporoid and corticioid relatives).

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Schizophyllan

Schizophyllan (Sonifilan, SPG) is a neutral extracellular polysaccharide produced by the fungus Schizophyllum commune.

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Secondary metabolite

Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.

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Sedative

A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.

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Selenium

Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Shamanism

Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.

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Shiitake

The shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, which is cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries.

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Smart shop

A smart shop (or smartshop) is a retail establishment that specializes in the sales of psychoactive substances, usually including psychedelics, as well as related literature and paraphernalia.

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Social anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.

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Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sordariomycetes

Sordariomycetes is a class of fungi in the subdivision Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota), consisting of 28 orders, 90 families, 1344 genera.

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Species

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Spore

In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.

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Spore print

Making a spore print of the mushroom ''Volvariella volvacea'' shown in composite: (photo lower half) mushroom cap laid on white and dark paper; (photo upper half) cap removed after 24 hours showing pinkish-tan spore print. A 3.5-centimeter glass slide placed in middle allows for examination of spore characteristics under a microscope. A printable chart to make a spore print and start identification The spore print is the powdery deposit obtained by allowing spores of a fungal fruit body to fall onto a surface underneath.

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Sporocarp (fungi)

In fungi, the sporocarp (also known as fruiting body, fruit body or fruitbody) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne.

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Sterigma

In biology, a sterigma (pl. sterigmata) is a small supporting structure.

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Stipe (mycology)

In mycology, a stipe is the stem or stalk-like feature supporting the cap of a mushroom.

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Substrate (biology)

In biology, a substrate is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant, fungus, or animal) lives.

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Sunlight

Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.

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Supermarket

A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles.

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Superstition

Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Ten Speed Press

Ten Speed Press is a publishing house founded in Berkeley, California in 1971 by Philip Wood.

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Thallus

Thallus (plural: thalli), from Latinized Greek θαλλός (thallos), meaning "a green shoot" or "twig", is the undifferentiated vegetative tissue of some organisms in diverse groups such as algae, fungi, some liverworts, lichens, and the Myxogastria.

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Thatch (lawn)

In lawn care, thatch is a layer of organic matter that accumulates on a lawn around the base of the grass plants.

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Traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.

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Truffle

A truffle is the fruiting body of a subterranean Ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber.

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Type genus

In biological classification, especially zoology, the type genus is the genus which defines a biological family and the root of the family name.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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Universal veil

In mycology, a universal veil is a temporary membranous tissue that fully envelops immature fruiting bodies of certain gilled mushrooms.

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Velada (Mazatec ritual)

Velada is the name of the healing vigils carried out by Mazatec curanderos (such as María Sabina).

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

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Volva (mycology)

In mycology, a volva is a cup-like structure at the base of a mushroom that is a remnant of the universal veil, or the remains of the peridium that encloses the immature fruit bodies of gasteroid fungi.

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Volvariella

Volvariella is a genus of mushrooms with deep salmon pink gills and spore prints.

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Vomiting

Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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William Delisle Hay

William Delisle Hay (born ca. 1853, County Durham) was a nineteenth-century British author and Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.

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Wool

Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.

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Z-drug

Z-drugs are a group of nonbenzodiazepine drugs with effects similar to benzodiazepines, which are used in the treatment of trouble sleeping, and most of whose names start with the letter "Z".

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Zinc

Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mushroom

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