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A cappella (Italian for "in the manner of the chapel") music is specifically group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.
In music, an accent is an emphasis, stress, or stronger attack placed on a particular note or set of notes, or chord, either as a result of its context or specifically indicated by an accent mark.
Accompaniment is the musical part which provides the rhythmic and/or harmonic support for the melody or main themes of a song or instrumental piece.
Acousmatic sound is sound that is heard without an originating cause being seen.
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
In the pre-modern tradition, the aesthetics of music or musical aesthetics explored the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization.
Al-Farabi (known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Aleatoric music (also aleatory music or chance music; from the Latin word alea, meaning "dice") is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance, and/or some primary element of a composed work's realization is left to the determination of its performer(s).
Aleatoricism is the incorporation of chance into the process of creation, especially the creation of art or media.
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (17 JulyJan Lekschas, 1714 – 27 May 1762) was a German philosopher.
Alfred Mann (April 28, 1917 – September 21, 2006), was a writer in musical theory and Professor of Musicology at the Eastman School of Music, University of Rochester.
An all-female band is a musical group in popular music which is exclusively composed of female musicians.
In music, an altered chord, an example of alteration, is a chord with one or more notes from the diatonic scale replaced by a neighboring pitch in the chromatic scale.
The American Federation of Musicians of the United States and Canada (AFM/AFofM) is a 501(c)(5) labor union representing professional musicians in the United States and Canada.
The American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) is an American not-for-profit performance-rights organization (PRO) that protects its members' musical copyrights by monitoring public performances of their music, whether via a broadcast or live performance, and compensating them accordingly.
An analog (or analogue) synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses analog circuits and analog signals to generate sound electronically.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anthony D. Williams (born 1974) is a consultant, researcher, and author.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Antonín Leopold Dvořák (8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer.
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (4 March 1678 – 28 July 1741) was an Italian Baroque musical composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and cleric.
An aptitude is a component of a competence to do a certain kind of work at a certain level.
Arabic music or Arab music (Arabic: الموسيقى العربية – ALA-LC) is the music of the Arab people.
In music, arch form is a sectional structure for a piece of music based on repetition, in reverse order, of all or most musical sections such that the overall form is symmetric, most often around a central movement.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
An aria (air; plural: arie, or arias in common usage, diminutive form arietta or ariette) in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer.
Aristoxenus of Tarentum (Ἀριστόξενος ὁ Ταραντῖνος; born c. 375, fl. 335 BCE) was a Greek Peripatetic philosopher, and a pupil of Aristotle.
Arnold Franz Walter Schoenberg or Schönberg (13 September 187413 July 1951) was an Austrian-American composer, music theorist, teacher, writer, and painter.
Art music (alternately called classical music, cultivated music, serious music, and canonic music) is music that implies advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques Siron, "Musique Savante (Serious music)", Dictionnaire des mots de la musique (Paris: Outre Mesure): 242.
In music, articulation is the direction or performance technique which affects the transition or continuity on a single note or between multiple notes or sounds.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Asha Bhosle (born 8 September 1933), is an Indian singer.
Atonality in its broadest sense is music that lacks a tonal center, or key.
An audio engineer (also sometimes recording engineer or a vocal engineer) helps to produce a recording or a performance, editing and adjusting sound tracks using equalization and audio effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound.
The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA) amended the United States copyright law by adding Chapter 10, "Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media".
An aulos (αὐλός, plural αὐλοί, auloi) or tibia (Latin) was an ancient Greek wind instrument, depicted often in art and also attested by archaeology.
Aus den sieben Tagen (From the Seven Days) is a collection of 15 text compositions by Karlheinz Stockhausen, composed in May 1968, in reaction to a personal crisis, and characterized as "Intuitive music"—music produced primarily from the intuition rather than the intellect of the performer(s).
The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.
An étude (meaning 'study') is an instrumental musical composition, usually short, of considerable difficulty, and designed to provide practice material for perfecting a particular musical skill.
Bachelor of Music is an academic degree awarded by a college, university, or conservatory upon completion of a program of study in music.
A bagatelle is a short piece of music, typically for the piano, and usually of a light, mellow character.
Bali (Balinese:, Indonesian: Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia with the biggest Hindu population.
In musical notation, a bar (or measure) is a segment of time corresponding to a specific number of beats in which each beat is represented by a particular note value and the boundaries of the bar are indicated by vertical bar lines.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
A bass drum, or kick drum, is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch.
A bassline (also known as a bass line or bass part) is the term used in many styles of music, such as jazz, blues, funk, dub and electronic, traditional music, or classical music for the low-pitched instrumental part or line played (in jazz and some forms of popular music) by a rhythm section instrument such as the electric bass, double bass, cello, tuba or keyboard (piano, Hammond organ, electric organ, or synthesizer).
In music and music theory, the beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse (regularly repeating event), of the mensural level (or beat level).
Bebop or bop is a style of jazz developed in the early to mid-1940s in the United States, which features songs characterized by a fast tempo, complex chord progressions with rapid chord changes and numerous changes of key, instrumental virtuosity, and improvisation based on a combination of harmonic structure, the use of scales and occasional references to the melody.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Berklee College of Music, located in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, is the largest independent college of contemporary music in the world.
The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, usually known as the Berne Convention, is an international agreement governing copyright, which was first accepted in Berne, Switzerland, in 1886.
A big band is a type of musical ensemble that usually consists of ten or more musicians with four sections: saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and a rhythm section.
Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs.
In jazz and blues, a blue note (also "worried" note) is a note that—for expressive purposes—is sung or played at a slightly different pitch than standard.
Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music named after Kentucky mandolin player and songwriter Bill Monroe's band, the Bluegrass Boys 1939-96, and furthered by musicians who played with him, including 5-string banjo player Earl Scruggs and guitarist Lester Flatt, or who simply admired the high-energy instrumental and vocal music Monroe's group created, and carried it on into new bands, some of which created subgenres (Progressive Bluegrass, Newgrass, Dawg Music etc.). Bluegrass is influenced by the music of Appalachia and other styles, including gospel and jazz.
Blues is a music genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century.
A bootleg recording is an audio or video recording of a performance that was not officially released by the artist or under other legal authority.
A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips.
In music, especially western popular music, a bridge is a contrasting section that prepares for the return of the original material section.
Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI) is one of five United States performing rights organizations, along with ASCAP, SESAC, Global Music Rights, &. It collects license fees on behalf of songwriters, composers, and music publishers and distributes them as royalties to those members whose works have been performed.
Broadway theatre,Although theater is the generally preferred spelling in the United States (see American and British English spelling differences), many Broadway venues, performers and trade groups for live dramatic presentations use the spelling theatre.
Business administration is management of a business.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cabaret is a form of theatrical entertainment featuring music, song, dance, recitation, or drama.
In Western musical theory, a cadence (Latin cadentia, "a falling") is "a melodic or harmonic configuration that creates a sense of resolution."Don Michael Randel (1999).
In music, a cadenza (from cadenza, meaning cadence; plural, cadenze) is, generically, an improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist or soloists, usually in a "free" rhythmic style, and often allowing virtuosic display.
In music, a canon is a contrapuntal (counterpoint-based) compositional technique that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e.g., quarter rest, one measure, etc.). The initial melody is called the leader (or dux), while the imitative melody, which is played in a different voice, is called the follower (or comes).
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (8 March 1714 – 14 December 1788), also formerly spelled Karl Philipp Emmanuel Bach, was a German Classical period musician and composer, the fifth child and second (surviving) son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach.
Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with southern India, including the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as Sri Lanka.
A cassette deck is a type of tape machine for playing and recording audio compact cassettes.
Catgut is a type of cord that is prepared from the natural fibre found in the walls of animal intestines.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) was a species of bear that lived in Europe and Asia during the Pleistocene and became extinct about 24,000 years ago during the Last Glacial Maximum.
A CD player is an electronic device that plays audio compact discs, which are a digital optical disc data storage format.
A chaconne (chacona; ciaccona,; earlier English: chacony) is a type of musical composition popular in the baroque era when it was much used as a vehicle for variation on a repeated short harmonic progression, often involving a fairly short repetitive bass-line (ground bass) which offered a compositional outline for variation, decoration, figuration and melodic invention.
Chamber music is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China.
A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.
The Choral Public Domain Library (CPDL) is a sheet music archive which focuses on choral and vocal music in the public domain or otherwise freely available for printing and performing (such as via permission from the copyright holder).
A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of two or more (usually three or more) notes (also called "pitches") that are heard as if sounding simultaneously.
A chord progression or harmonic progression is a succession of musical chords, which are two or more notes, typically sounded simultaneously.
Chris Anderson (born July 9, 1961) is a British-American author and entrepreneur.
Christoph Willibald (Ritter von) Gluck (born on 2 July, baptized 4 July 1714As there is only a documentary record with Gluck's date of baptism, 4 July. According to his widow, he was born on 3 July, but nobody in the 18th century paid attention to the birthdate until Napoleon introduced it. A birth date was only known if the parents kept a diary. The authenticity of the 1785 document (published in the Allgemeinen Wiener Musik-Zeitung vom 6. April 1844) is disputed, by Robl. (Robl 2015, pp. 141–147).--> – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period.
The chromatic scale is a musical scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone above or below its adjacent pitches.
Chromaticism is a compositional technique interspersing the primary diatonic pitches and chords with other pitches of the chromatic scale.
Church music is music written for performance in church, or any musical setting of ecclesiastical liturgy, or music set to words expressing propositions of a sacred nature, such as a hymn.
The cithara or kithara (translit, cithara) was an ancient Greek musical instrument in the lyre or lyra family.
Clara Schumann (née Clara Josephine Wieck; 13 September 1819 – 20 May 1896) was a German musician and composer, considered one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument that was used largely in the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras.
In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.
In music, a coda (Italian for "tail", plural code) is a passage that brings a piece (or a movement) to an end.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
In the history of European art music, the common practice period is the era between the formation and the decline of the tonal system.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
A concert band, also called wind ensemble, symphonic band, wind symphony, wind orchestra, wind band, symphonic winds, symphony band, or symphonic wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of members of the woodwind, brass, and percussion families of instruments, along with the double bass or bass guitar.
The concerto grosso (Italian for big concert(o), plural concerti grossi) is a form of baroque music in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno or concerto grosso).
Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert.
In music, consonance and dissonance are categorizations of simultaneous or successive sounds.
Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s to early 1990s, which includes modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music.
Contemporary commercial music or CCM is a term used by some vocal pedagogists in the United States of America to refer to non-classical music.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
The Copyright Act of 1976 is a United States copyright law and remains the primary basis of copyright law in the United States, as amended by several later enacted copyright provisions.
The copyright law of the United States is intended to encourage the creation of art and culture by rewarding authors and artists with a set of exclusive rights.
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
Counting is the action of finding the number of elements of a finite set of objects.
Country blues (also folk blues, rural blues, backwoods blues, or downhome blues) is acoustic, mainly guitar-driven forms of the blues, that mixes blues elements with characteristics of country and folk.
Country music, also known as country and western or simply country, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s.
Country pop is a fusion genre of country music and pop music that was developed by members of the country genre out of a desire to reach a larger, mainstream audience.
A credit is the recognition for having taken a course at school or university, used as measure if enough hours have been made for graduation.
Courtly love (or fin'amor in Occitan) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.
A cover band (or covers band), is a band that plays mostly or exclusively cover songs.
In popular music, a cover version, cover song, or simply cover, is a new performance or recording by someone other than the original artist or composer of a previously recorded, commercially released song.
A crash cymbal is a type of cymbal that produces a loud, sharp "crash" and is used mainly for occasional accents, as opposed to in ostinato.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
A cymbal is a common percussion instrument.
Da capo,, is an Italian musical term that means "from the beginning" (literally, "from the head").
Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.
A definition of the term music – a statement of the word's meaning – endeavors to give an accurate and concise explanation of music's basic attributes or essential nature.
Descant, discant, or can refer to several different things in music, depending on the period in question; etymologically, the word means a voice (cantus) above or removed from others.
Dhikr (also Zikr, Zekr, Zikir, Jikir, and variants; ḏikr; plural أذكار aḏkār, meaning "mentioning") is the name of devotional acts in Islam in which short phrases or prayers are repeatedly recited silently within the mind or aloud.
Dhrupad is a genre in Hindustani classical music.
In tonal music theory, a function (often called harmonic function, tonal function or diatonic function, or also chord area) is the relationship of a chord to a tonal center.
Die Walküre (The Valkyrie), WWV 86B, is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner with a German libretto by the composer.
Digital audio is audio, or simply sound, signal that has been recorded as or converted into digital form, where the sound wave of the audio signal is encoded as numerical samples in continuous sequence, typically at CD audio quality which is 16 bit sample depth over 44.1 thousand samples per second.
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
Distortion and overdrive are forms of audio signal processing used to alter the sound of amplified electric musical instruments, usually by increasing their gain, producing a "fuzzy", "growling", or "gritty" tone.
Divertimento (from the Italian divertire "to amuse") is a musical genre, with most of its examples from the 18th century.
In music, division refers to a type of ornamentation or variation common in 16th and 17th century music in which each note of a melodic line is "divided" into several shorter, faster-moving notes, often by a rhythmic repetition of a simple musical device such as the trill, turn or cambiata on each note in turn, or by the introduction of nonchord tones or arpeggio figures.
The Divje Babe Flute is a cave bear femur pierced by spaced holes that was found in 1995 at the Divje Babe archeological park located near Cerkno in northwestern Slovenia.
The Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) is a doctoral academic degree in music.
Don Tapscott (born June 1, 1947) is a Canadian business executive, author, consultant and speaker, who specializes in business strategy, organizational transformation and the role of technology in business and society.
The term double clarinet refers to any of several woodwind instruments consisting of two parallel pipes made of cane, bird bone, or metal, played simultaneously, with a single reed for each.
Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.
Durga is a raga in Hindustani Classical music.
In music, the dynamics of a piece is the variation in loudness between notes or phrases.
Eduard Hanslick (11 September 18256 August 1904) was a German Bohemian music critic.
Edwardian musical comedy was a form of British musical theatre that extended beyond the reign of King Edward VII in both direction, beginning in the early 1890s, when the Gilbert and Sullivan operas' dominance had ended, until the rise of the American musicals by Jerome Kern, Rodgers and Hart, George Gershwin and Cole Porter following the First World War.
An effects unit or effects pedal is an electronic or digital device that alters the sound of a musical instrument or other audio source.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
An electric piano is an electric musical instrument which produces sounds when a performer presses the keys of the piano-style musical keyboard.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Electronica encompasses a broad group of electronic-based styles such as techno, house, ambient, jungle and other electronic music styles intended not just for dancing.
Elementa harmonica is a treatise on the subject of musical scales by Aristoxenus, of which substantial amounts are extant.
Music can be analysed by considering a variety of its elements, or parts (aspects, characteristics, features), individually or together.
Embouchure or lipping is the use of the lips, facial muscles, tongue, and teeth in playing a wind instrument.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
In physics and engineering, the envelope of an oscillating signal is a smooth curve outlining its extremes.
Equalization or equalisation is the process of adjusting the balance between frequency components within an electronic signal.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnomusicology is the study of music from the cultural and social aspects of the people who make it.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary linguistics is a subfield of psycholinguistics that studies the psychosocial and cultural factors involved in the origin of language and the development of linguistic universals.
Ewe drumming refers to the drumming ensembles of the Ewe people of Ghana, Togo, and Benin.
The interplay of exercise and music have been long-discussed, crossing the disciplines of biomechanics, neurology, physiology, and sport psychology.
Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
In musical form and analysis, exposition is the initial presentation of the thematic material of a musical composition, movement, or section.
In music, extended chords are tertian chords (built from thirds) or triads with notes extended, or added, beyond the seventh.
Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s.
A fake book is a collection of musical lead sheets intended to help a performer quickly learn and perform new songs.
The fantasia (also English: fantasy, fancy, fantazy, phantasy, Fantasie, Phantasie, fantaisie) is a musical composition with its roots in the art of improvisation.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
The femur (pl. femurs or femora) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles including lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.
A fermata ("from fermare, to stay, or stop"; also known as a hold, pause, colloquially a birdseye or cyclops eye, or as a grand pause when placed on a note or a rest) is a symbol of musical notation indicating that the note should be prolonged beyond the normal duration its note value would indicate.
A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most often a violin.
Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals) indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones that a musician playing piano, harpsichord, organ, lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords) play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below.
File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents or electronic books.
A film score (also sometimes called background score, background music, film soundtrack, film music, or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film.
Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
The folk music of England is tradition-based music, which has existed since the later medieval period.
A fortepiano is an early piano.
François-Bernard Mâche (born April 4, 1935, Clermont-Ferrand) is a French composer of contemporary music.
Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.
Free jazz is an approach to jazz music that was first developed in the 1950s and 60s as musicians attempted to alter, extend, or break down jazz convention, often by discarding fixed chord changes or tempos.
In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (a musical theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and which recurs frequently in the course of the composition.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
Funk is a music genre that originated in African American communities in the mid-1960s when African American musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music, jazz, and rhythm and blues (R&B).
Gamelan is the traditional ensemble music of Java and Bali in Indonesia, made up predominantly of percussive instruments.
Gangubai Hangal (5 March 1913 – 21 July 2009) was an Indian singer of the khyal genre of Hindustani classical music, who was known for her deep and powerful voice.
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time.
Georg Philipp Telemann (– 25 June 1767) was a German Baroque composer and multi-instrumentalist.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
George Jacob Gershwin (September 26, 1898 July 11, 1937) was an American composer and pianist.
Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (from Gestalt "shape, form") is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology.
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 – 2 February 1594) was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition.
Glenn Branca (October 6, 1948 – May 13, 2018) was an American avant-garde composer and guitarist known for his use of volume, alternative guitar tunings, repetition, droning, and the harmonic series.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores, music reviews, and program notes.
Graphic notation (or graphic score) is the representation of music through the use of visual symbols outside the realm of traditional music notation.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Große Fuge (or Grosse Fuge, also known in English as Great Fugue or Grand Fugue), Op. 133, is a single-movement composition for string quartet by Ludwig van Beethoven.
In music, groove is the sense of propulsive rhythmic "feel" or sense of "swing".
Guillaume de Machaut (sometimes spelled Machault; c. 1300 – April 1377) was a medieval French poet and composer.
Guillaume Du Fay (also Dufay, Du Fayt; 5 August, c. 1397; accessed June 23, 2015. – 27 November 1474) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the early Renaissance.
A guitar solo is a melodic passage, instrumental section, or entire piece of music written for a classical guitar, electric guitar or an acoustic guitar.
Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation.
The Hammond organ is an electric organ, invented by Laurens Hammond and John M. Hanert and first manufactured in 1935.
Harappa (Urdu/ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.
Hard rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music that began in the mid-1960s, with the garage, psychedelic and blues rock movements.
Hardcore punk (often abbreviated to hardcore) is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s.
A harmonic is any member of the harmonic series, a divergent infinite series.
In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing.
The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers.
A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.
The Harry Fox Agency (HFA) is a provider of rights management and collector and distributor of mechanical license fees on behalf of music publishers in the United States.
Harry Partch (June 24, 1901 – September 3, 1974) was an American composer, music theorist, and creator of musical instruments.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is a term appearing 34 times within 32 verses of the Hebrew Bible.
In music, heterophony is a type of texture characterized by the simultaneous variation of a single melodic line.
High culture encompasses the cultural products of aesthetic value, which a society collectively esteem as exemplary art.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindustani classical music is the traditional music of northern areas of the Indian subcontinent, including the modern states of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
The Hip Hop Movement offers a critical theory and history of hip hop culture as stated by Reiland Rabaka in his book The Hip Hop Movement: From R&B and the Civil Rights Movement to Rap and the Hip Hop Generation.
Historically informed performance (also referred to as period performance, authentic performance, or HIP) is an approach to the performance of classical music, which aims to be faithful to the approach, manner and style of the musical era in which a work was originally conceived.
Music is found in every known culture, past and present, varying widely between times and places.
In music, homophony (Greek: ὁμόφωνος, homóphōnos, from ὁμός, homós, "same" and φωνή, phōnē, "sound, tone") is a texture in which a primary part is supported by one or more additional strands that flesh out the harmony and often provide rhythmic contrast.
How the Mind Works is a 1997 book by Canadian-American cognitive scientist Steven Pinker, in which the author attempts to explain some of the human mind's poorly understood functions and quirks in evolutionary terms.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
The Humber Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, commonly known as Humber College, was founded in 1967.
The Hurrian songs are a collection of music inscribed in cuneiform on clay tablets excavated from the ancient AmoriteDennis Pardee, "Ugaritic", in, edited by Roger D. Woodard, 5–6.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
Hypnosis is a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion.
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor.
Ilango Adigal was a Chera prince from the 2nd century CE, who is the author of Silappatikaram, one of the five great epics of Tamil literature.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Imperial College London (officially Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom.
An impromptu (loosely meaning "offhand") is a free-form musical composition with the character of an ex tempore improvisation as if prompted by the spirit of the moment, usually for a solo instrument, such as piano.
Improvisation is creating or performing something spontaneously or making something from whatever is available.
An independent record label (or indie label) is a record label that operates without the funding of or outside major record labels.
Indian classical music is a genre of South Asian music.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
An instrumental is a musical composition or recording without lyrics, or singing, although it might include some inarticulate vocals, such as shouted backup vocals in a Big Band setting.
Intellect is a term used in studies of the human mind, and refers to the ability of the mind to come to correct conclusions about what is true or real, and about how to solve problems.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
While no creative work is automatically protected worldwide, there are international treaties which provide protection automatically for all creative works as soon as they are fixed in a medium.
The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP), also known as the Petrucci Music Library after publisher Ottaviano Petrucci, is a subscription-based project for the creation of a virtual library of public-domain music scores.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
In music, the introduction is a passage or section which opens a movement or a separate piece, preceding the theme or lyrics.
In music, an invention is a short composition (usually for a keyboard instrument) with two-part counterpoint.
An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare "to call on, invoke, to give") may take the form of.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
iTunes is a media player, media library, Internet radio broadcaster, and mobile device management application developed by Apple Inc. It was announced on January 9, 2001.
A jam band is a musical group whose live albums and concerts relate to a fan culture that began in the 1960s with the Grateful Dead, and continued with The Allman Brothers Band, which had lengthy jams at concerts.
A jam session is a relatively informal musical event, process, or activity where musicians, typically instrumentalists, play improvised solos and vamp on tunes, songs and chord progressions.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jazz fusion (also known as fusion) is a musical genre that developed in the late 1960s when musicians combined aspects of jazz harmony and improvisation with styles such as funk, rock, rhythm and blues, and Latin jazz.
Jerrold Levinson (born 11 July 1948 in Brooklyn) is Distinguished University Professor of Philosophy at the University of Maryland, College Park.
Johann Christian Bach (September 5, 1735 – January 1, 1782) was a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh surviving child and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach.
Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.
Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period.
John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer and music theorist.
(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.
In French, jouissance means enjoyment, in terms both of rights and property, and of sexual orgasm—the latter has a meaning partially lacking in the English word "enjoyment".
Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.
In music, just intonation (sometimes abbreviated as JI) or pure intonation is any musical tuning in which the frequencies of notes are related by ratios of small whole numbers.
Karaoke, is a form of interactive entertainment or video game developed in Japan in which an amateur singer sings along with recorded music (a music video) using a microphone.
The Kelsey Museum of Archaeology is a museum of archaeology located on the University of Michigan central campus in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the United States.
In music theory, the key of a piece is the group of pitches, or scale, that forms the basis of a music composition in classical, Western art, and Western pop music.
A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers.
Kyle Eugene Gann (born November 21, 1955 in Dallas, Texas) is an American professor of music, critic, and composer who has worked primarily in the New York City area.
La Monte Thornton Young (born October 14, 1935) is an American avant-garde composer, musician, and artist generally recognized as the first minimalist composer.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction.
Léonin (also Leoninus, Leonius, Leo) (fl. 1150s — d. ? 1201) was the first known significant composer of polyphonic organum.
A lead sheet is a form of musical notation that specifies the essential elements of a popular song: the melody, lyrics and harmony.
In music performance and notation, legato (Italian for "tied together"; French lié; German gebunden) indicates that musical notes are played or sung smoothly and connected.
Leonard Bernstein (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist.
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.
Library science (often termed library studies, library and information science, bibliothecography, library economy) is an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of information.
A concert hall is a cultural building with a stage that serves as a performance venue and an auditorium filled with seats.
The following is a list of female composers in the Western concert tradition, ordered by their year of birth.
This is a list of notable software for creating, performing, learning, analyzing, researching, broadcasting and editing music.
In music, a medley is a piece composed from parts of existing pieces, usually three, played one after another, sometimes overlapping.
This is a list of musicology topics.
This is a list of lists of musicians.
Litany, in Christian worship and some forms of Judaic worship, is a form of prayer used in services and processions, and consisting of a number of petitions.
Liturgical music originated as a part of religious ceremony, and includes a number of traditions, both ancient and modern.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
"Low culture" is a derogatory term for forms of popular culture that have mass appeal.
Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
A lullaby, or cradle song, is a soothing song or piece of music that is usually played for (or sung to) children.
A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.
The lyre (λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Lyrics are words that make up a song usually consisting of verses and choruses.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a functional neuroimaging technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain, using very sensitive magnetometers.
The Manhattan School of Music (MSM) is a music conservatory located on the Upper West Side of New York City.
A marching band is a group in which instrumental musicians perform while marching, often for entertainment or competition.
A mashup (also mesh, mash up, mash-up, blend, bootleg and bastard pop/rock) is a creative work, usually in a form of a song, created by blending two or more pre-recorded songs, usually by overlaying the vocal track of one song seamlessly over the instrumental track of another.
Mass market is a market for goods produced on a large scale for a group of significant number of end consumers.
The Master of Music (M.M. or M.Mus.) is, as an academic title, the first graduate degree in Music awarded by universities and conservatories.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
In copyright law, a mechanical license is a license that grants certain limited permissions to work with, study, improve upon, reinterpret, re-record (etc.) something that is neither a free/open source item nor in the public domain.
A media conglomerate, media group, or media institution is a company that owns numerous companies involved in mass media enterprises, such as television, radio, publishing, motion pictures, theme parks, or the Internet.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.
Medieval music consists of songs, instrumental pieces, and liturgical music from about 500 A.D. to 1400.
Melancholia (from µέλαινα χολή),Burton, Bk.
A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.
The melting pot is a monocultural metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" into a harmonious whole with a common culture or vice versa, for a homogeneous society becoming more heterogeneous through the influx of foreign elements with different cultural background with a potential creation of disharmony with the previous culture.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mentorship is a relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps to guide a less experienced or less knowledgeable person.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
In music, metre (Am. meter) refers to the regularly recurring patterns and accents such as bars and beats.
Microtonal music or microtonality is the use in music of microtones—intervals smaller than a semitone, also called "microintervals".
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, and electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers, and related music and audio devices.
In sound recording and reproduction, and sound reinforcement systems, a mixing console is an electronic device for combining sounds of many different audio signals.
The term "mixtape" (alternatively spelled mix-tape or mix tape) is used to describe various manners in which music is distributed.
In the theory of Western music, a mode is a type of musical scale coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviors.
Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
In music, monophony is the simplest of musical textures, consisting of a melody (or "tune"), typically sung by a single singer or played by a single instrument player (e.g., a flute player) without accompanying harmony or chords.
Orchestre symphonique de Montréal (OSM; English translation, Montreal Symphony Orchestra) is a Canadian symphony orchestra based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler (10 September 1890 – 22 July 1976) was a British archaeologist and officer in the British Army.
Morton Feldman (January 12, 1926 – September 3, 1987) was an American composer.
In music, a motif (also motive) is a short musical idea, a salient recurring figure, musical fragment or succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition: "The motive is the smallest structural unit possessing thematic identity".
Multitrack recording (MTR)—also known as multitracking, double tracking, or tracking—is a method of sound recording developed in 1955 that allows for the separate recording of multiple sound sources or of sound sources recorded at different times to create a cohesive whole.
The Muses (/ˈmjuːzɪz/; Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology.
The study of music and emotion seeks to understand the psychological relationship between human affect and music.
In North America, music appreciation courses often focus on Western art music, commonly called "Classical music".
Music archaeology is an interdisciplinary study field that combines musicology and archaeology.
A music community is a group of people involved in a given type of music.
A music competition is a public event designed to identify and award outstanding musical ensembles, soloists and musicologists.
The Oxford Companion to Music defines music criticism as 'the intellectual activity of formulating judgements on the value and degree of excellence of individual works of music, or whole groups or genres'.
Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music.
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions.
Music history, sometimes called historical musicology, is the highly diverse subfield of the broader discipline of musicology that studies music from a historical viewpoint.
The music industry consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows, audio and video recordings, compositions and sheet music, and the organizations and associations that aid and represent music creators.
Music journalism (or "music criticism") is media criticism and reporting about popular music topics, including pop music, rock music, and related styles.
Music lessons are a type of formal instruction in playing a musical instrument or singing.
The traditional music of Africa, given the vastness of the continent, is historically ancient, rich and diverse, with different regions and nations of Africa having many distinct musical traditions.
Asian music encompasses numerous different musical styles originating from a large number of Asian countries.
The music of Central Asia is as vast and unique as the many cultures and peoples who inhabit the region.
Music of China refers to the music of the Chinese people, which may be the music of the Han Chinese as well as other ethnic minorities within mainland China.
Germany claims some of the most renowned composers, singers, producers and performers of the world.
The music of Greece is as diverse and celebrated as its history.
The music of India includes multiple varieties of classical music, folk music, filmi, Indian rock and Indian pop.
Irish music is music that has been created in various genres on the island of Ireland.
Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which remained vibrant throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music.
Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asian music include the musical traditions of this subregion of Asia.
Music-on-demand is a music distribution model conceived with the growth of two-way computing, telecommunications and the Internet in the early 1990s.
Music psychology, or the psychology of music, may be regarded as a branch of both psychology and musicology.
In the music industry, a music publisher (or publishing company) is responsible for ensuring the songwriters and composers receive payment when their compositions are used commercially.
A music school is an educational institution specialized in the study, training, and research of music.
Music technology is the use of any device, mechanism, machine or tool by a musician or composer to make or perform music; to compose, notate, play back or record songs or pieces; or to analyze or edit music.
Electric music technology refers to musical instruments and recording devices that use electrical circuits, which are often combined with mechanical technologies.
Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.
Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program.
Musical memory refers to the ability to remember music-related information, such as melodic content and other progressions of tones or pitches.
Neuroscientists have learned a lot about the role of the brain in numerous cognitive mechanisms by understanding corresponding disorders.
Musica universalis (literally universal music), also called Music of the spheres or Harmony of the Spheres, is an ancient philosophical concept that regards proportions in the movements of celestial bodies—the Sun, Moon, and planets—as a form of musica (the Medieval Latin term for music).
Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music.
In classical music, musical development is a process by which a musical idea is communicated in the course of a composition.
A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name.
The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music; it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections.
Musical improvisation (also known as musical extemporization) is the creative activity of immediate ("in the moment") musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.
Musical phrasing refers to the way a musician shapes a sequence of notes in a passage of music to express an emotion or impression.
Musical technique is the ability of instrumental and vocal musicians to exert optimal control of their instruments or vocal cords in order to produce the precise musical effects they desire.
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance.
In music, there are two common meanings for tuning.
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented.
Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music.
Musique concrète (meaning "concrete music")" problem for any translator of an academic work in French is that the language is relatively abstract and theoretical compared to English; one might even say that the mode of thinking itself tends to be more schematic, with a readiness to see material for study in terms of highly abstract dualisms and correlations, which on occasion does not sit easily with the perhaps more pragmatic English language.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
In logic, necessity and sufficiency are terms used to describe an implicational relationship between statements.
A niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focused.
Nicolas Ruwet (December 31, 1932 – November 15, 2001) was a linguist, literary critic and musical analyst.
A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that usually operates late into the night.
Noise is unwanted sound judged to be unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing.
A normal school was an institution created to train high school graduates to be teachers by educating them in the norms of pedagogy and curriculum.
Oboes are a family of double reed woodwind instruments.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
The Old Kingdom, in ancient Egyptian history, is the period in the third millennium (c. 2686–2181 BC) also known as the 'Age of the Pyramids' or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders' as it includes the great 4th Dynasty when King Sneferu perfected the art of pyramid building and the pyramids of Giza were constructed under the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
An online music store is an online business which sells audio files over the Internet, usually sound recordings of music songs or classical pieces, in which the user pays on a per-song or subscription basis.
Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter.
Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews.
An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists.
Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble, such as a concert band) or of adapting music composed for another medium for an orchestra.
In music, the organ (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals.
Orlande de Lassus (also Roland de Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Orlandus Lassus, Orlande de Lattre or Roland de Lattre; 1532, possibly 1530 – 14 June 1594) was a Netherlandish or Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance.
In music, ornaments or embellishments are musical flourishes—typically, added notes—that are not essential to carry the overall line of the melody (or harmony), but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" that line (or harmony), provide added interest and variety, and give the performer the opportunity to add expressiveness to a song or piece.
Osiris (from Egyptian wsjr, Coptic) is an Egyptian god, identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and rebirth.
In music, an ostinato (derived from Italian: stubborn, compare English, from Latin: 'obstinate') is a motif or phrase that persistently repeats in the same musical voice, frequently at the same pitch.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
An overtone is any frequency greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound.
Overture (from French ouverture, "opening") in music is the term originally applied to the instrumental introduction to an opera.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
A number of flutes dating to the European Upper Paleolithic have been discovered.
Paradigmatic analysis is the analysis of paradigms embedded in the text rather than of the surface structure (syntax) of the text which is termed syntagmatic analysis.
A part (or voice) generally refers to a single strand or melody of music within a larger ensemble or a polyphonic musical composition.
The passacaglia is a musical form that originated in early seventeenth-century Spain and is still used today by composers.
Pérotin (fl. c. 1200, died 1205 or 1225), also called Perotin the Great, was a European composer, believed to be French, who lived around the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Percy Alfred Scholes M.A., Hon.D.Mus.
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices or bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression.
Performing rights are the right to perform music in public.
Persian traditional music or Iranian traditional music, also known as Persian classical music or Iranian classical music, refers to the classical music of Iran (also known as Persia).
Peter Kivy (October 22, 1934 – May 6, 2017) was professor emeritus of musicology and philosophy at Rutgers University.
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.
A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English, or record) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
The piccolo (Italian for "small", but named ottavino in Italy) is a half-size flute, and a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments.
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through organ pipes selected via a keyboard.
Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.
The Pittsburgh Press (formerly known as The Pittsburg Press), published from 1884 to 1992, was a major afternoon daily newspaper in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US.
Plainsong (also plainchant; cantus planus) is a body of chants used in the liturgies of the Western Church.
Plaisir is a commune located in the heart of the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Playing by ear is the ability of an instrumental musician to reproduce a piece of music they have heard, without having observed another musician play it or having seen the sheet music notation.
A playlist is a list of video or audio files that can be played back on a media player either sequentially or in a shuffled order.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
Polyrhythm is the simultaneous use of two or more conflicting rhythms, that are not readily perceived as deriving from one another, or as simple manifestations of the same meter.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
Porgy and Bess is an English-language opera by the American composer George Gershwin, with a libretto written by author DuBose Heyward and lyricist Ira Gershwin.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Potpourri or Pot-Pourri (French, literally "putrid pot") is a kind of musical form structured as ABCDEF..., the same as medley or, sometimes, fantasia.
The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt around 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh, Narmer for some egyptologists, Hor-Aha for others, (also known as Menes).
Prehistoric music (previously primitive music) is a term in the history of music for all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history.
A prelude (Präludium or Vorspiel; praeludium; prélude; preludio) is a short piece of music, the form of which may vary from piece to piece.
A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
A professional school is a graduate school level institution that prepares students for careers in specific fields.
Program music or programme music is a type of art music that attempts to musically render an extra-musical narrative.
A prosumer is a person who consumes and produces a product.
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception and audiology.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
The psychology of music preference refers as the psychological factors behind peoples' different music preferences.
Psychology Today is a magazine published every two months in the United States since 1967.
Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
Music is considered to be in the public domain if it meets any of the following criteria.
Punk rock (or "punk") is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia.
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.
The quadrivium (plural: quadrivia) is the four subjects, or arts, taught after teaching the trivium.
Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience.
A raga or raaga (IAST: rāga; also raag or ragam; literally "coloring, tingeing, dyeing") is a melodic framework for improvisation akin to a melodic mode in Indian classical music.
Rapping (or rhyming, spitting, emceeing, MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backbeat or musical accompaniment.
A ravanahatha (variant names: ravanhatta, rawanhattha, ravanastron, ravana hasta veena) is an ancient bowed, stringed instrument, used in India, Sri Lanka and surrounding areas.
In music theory, the recapitulation is one of the sections of a movement written in sonata form.
A record producer or track producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album.
A record shop or record store is a retail outlet that sells recorded music.
The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument in the group known as internal duct flutes—flutes with a whistle mouthpiece.
A refrain (from Vulgar Latin refringere, "to repeat", and later from Old French refraindre) is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the "chorus" of a song.
Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence.
A remix is a piece of media which has been altered from its original state by adding, removing, and/or changing pieces of the item.
Renaissance music is vocal and instrumental music written and performed in Europe during the Renaissance era.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
A rest is an interval of silence in a piece of music, marked by a symbol indicating the length of the pause.
A rhapsody in music is a one-movement work that is episodic yet integrated, free-flowing in structure, featuring a range of highly contrasted moods, colour and tonality.
Rhapsody in Blue is a 1924 musical composition by American composer George Gershwin for solo piano and jazz band, which combines elements of classical music with jazz-influenced effects.
Rhys Chatham (born September 19, 1952) is an American composer, guitarist, trumpet player, multi-instrumentalist (flutes in C, alto and bass, keyboard), primarily active in avant-garde and minimalist music.
A rhythm section (also called a backup band) is a group of musicians within a music ensemble or band who provide the underlying rhythm, harmony and pulse of the accompaniment, providing a rhythmic and harmonic reference and "beat" for the rest of the band.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.
A ritornello (Italian; "little return") is a recurring passage in Baroque music for orchestra or chorus.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
Robert Burton (8 February 1577 – 25 January 1640) was an English scholar at Oxford University, best known for the classic The Anatomy of Melancholy.
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.
A rock concert is a musical performance in the style of any one of many genres inspired by "rock and roll" music.
Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, dating back to the early 1950s in the United States, especially the South.
Sir Roger Vernon Scruton (born 27 February 1944) is an English philosopher and writer who specialises in aesthetics and political philosophy, particularly in the furtherance of traditionalist conservative views.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romance is the expressive and generally pleasurable feeling from an emotional attraction towards another person.
Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rondo and its French part-equivalent, rondeau, are words that have been used in music in a number of ways, most often in reference to a musical form but also to a character type that is distinct from the form.
A round (also called a perpetual canon or infinite canon) is a musical composition, a limited type of canon, in which a minimum of three voices sing exactly the same melody at the unison (and may continue repeating it indefinitely), but with each voice beginning at different times so that different parts of the melody coincide in the different voices, but nevertheless fit harmoniously together.
"Row, Row, Row Your Boat" is an English language nursery rhyme and a popular children's song.
In music theory, a scale is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
A scorewriter, or music notation program is software used with a computer for creating, editing and printing sheet music.
Scratching, sometimes referred to as scrubbing, is a DJ and turntablist technique of moving a vinyl record back and forth on a turntable to produce percussive or rhythmic sounds.
A sea shanty, chantey, or chanty is a type of work song that was once commonly sung to accompany labor on board large merchant sailing vessels.
Secular music (non-religious) and sacred music were the two main genres of Western music during the Middle Ages and Renaissance era.
The Seikilos epitaph is the oldest surviving complete musical composition, including musical notation, from anywhere in the world.
Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.
In music, a serenade (also sometimes called serenata, from the Italian) is a musical composition and/or performance delivered in honor.
In music, serialism is a method of composition using series of pitches, rhythms, dynamics, timbres or other musical elements.
Session musicians, studio musicians, or backing musicians are musicians hired to perform in recording sessions or live performances.
Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
Musical set theory provides concepts for categorizing musical objects and describing their relationships.
The is a Japanese longitudinal, end-blown bamboo-flute.
Sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols to indicate the pitches (melodies), rhythms or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece.
Silappadikaram (republished as The Tale of an Anklet) is one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition.
Ska is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and was the precursor to rocksteady and reggae.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
A snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin.
Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms, typically from the same species.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is a web application that people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.
Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.
Sociomusicology (from Latin: socius, "companion"; from Old French musique; and the suffix -ology, "the study of", from Old Greek λόγος, lógos: "discourse"), also called music sociology or the sociology of music, refers to both an academic subfield of sociology that is concerned with music (often in combination with other arts), as well as a subfield of musicology that focuses on social aspects of musical behavior and the role of music in society.
Sonata (Italian:, pl. sonate; from Latin and Italian: sonare, "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung.
Sonata form (also sonata-allegro form or first movement form) is a musical structure consisting of three main sections: an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Soul music (often referred to simply as soul) is a popular music genre that originated in the African American community in the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film.
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
The steel-string acoustic guitar is a modern form of guitar that descends from the nylon-strung classical guitar, but is strung with steel strings for a brighter, louder sound.
Stephen Davies is a Distinguished Professor of philosophy at the University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider.
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner.
A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group.
The string section is composed of bowed instruments belonging to the violin family.
Strophic form, also called verse-repeating or chorus form, is the term applied to songs in which all verses or stanzas of the text are sung to the same music.
In music, a subject is the material, usually a recognizable melody, upon which part or all of a composition is based.
Supplication (also known as petitioning) is a form of prayer, wherein one party humbly or earnestly asks another party to provide something, either for the party who is doing the supplicating (e.g., "Please spare my life.") or on behalf of someone else.
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
In music, the term swing has two main uses.
A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, usually in a single continuous movement, which illustrates or evokes the content of a poem, short story, novel, painting, landscape, or other (non-musical) source.
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.
Symphony No. 40 in G minor, KV.
The Symphony No.
In music, syncopation involves a variety of rhythms which are in some way unexpected which make part or all of a tune or piece of music off-beat.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Systematic musicology is an umbrella term, used mainly in Central Europe, for several subdisciplines and paradigms of musicology.
Tablature (or tabulature, or tab for short) is a form of musical notation indicating instrument fingering rather than musical pitches.
A Tala (IAST tāla), sometimes spelled Taal or Tal, literally means a "clap, tapping one's hand on one's arm, a musical measure".
An audio tape recorder, tape deck, or tape machine is an audio storage device that records and plays back sounds, including articulated voices, usually using magnetic tape, either wound on a reel or in a cassette, for storage.
In musical terminology, tempo ("time" in Italian; plural: tempi) is the speed or pace of a given piece.
The temporal dynamics of music and language describes how the brain coordinates its different regions to process musical and vocal sounds.
In music, texture is how the tempo, melodic, and harmonic materials are combined in a composition, thus determining the overall quality of the sound in a piece.
The Anatomy of Melancholy (full title: The Anatomy of Melancholy, What it is: With all the Kinds, Causes, Symptomes, Prognostickes, and Several Cures of it. In Three Maine Partitions with their several Sections, Members, and Subsections. Philosophically, Medicinally, Historically, Opened and Cut Up) is a book by Robert Burton, first published in 1621, but republished four more times over the next seventeen years with massive alterations and expansions.
The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More is a book by Chris Anderson, Editor in chief of Wired magazine.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Oxford Companion to Music is a music reference book in the series of Oxford Companions produced by the Oxford University Press.
Theatre music refers to a wide range of music composed or adapted for performance in theatres.
The ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from c. 700 BC.
A theatre organ (also known as a theater organ, or a cinema organ) is a distinct type of pipe organ originally developed to provide music and sound effects to accompany silent films during the first 3 decades of the 20th century.
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
The thirty-two-bar form, also known as the AABA song form, American popular song form and the ballad form, is a song structure commonly found in Tin Pan Alley songs and other American popular music, especially in the first half of the 20th century.
Thomas Morley (1557 or 1558 – early October 1602) was an English composer, theorist, singer and organist of the Renaissance.
Thoth (from Greek Θώθ; derived from Egyptian ḏḥw.ty) is one of the deities of the Egyptian pantheon.
In music theory about musical form, through-composed music is relatively continuous, non-sectional, or non-repetitive music.
In music, timbre (also known as tone color or tone quality from psychoacoustics) is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound or tone.
The time signature (also known as meter signature, metre signature, or measure signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats (pulses) are to be contained in each measure (bar) and which note value is equivalent to one beat.
Tin Pan Alley is the name given to the collection of New York City music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
The Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, is a piece of organ music written, according to its oldest extant sources, by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Tomás Luis de Victoria (sometimes Italianised as da Vittoria; c. 1548 – 27 August 1611) was the most famous composer in 16th-century Spain, and was one of the most important composers of the Counter-Reformation, along with Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and Orlando di Lasso.
Tonality is the arrangement of pitches and/or chords of a musical work in a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities, attractions and directionality.
In music, the tonic is the first scale degree of a diatonic scale (the first note of a scale) and the tonal center or final resolution tone that is commonly used in the final cadence in tonal (musical key-based) classical music, popular music and traditional music.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current to flow in a small region of the brain via electromagnetic induction.
A tribute act, tribute band or tribute group is a music group, singer, or musician who specifically plays the music of a well-known music act.
The trill (or shake, as it was known from the 16th until the 19th century) is a musical ornament consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes, usually a semitone or tone apart, which can be identified with the context of the trill.
In music, a trio (an Italian word) is a method of instrumentation or vocalization by three different sounds or voices to make a melodious music or song.
The tuba is the largest and lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family.
The twelve-bar blues or blues changes is one of the most prominent chord progressions in popular music.
Undergraduate education is the post-secondary education previous to the postgraduate education.
Urban culture is the culture of towns and cities.
In music, variation is a formal technique where material is repeated in an altered form.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Verse–chorus form is a musical form common in popular music, used in blues and rock and roll since the 1950s, and predominant in rock music since the 1960s.
Vibrato (Italian, from past participle of "vibrare", to vibrate) is a musical effect consisting of a regular, pulsating change of pitch.
The Vienna Philharmonic (VPO; Wiener Philharmoniker), founded in 1842, is an orchestra considered to be one of the finest in the world.
A virtual community is a social network of individuals who interact through specific social media, potentially crossing geographical and political boundaries in order to pursue mutual interests or goals.
A vocal coach, also known as a voice coach (though this term often applies to those working with speech and communication rather than singing) is a music teacher, usually a piano accompanist, who helps singers prepare for a performance, often also helping them to improve their singing technique and take care of and develop their voice, but is not the same as a singing teacher (also called a "voice teacher").
Vocal pedagogy is the study of the art and science of voice instruction.
In music theory, voicing refers to either of the two closely related concepts of.
Walther von der Vogelweide (c. 1170 – c. 1230) was a Minnesänger, who composed and performed love-songs and political songs ("Sprüche") in Middle High German.
The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance, normally in time, performed primarily in closed position.
West Side Story is a musical with a book by Arthur Laurents, music by Leonard Bernstein and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim.
The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".
Whistling without the use of an artificial whistle is achieved by creating a small opening with one's lips and then blowing or sucking air through the hole.
In music, a whole tone scale is a scale in which each note is separated from its neighbours by the interval of a whole tone.
Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything is a book by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, first published in December 2006.
Wind chimes are a type of percussion instrument constructed from suspended tubes, rods, bells or other objects that are often made of metal or wood.
Witold Roman Lutosławski (25 January 1913 – 7 February 1994) was a Polish composer and orchestral conductor.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.
Women in music describes the role of women as composers, songwriters, instrumental performers, singers, conductors, music scholars, music educators, music critics/music journalists and other musical professions.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments within the more general category of wind instruments.
A work song is a piece of music closely connected to a form of work, either sung while conducting a task (usually to coordinate timing) or a song linked to a task which might be a connected narrative, description, or protest song.
World music (also called global music or international music) is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe, which includes many genres including some forms of Western music represented by folk music, as well as selected forms of ethnic music, indigenous music, neotraditional music, and music where more than one cultural tradition, such as ethnic music and Western popular music, intermingle.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yogyakarta (also Jogja or Jogjakarta; ꦛꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ; formerly Dutch: Djokjakarta/Djocjakarta or Djokja) is a city on the island of Java in Indonesia.
A youth orchestra is an orchestra made of young musicians, typically ranging from pre-teens or teenagers to those in their mid-20s.
Zoomusicology is a field of musicology and zoology or more specifically, zoosemiotics.
During the 20th century there was a vast increase in the variety of music that people had access to.