480 relations: Academic degree, Accent (music), Accompaniment, Acousmatic sound, Acoustics, Aesthetics, African American, Al-Farabi, Aleatoric music, Aleatoricism, Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, American Federation of Musicians, American popular music, Analog synthesizer, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient Rome, Anthony D. Williams (author), Anthropology, Antonín Dvořák, Aptitude, Arabic music, Archaeology, Arnold Schoenberg, Art, Art music, Articulation (music), Artificial intelligence, Aspect of music, Atonality, Audio Home Recording Act, Aulos, Aus den sieben Tagen, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Music, Bali, Ballet, Bar (music), Baroque, Baroque music, Bass guitar, Beat (music), Bebop, Behavior, Berne Convention, Bird vocalization, Blue note, Bluegrass music, Blues, ..., Blues rock, Brass instrument, Broadcasting, Broadway theatre, Byzantine Empire, Cabaret, Canon (music), Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Carnatic music, Catholic Church, Cave bear, Chamber music, Charles Darwin, China, Choir, Chord (music), Chord progression, Chris Anderson (writer), Christoph Willibald Gluck, Church music, Cithara, Classical music, Classical period (music), Clavichord, Clay tablet, Cognitive science, Common practice period, Composer, Computer, Computer keyboard, Computer simulation, Concert, Concert band, Concerto, Consonance and dissonance, Contemporary commercial music, Cooperation, Counterpoint, Counting, Country music, Course credit, Creativity, Culture, Cymbal, Data storage device, Definition of music, Dhikr, Dhrupad, Diatonic function, Die Walküre, Disc jockey, Divertimento, Divje Babe Flute, Dixieland, Doctor of Musical Arts, Doctor of Philosophy, Don Tapscott, Double clarinet, Drum kit, Duke University, Durga (raga), Dynamics (music), Eastern Europe, Eduard Hanslick, Edwardian musical comedy, Egypt, Egyptians, Electric guitar, Electroencephalography, Electronica, Elementa harmonica, Elementary school, Emotion, Empirical research, Entertainment, Ethnic group, Ethnomusicology, Europe, Evolution, Evolutionary linguistics, Ewe drumming, Exercise and music, Experience, Experimental rock, Facebook, Femur, Film score, Filmmaking, Fine art, Flute, Folk music, Folk music of England, François-Bernard Mâche, Franz Schubert, Free jazz, Freelancer, Fugue, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Funk, Gamelan, Gangubai Hangal, Genre, Georg Philipp Telemann, George Frideric Handel, George Gershwin, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Glenn Branca, Globalization, Google Books, Gramophone record, Graphic notation, Greek language, Greeks, Gregorian chant, Guillaume de Machaut, Guillaume Dufay, Guitar, Gustav Mahler, Harappa, Harmonic, Harmonica, Harmony, Harp, Harpsichord, Harry Partch, Heavy metal music, Hebrews, Heterophony, High culture, Higher education, Hindu, Hindustani classical music, Historically informed performance, History of music, Homophony, How the Mind Works, Human body, Human subject research, Humanities, Hurrian songs, Hypnosis, Igor Stravinsky, Ilango Adigal, Immanuel Kant, Imperial College London, Improvisation, Independent record label, Indian classical music, Indonesia, Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta, Indus Valley Civilization, Instrumental, Intellect, Intelligence, Internet, Invention (musical composition), Invocation, Iran, ITunes, Jazz, Jazz band, Jazz fusion, Jerrold Levinson, Johann Christian Bach, Johann Sebastian Bach, John Cage, Joseph Haydn, Jouissance, Judeo-Christian, Just intonation, Karaoke, Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, Kyle Gann, La Monte Young, Language, Léonin, Lead sheet, Leonard Bernstein, Liberal arts education, List of artistic media, List of concert halls, List of music software, List of musicology topics, Lists of composers, Lists of musicians, Litany, Liturgy, Low culture, Ludwig van Beethoven, Lute, Lyre, Lyrics, Magnetoencephalography, Marching band, Mashup (music), Mass media, Master of Arts, Master of Music, Mathematics, Media conglomerate, Medieval music, Melancholia, Melody, Memory, Mental disorder, Metaphysics, Meter (music), Microtonal music, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, MIDI, Mode (music), Mohenjo-daro, Monody, Monophony, Mortimer Wheeler, Morton Feldman, Motif (music), MP3, Muse, Music and emotion, Music appreciation, Music community, Music competition, Music criticism, Music education, Music festival, Music genre, Music history, Music lesson, Music of Africa, Music of Asia, Music of Central Asia, Music of China, Music of Germany, Music of Greece, Music of India, Music of Ireland, Music of Scotland, Music of Southeast Asia, Music on demand, Music psychology, Music publisher (popular music), Music school, Music theory, Music therapy, Music video, Music-related memory, Music-specific disorders, Musical composition, Musical development, Musical ensemble, Musical form, Musical improvisation, Musical instrument, Musical notation, Musical technique, Musical theatre, Musical tuning, Musician, Musicology, Musique concrète, Necessity and sufficiency, New Orleans, Niche market, Nicolas Ruwet, Observation, Old Kingdom of Egypt, Opera, Operetta, Oral history, Oratorio, Orchestra, Organ (music), Orlande de Lassus, Osiris, Ottoman Empire, Paleolithic, Paleolithic flutes, Paradigmatic analysis, Pérotin, Perception, Percussion instrument, Performance, Performing arts, Persian traditional music, Peter Kivy, Phonograph, Physics, Physiology, Pianist, Piano, Pitch (music), Pittsburgh Press, Plainsong, Plaisir, Yvelines, Plato, Polyphony, Polyrhythm, Pop music, Popular music, Porgy and Bess, Positron emission tomography, Prehistoric Egypt, Preschool, Printing, Progressive rock, Propaganda, Prosumer, Proto-language, Psychoacoustics, Psychology, Psychology of music preference, Psychophysics, Punk rock, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Quadrivium, Radio, Raga, Ravanahatha, Record label, Recorder (musical instrument), Religious music, Remix, Resonance, Rest (music), Rhapsody in Blue, Rhys Chatham, Rhythm, Rhythm section, Richard Wagner, Rigveda, Robert Burton (scholar), Rock and roll, Rock music, Rockabilly, Roger Scruton, Roman Empire, Romantic music, Rondo, Saxophone, Scale (music), Schizophrenia, Scratching, Secular music, Seikilos epitaph, Semitic people, Serenade, Serialism, Set theory, Set theory (music), Shakuhachi, Sheet music, Silappatikaram, Silence, Singing, Ska, Skill, Social behavior, Social class, Social networking service, Socioeconomics, Sociology, Sociomusicology, Solo (music), Sonata, Sonata form, Soul, Soul music, Sound, Sound film, Sound recording and reproduction, South India, Southern United States, Speech, Stephen Davies (philosopher), String instrument, String quartet, Strophic form, Structure, Supplication, Supply and demand, Swing (jazz performance style), Symphony, Symphony No. 40 (Mozart), Syncopation, Systematic musicology, Tala (music), Television, Tempo, Temporal dynamics of music and language, Texture (music), The Anatomy of Melancholy, The arts, The Long Tail (book), The New York Times, The Renaissance, Theatre music, Theatre of ancient Greece, Theatre organ, Therapy, Thesis, Thomas Morley, Thoth, Timbre, Time, Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, Tomás Luis de Victoria, Tonality, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Trill (music), Trio (music), Twelve-bar blues, Undergraduate education, University, Urban culture, Variation (music), Vedas, Virtual community, West Africa, West Side Story, Western culture, Wikinomics, Witold Lutosławski, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Woodwind instrument, World music, Yogyakarta, YouTube, Zoomusicology, 20th-century music. 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An academic degree is the state of recognized completion of studies at a school or university.
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In music, an accent is an emphasis placed on a particular note, either as a result of its context or specifically indicated by an accent mark.
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In music, accompaniment is the art of playing along with an instrumental or vocal soloist or ensemble, often known as the lead, in a supporting manner.
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Acousmatic sound is sound one hears without seeing an originating cause.
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Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
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Aesthetics (also spelled æsthetics and esthetics also known in Greek as Αισθητική, or "Aisthētiké") is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
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African American, also referred to as Black American or Afro-American, is an ethnic group of Americans (citizens or residents of the United States) with total or partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa.
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Al-Farabi (ابونصر محمد بن محمد فارابی; for other recorded variants of his name see below), known in the West as Alpharabius (c. 872 in Fārāb – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951 in Damascus), was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in areas of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.
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Aleatoric music (also aleatory music or chance music; from the Latin word alea, meaning "dice") is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance, and/or some primary element of a composed work's realization is left to the determination of its performer(s).
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Aleatoricism is the incorporation of chance into the process of creation, especially the creation of art or media.
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Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (July 17,Jan Lekschas, 1714 – May 27, 1762) was a German philosopher.
The American Federation of Musicians of the United States and Canada (AFM/AFofM) is a labor union that represents professional musicians in the United States and Canada.
American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world.
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An analog (or analogue) synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses analog circuits and analog signals to generate sound electronically.
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Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).
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Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BCE and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
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Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.
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Anthony D. Williams (born 1974) is a consultant, researcher, and author.
Anthropology is the study of humanity.
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Antonín Leopold Dvořák (or;; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer.
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An aptitude is a component of a competency to do a certain kind of work at a certain level, which can also be considered "talent".
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Arabic music or Arab music (Arabic: الموسيقى العربية – ALA-LC) is the music of the Arab world.
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Archaeology or archeology, is the study of human activity in the past, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that has been left behind by past human populations, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts (also known as eco-facts) and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record).
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Arnold Schoenberg or Schönberg (13 September 187413 July 1951) was an Austrian composer and painter, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School.
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Art is a diverse range of human activities and the products of those activities, usually involving imaginative or technical skill.
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Art music—also known as formal music, serious music, erudite music, or legitimate music (sometimes shortened to legit music) —is an umbrella term used to refer to musical traditions implying advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques Siron, "Musique Savante (Serious music)", Dictionnaire des mots de la musique (Paris: Outre Mesure): 242.
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In music, articulation refers to the musical performance technique that affects the transition or continuity on a single note, or between multiple notes or sounds.
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Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software.
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An aspect of music (rudiment) is any characteristic, dimension, or element taken as a part or component of music.
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Atonality in its broadest sense is music that lacks a tonal center, or key.
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The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA) amended the United States copyright law by adding Chapter 10, "Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media".
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An aulos (αὐλός, plural αὐλοί, auloi) or tibia (Latin) was an ancient Greek wind instrument, depicted often in art and also attested by archaeology.
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Aus den sieben Tagen (From the Seven Days) is a collection of 15 text compositions by Karlheinz Stockhausen, composed in May 1968, in reaction to a personal crisis, and characterized as "Intuitive music"—music produced primarily from the intuition rather than the intellect of the performer(s).
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A Bachelor of Arts (BA, B.A., AB or A.B.), from the Latin artium baccalaureus or baccalarium artium is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, the sciences, or both.
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Bachelor of Music (B.M., B.Mus., Mus.B. or Mus.Bac.) is an academic degree awarded by a college, university, or conservatory upon completion of program of study in music.
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Bali is an island and province of Indonesia.
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Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the 15th century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia.
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In musical notation, a bar (or measure) is a segment of time corresponding to a specific number of beats in which each beat is represented by a particular note value and the boundaries of the bar are indicated by vertical bar lines.
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The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music.
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Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
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The bass guitar (also called electric bass, or simply bass) is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb, by plucking, slapping, popping, (rarely) strumming, tapping, thumping, or picking with a plectrum, often known as a pick.
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In music and music theory, the beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse (regularly repeating event), of the mensural level (or beat level).
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Bebop or bop is a style of jazz characterized by a fast tempo, instrumental virtuosity and improvisation based on the combination of harmonic structure and sometimes references to the melody.
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Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
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The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, usually known as the Berne Convention, is an international agreement governing copyright, which was first accepted in Berne, Switzerland, in 1886.
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Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs.
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In jazz and blues, a blue note (also "worried" note) is a note that—for expressive purposes—is sung or played at a slightly different pitch than standard.
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Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music, and a subgenre of country music.
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Blues is a genre and musical form that originated in African-American communities in the "Deep South" of the United States around the end of the 19th century.
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Blues rock is a musical genre combining elements of blues and rock.
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A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips.
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Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
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Broadway theatre,Although theater is the generally preferred spelling in the United States (see American and British English spelling differences), many Broadway venues, performers and trade groups for live dramatic presentations use the spelling theatre.
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The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
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Cabaret is a form of entertainment featuring music, song, dance, recitation or drama.
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In music, a canon is a contrapuntal compositional technique or texture that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e.g., quarter rest, one measure, etc.). The initial melody is called the leader (or dux), while the imitative melody, which is played in a different voice, is called the follower (or comes).
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Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (8 March 1714 – 14 December 1788) was a German Classical period musician and composer, the fifth child and second (surviving) son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach.
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Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its area roughly confined to four modern states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
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The cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) was a species of bear that lived in Europe during the Pleistocene and became extinct about 24,000 years ago during the Last Glacial Maximum.
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Chamber music is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or any small chamber.
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Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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A choir (also known as a chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.
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A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of three or more notes that is heard as if sounding simultaneously.
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A chord progression or harmonic progression is a series of musical chords, or chord changes that "aims for a definite goal" of establishing (or contradicting) a tonality founded on a key, root or tonic chordArnold Schoenberg, Structural Functions of Harmony, Faber and Faber, 1983, p.1-2.
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Chris Anderson (born July 9, 1961) is a British-American author and entrepreneur.
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Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck (2 July 1714 – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period.
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Church music is music written for performance in church, or any musical setting of ecclesiastical liturgy, or music set to words expressing propositions of a sacred nature, such as a hymn.
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The cithara or kithara (κιθάρα, kithāra, cithara) was an ancient Greek musical instrument in the lyre or lyra family.
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Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
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The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about 1750 and 1820.
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The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras.
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In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.
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Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes.
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In the history of European art music (broadly called classical music), the common practice period – spanning most of the baroque, classical, and romantic eras – lasted from about 1600 to around 1900.
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A composer (Latin ''com''+''ponere'', literally "one who puts together") is a person who creates music.
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A computer is a general-purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.
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In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
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A computer simulation is a simulation, run on a single computer, or a network of computers, to reproduce behavior of a system.
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A concert is a live performance of music in front of an audience.
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A concert band, also called wind ensemble, symphonic band, wind symphony, wind orchestra, wind band, symphonic winds, symphony band, or symphonic wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of members of the woodwind, brass, and percussion families of instruments, along with the double bass.
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A concerto (from the concerto, plural concerti or, often, the anglicised form concertos) is a musical composition usually composed in three parts or movements, in which (usually) one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band.
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In music, consonance and dissonance form a structural dichotomy in which the terms define each other by mutual exclusion: a consonance is what is not dissonant, and reciprocally.
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Contemporary commercial music or CCM is a term used by some vocal pedagogists in the United States of America to refer to non-classical music.
Cooperation (sometimes written as co-operation or coöperation) is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for their common/mutual benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.
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In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are interdependent harmonically (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
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Counting is the action of finding the number of elements of a finite set of objects.
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Country music is a genre of American popular music that originated in the Southern United States in the 1920s.
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A course credit (often credit hour, or just credit or "unit") is a unit that gives weight to the value, level or time requirements of an academic course taken at a school or other educational institution.
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Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.
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Culture is, in the words of E.B. Tylor, "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is, "the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies.
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Cymbals are a common percussion instrument.
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A data storage device is a device for recording (storing) information (data).
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An accurate and concise definition of music is fundamental to being able to discuss, categorize, and otherwise consider the phenomenon of what we understand as being music.
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Dhikr (also Zikr, Zekr, and variants; (ذِکْر ḏikr; plural أذكار aḏkār, meaning "remembrance") is the name of devotional acts in Islam in which short phrases or prayers are repeatedly recited silently within the mind or aloud. Rarely, it is counted on a string of beads (سلسلة صلوات) or a set of prayer beads (Misbaha مِسْبَحَة), comparable to the rosary of Catholic tradition. A person who recites the rosary is called a ḏākir (ذاكر). Most Sufis follow this practice of Dhikr although the word being recited varies. Tasbih (تسبيح) is a form of dhikr that involves the repetitive utterances of short sentences glorifying God. The content of the prayers includes the names of God, or a duʿāʾ (prayer of supplication) taken from the hadith or the Quran.
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Dhrupad (Hindi: ध्रुपद) is a vocal genre in Hindustani classical music, said to be the oldest still in use in that musical tradition.
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In tonal music theory, a diatonic function (also chord area) is the specific, recognized role of each of the 7 notes and their chords in relation to the diatonic key.
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Die Walküre (The Valkyrie), WWV 86B, is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner with a German libretto by the composer.
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A disc jockey (abbreviated DJ, D.J. or deejay) is a person who plays recorded music for an audience, either a radio audience if the mix is broadcast or the audience in a venue such as a bar or nightclub.
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Divertimento (from the Italian divertire "to amuse") is a musical genre, with most of its examples from the 18th century.
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The Divje Babe Flute is a cave bear femur pierced by spaced holes that was found in 1995 at the Divje Babe archeological park located near Cerkno in northwestern Slovenia.
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Dixieland music or New Orleans jazz, sometimes referred to as hot jazz or early jazz, is a style of jazz music which developed in New Orleans at the start of the 20th century, and was spread to Chicago and New York City by New Orleans bands in the 1910s.
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The Doctor of Musical Arts degree (D.M.A., D.M., D.Mus.A. or A.Mus.D.) is a doctoral academic degree in music.
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A Doctor of Philosophy degree (often abbreviated Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil) or a Doctorate of Philosophy, from the Latin Doctor Philosophiae, is a type of doctorate awarded by universities in many countries.
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Don Tapscott (born June 1, 1947) is a Canadian business executive, author, consultant and speaker, specializing in business strategy, organizational transformation and the role of technology in business and society.
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The term double clarinet refers to any of several woodwind instruments consisting of two parallel pipes made of cane, bird bone, or metal, played simultaneously, with a single reed for each.
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A drum kit, drum set, trap set, or just drums is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments set up to be played/struck by a single player.
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Duke University is a private research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States.
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Durga is a raga in Hindustani Classical music.
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In music, dynamics normally refers to the pitch of a tempo or note, but can also refer to every aspect of the execution of a given piece, either stylistic (staccato, legato etc.) or functional (velocity).
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Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
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Eduard Hanslick (11 September 18256 August 1904) was a German Bohemian music critic.
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Edwardian musical comedy was a form of British musical theatre from the period between the early 1890s, when the Gilbert and Sullivan operas' dominance had ended, until the rise of the American musicals by Jerome Kern, Rodgers and Hart, George Gershwin and Cole Porter following the First World War.
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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
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Egyptians (مَصريين; مِصريّون) are an ethnic group and the citizens of Egypt sharing a common culture and a variety of Arabic.
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An electric guitar is a guitar that uses a pickup to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical impulses.
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Electroencephalography (EEG) is typically a non-invasive (however invasive electrodes are often used in specific applications) method to record electrical activity of the brain along the scalp.
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Electronica is an umbrella term that encompasses a broad group of electronic-based styles such as techno, house, ambient, drum and bass, jungle, and industrial dance, among others.
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Elementa harmonica is a treatise on the subject of musical scales by Aristoxenus, of which substantial amounts are extant.
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Elementary school is for students at the ages of 4-12 to receive primary education.
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Emotion is, in everyday speech, a person's state of feeling in the sense of an affect.
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Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
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Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight.
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An ethnic group or ethnicity is a socially defined category of people who identify with each other based on common ancestral, social, cultural or national experience.
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Ethnomusicology is an area of study encompassing various approaches to the study of the many musics around the world that emphasize their cultural, social, material, cognitive, biological, and other dimensions or contexts instead of or in addition to its isolated sound component or any particular repertoire.
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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
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Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.
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Evolutionary linguistics the scientific study of the psychosocial development and cultural evolution of individual languages as well as the origins and development of human language itself.
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Ewe drumming refers to the drumming ensembles of the Ewe people of Ghana, Togo, and Benin.
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The interplay of exercise and music have been long-discussed, crossing the disciplines of biomechanics, neurology, physiology and sport psychology.
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Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
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Experimental rock, also known as avant-garde rock, is a type of music based on rock music which experiments with the basic elements of the genre, or which pushes the boundaries of common composition and performance technique.
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Facebook is an online social networking service headquartered in Menlo Park, California.
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The femur (pl. femurs or femora), or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the center of the body) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles such as lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.
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A film score (also sometimes called background score, background music, film music or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film.
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Filmmaking (or in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film.
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In Western European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics, distinguishing it from applied art that also has to serve some practical function.
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The flute is a family of musical instrument of the woodwind group.
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Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
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The folk music of England is traditionally based music, which has existed since the later medieval period.
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François-Bernard Mâche (born April 4, 1935, Clermont-Ferrand) is a French composer of contemporary music.
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Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer.
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Free jazz is an approach to jazz music that was first developed in the 1950s and 1960s.
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A freelancer or freelance worker is a term commonly used for a person who is self-employed and is not necessarily committed to a particular employer long-term.
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In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and recurs frequently in the course of the composition.
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting associated changes in blood flow.
Funk is a music genre that originated in the mid- to late 1960s when African American musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music, jazz, and rhythm and blues (R&B).
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Gamelan is the traditional ensemble music of Java and Bali in Indonesia, made up predominantly of percussive instruments.
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Gangubai Hangal (ಗಂಗೂಬಾಯಿ ಹಾನಗಲ್) (5 March 1913 – 21 July 2009) was an Indian singer of the khyal genre of Hindustani classical music, who was known for her deep and powerful voice.
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Genre (or; from French genre, "kind" or "sort", from Latin genus (stem gener-), Greek γένος, génos) is any category of literature or other forms of art or entertainment, e.g. music, whether written or spoken, audial or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria.
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Georg Philipp Telemann (14 March 1681 – 25 June 1767) was a German Baroque composer and multi-instrumentalist.
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George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born Georg Friedrich Händel,; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German-born British Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
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George Gershwin (September 26, 1898 July 11, 1937) was an American composer and pianist.
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Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525 – 2 February 1594) was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition.
Glenn Branca (born October 6, 1948) is an American avant-garde composer and guitarist known for his use of volume, alternative guitar tunings, repetition, droning, and the harmonic series.
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Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.
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Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition, and stored in its digital database.
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A gramophone record (phonograph record in American English) or vinyl record, commonly known as a "record", is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat polyvinyl chloride (previously shellac) disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.
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Graphic notation is the representation of music through the use of visual symbols outside the realm of traditional music notation.
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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Anatolia, Southern Italy, and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered around the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
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Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the western Roman Catholic Church.
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Guillaume de Machaut (sometimes spelled Machault; c. 1300 – April 1377) was a medieval French poet and composer.
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Guillaume Dufay (also Du Fay, Du Fayt; 5 August, c. 1397; accessed June 23, 2015. – 27 November 1474) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the early Renaissance.
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The guitar is a popular musical instrument classified as a string instrument with anywhere from 4 to 18 strings, usually having 6.
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Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austrian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation.
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Harappa (ਹੜੱਪਾ; ہڑپّہا) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.
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The term harmonic in its strictest sense is any member of the harmonic series.
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The harmonica, also French harp, and mouth organ, is a free reed wind instrument used worldwide in many musical genres, notably in blues, American folk music, classical music, jazz, country, and rock and roll.
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In music, harmony is the use of simultaneous pitches (tones, notes), or chords.
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The harp is a stringed musical instrument which has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard, which are plucked with the fingers.
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A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard.
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Harry Partch (June 24, 1901 – September 3, 1974) was an American composer, music theorist, and creator of musical instruments.
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Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States.
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Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is a term appearing 34 times within 32 verses of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible).
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In music, heterophony is a type of texture characterized by the simultaneous variation of a single melodic line.
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"High culture" is a term now used in a number of different ways in academic discourse, whose most common meaning is the set of cultural products, mainly in the arts, held in the highest esteem by a culture.
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Higher education, post-secondary education, tertiary education or third level education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after secondary education.
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Hindu has historically referred to geographical, religious or cultural identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.
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Hindustani classical music is the Hindustani or North Indian style of Indian classical music.
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Historically informed performance (also referred to as period performance, authentic performance, or HIP) is an approach to the performance of Western music and theater.
Music is found in every known culture, past and present, varying widely between times and places.
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In music, homophony (Greek: ὁμόφωνος, homóphōnos, from ὁμός, homós, "same" and φωνή, phōnē, "sound, tone") is a texture in which two or more parts move together in harmony, the relationship between them creating chords.
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How the Mind Works is a 1997 book by Canadian-American cognitive scientist Steven Pinker.
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The human body includes the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet.
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Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects.
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The humanities are academic disciplines that study human culture.
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The Hurrian songs are a collection of music inscribed in cuneiform on clay tablets excavated from the ancient AmoriteDennis Pardee, "Ugaritic", in, edited by Roger D. Woodard, 5–6.
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Hypnosis is a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity for response to suggestion.
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Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (sometimes spelled Strawinski, Strawinsky, or Stravinskii; ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian (and later, a naturalized French and American) composer, pianist and conductor.
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Ilango Adigal was a Chera prince from the 2nd century AD/CE, who is the author of Silappathikaram, one of the five great epics of Tamil literature.
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Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher, who is considered the central figure of modern philosophy.
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Imperial College London is a public research university, located in London, United Kingdom.
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Improvisation is the process of devising a solution to a requirement by making-do, despite absence of resources that might be expected to produce a solution.
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An independent record label or indie record label is a record label that operates without the funding of or outside major record labels.
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Indian classical music is the art music of the Indian subcontinent.
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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
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The Indonesian Institute of the Arts Yogyakarta (Institut Seni Indonesia Yogyakarta/ISI Yogyakarta) is a state-owned college in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE, pre-Harappan cultures starting c.7500 BCE) in northwest Indian subcontinent (including present day Pakistan, northwest India) and also in some regions in northeast Afghanistan.
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An instrumental is a musical composition or recording without lyrics, or singing, although it might include some inarticulate vocal input; the music is primarily or exclusively produced by musical instruments.
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Intellect is a term used in studies of the human mind, and refers to the ability of the mind to come to correct conclusions about what is true or real, and about how to solve problems.
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Intelligence has been defined in many different ways such as in terms of one's capacity for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, creativity and problem solving.
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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide.
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In music, an invention is a short composition (usually for a keyboard instrument) with two-part counterpoint.
An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare "to call on, invoke, to give") may take the form of.
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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
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iTunes is a media player, media library, online radio broadcaster, and mobile device management application developed by Apple Inc.
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Jazz is a genre of music that originated in African American communities in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century.
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A jazz band (jazz ensemble or jazz combo) is a musical ensemble that plays jazz music.
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Jazz fusion, fusion, or jazz-rock is a musical fusion genre that developed from mixing funk and rhythm and blues rhythms and the amplification and electronic effects of rock music, complex time signatures derived from non-Western music and extended, typically instrumental compositions with a jazz approach to lengthy group improvisations, often using wind and brass and displaying a high level of instrumental technique.
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Jerrold Levinson (born 11 July 1948 in Brooklyn) is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at the University of Maryland, College Park.
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Johann Christian Bach (September 5, 1735 – January 1, 1782) was a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh surviving child and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach.
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Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period.
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John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer, music theorist, writer, and artist.
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(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.
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In French, jouissance means enjoyment, in terms both of rights and property, and of sexual orgasm — the latter has a meaning partially lacking in the English word "enjoyment".
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Judeo-Christian is a term used by many Christians and some Jews since the 1950s to encompass common beliefs of Christianity and Judaism.
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In music, just intonation (sometimes abbreviated as JI) or pure intonation is any musical tuning in which the frequencies of notes are related by ratios of small whole numbers.
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(or) is a form of interactive entertainment or video game in which an amateur singer sings along with recorded music (a music video) using a microphone and public address system.
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The Kelsey Museum of Archaeology is a museum of archaeology located on the University of Michigan central campus in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the United States.
Kyle Eugene Gann (born November 21, 1955) is an American professor of music, critic and composer born in Dallas, Texas, who has worked primarily in the New York City area.
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La Monte Thornton Young (born October 14, 1935) is an American avant-garde artist, composer and musician, generally recognized as the first minimalist composer.
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Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.
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Léonin (also Leoninus, Leonius, Leo) (fl. 1150s — d. ? 1201) was the first known significant composer of polyphonic organum.
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A lead sheet is a form of musical notation that specifies the essential elements of a popular song: the melody, lyrics and harmony.
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Leonard Bernstein (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist.
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The liberal arts (Latin: artes liberales) are those subjects or skills that in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free person (Latin: liberal, "worthy of a free person") to know in order to take an active part in civic life, something that (for Ancient Greece) included participating in public debate, defending oneself in court, serving on juries, and most importantly, military service.
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In the arts, a medium is a material used by an artist or designer to create a work.
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A concert hall is a cultural building which serves as a performance venue, originally chiefly intended for classical instrumental music.
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This is a list of notable software for creating, performing, learning, analyzing, researching, broadcasting and editing music.
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This is a list of musicology topics.
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This is a list of Lists of composers grouped by various criteria.
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This is a list of lists of musicians.
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Litany, in Christian worship and some forms of Judaic worship, is a form of prayer used in services and processions, and consisting of a number of petitions.
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Liturgy (λειτουργία) is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group, according to its particular beliefs, customs and traditions.
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Low culture is a derogatory term for some forms of popular culture that have mass appeal.
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Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 177026 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
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Lute can refer generally to any string instrument having the strings running in a plane parallel to the sound table (in the Hornbostel–Sachs system), more specifically to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back, or more specifically to an instrument from the family of European lutes.
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The lyre (λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods.
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Lyrics are words that make up a song usually consisting of verses and choruses.
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Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a functional neuroimaging technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain, using very sensitive magnetometers.
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Marching band is a group in which instrumental musicians perform for the purpose of entertainment, exercise, and sometimes for competition.
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A mashup (also mesh, mash up, mash-up, blend, bootleg and bastard pop/rock) is a song or composition created by blending two or more pre-recorded songs, usually by overlaying the vocal track of one song seamlessly over the instrumental track of another.
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The mass media are diversified media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication.
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A Master of Arts degree (Magister Artium; abbreviated M.A., MA, A.M., or AM) is a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries.
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The Master of Music (M.M. or M.Mus.) is the first graduate degree in Music awarded by universities and music conservatories.
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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.
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A media conglomerate, media group or media institution is a company that owns large numbers of companies in various mass media such as television, radio, publishing, movies, and the Internet.
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Medieval music is Western music written during the Middle Ages.
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Black bile (µέλαινα χολή),Burton, Bk.
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A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.
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In psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
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A mental disorder, also called a mental illness, psychological disorder or psychiatric disorder, is mental or behavioral pattern that causes either suffering or a poor ability to function in ordinary life.
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Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it,Geisler, Norman L. "Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics" page 446.
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The meter (or metre) of music is its rhythmic structure, the patterns of accents heard in regularly recurring measures of stressed and unstressed beats (''arsis'' and ''thesis'') at the frequency of the music's pulse.
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Microtonal music or microtonality is the use in music of microtones—intervals smaller than a semitone, which are also called "microintervals".
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The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between about 2000 BC and 1700 BC, stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty, although some writers include the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties in the Second Intermediate Period.
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MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a protocol, digital interface and connectors and allows a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers and other related devices to connect and communicate with one another.
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In the theory of Western music, mode (from Latin modus, "measure, standard, manner, way, size, limit of quantity, method") (OED) generally refers to a type of scale, coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviours.
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Mohenjo-daro (موهن جو دڙو, موئن جو دڑو, IPA:, lit. Mound of the Dead) is an archeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
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In poetry, the term monody has become specialized to refer to a poem in which one person laments another's death.
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In music, monophony is the simplest of textures, consisting of melody without accompanying harmony.
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Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler (10 September 1890 – 22 July 1976) was a British archaeologist and officer in the British Army.
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Morton Feldman (January 12, 1926 – September 3, 1987) was an American composer, born in New York City.
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In music, a motif or motive is a short musical idea, a salient recurring figure, musical fragment or succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition: "The motive is the smallest structural unit possessing thematic identity".
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MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III, more commonly referred to as MP3, is an audio coding format for digital audio which uses a form of lossy data compression.
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The Muses (Μοῦσαι Mousai; perhaps from the o-grade of the Proto-Indo-European root *men- "think") in Greek mythology which the Romans adopted are the goddesses of the inspiration of literature, science, and the arts.
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The study of music and emotion seeks to understand the psychological relationship between human affect and music.
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Music appreciation is teaching people what to listen for and how to understand what they are hearing in different types of music.
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A music community is a group of people involved in a given type of music.
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A music competition is a public event designed to identify and award outstanding musical ensembles, soloists and musicologists.
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The Oxford Companion to Music defines music criticism as 'the intellectual activity of formulating judgements on the value and degree of excellence of individual works of music, or whole groups or genres'.
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Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music.
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A music festival is a festival oriented towards music that is sometimes presented with a theme such as musical genre, nationality or locality of musicians, or holiday.
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A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions.
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Music history, sometimes called historical musicology, is the highly diverse subfield of the broader discipline of musicology that studies music from a historical viewpoint.
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Music lessons are a type of formal instruction in playing a musical instrument or singing.
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Given the vastness of the continent, the traditional music of Africa is historically ancient, rich, and diverse, with the different regions and nations of Africa having distinct musical traditions.
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Asian music encompasses numerous different musical styles originating from a large number of Asian countries.
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Central Asian music encompasses numerous different musical styles originating from a large number of Asian cultures.
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Music of China refers to the music of the Chinese people, which may be the music of the Han Chinese as well as other ethnic minorities within mainland China.
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In the field of music, Germany claims some of the most renowned composers, producers and performers of the world.
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The music of Greece is as diverse and celebrated as its history.
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The music of India includes multiple varieties of folk music, pop, and Indian classical music.
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Irish Music is music that has been created in various genres on the island of Ireland.
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Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which has remained vibrant throughout the 21st century, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music.
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Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asian music include the musical traditions of this subregion of Asia.
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Music-On-Demand is a music distribution model conceived with the growth of two-way computing, telecommunications and the Internet in the early 1990s.
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Music psychology, or the psychology of music, may be regarded as a branch of both psychology and musicology.
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In the music industry, a music publisher (or publishing company) is responsible for ensuring the songwriters and composers receive payment when their compositions are used commercially.
A music school is an educational institution specialized in the study, training and research of music.
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Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.
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Music therapy is the use of interventions to accomplish individual goals within a therapeutic relationship by a professional who has completed an approved music therapy program.
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A music video or song video is a short film integrating a song and imagery, produced for promotional or artistic purposes.
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Musical memory refers to the ability to remember music-related information, such as melodic content and other progressions of tones or pitches.
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Neuroscientists have learned a lot about the role of the brain in numerous cognitive mechanisms by understanding corresponding disorders.
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Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating a new piece of music.
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In classical music, musical development is a process by which a musical idea is communicated in the course of a composition.
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A musical ensemble, also known as a music group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, typically known by a distinct name.
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The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music, and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections.
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Musical improvisation (also known as musical extemporization) is the creative activity of immediate ("in the moment") musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians.
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A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
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Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music through the use of written symbols, including ancient or modern musical symbols.
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Musical technique is the ability of instrumental and vocal musicians to exert optimal control of their instruments or vocal cords in order to produce the precise musical effects they desire.
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Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting, and dance.
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In music, there are two common meanings for tuning.
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A musician (or instrumentalist) is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented.
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Musicology is the scholarly analysis of, and research on, music, a part of humanities.
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Musique concrète (meaning "concrete music") is a genre of electroacoustic music that is made in part from acousmatic sound, or sound without an apparent originating cause.
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In logic, necessity and sufficiency are implicational relationships between statements.
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New Orleans (or; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
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A niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focused.
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Nicolas Ruwet (December 31, 1932 – November 15, 2001) was a linguist, literary critic and musical analyst.
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Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
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The Old Kingdom is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization – the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley (the others being Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom).
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Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto) and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting.
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Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter.
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Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews.
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An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists.
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An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble that contains sections of string (violin, viola, cello and double bass), brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments.
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In music, the organ (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more divisions, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands or with the feet.
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Roland de Lassus (also Orlande de Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Orlandus Lassus, or Roland de Lattre; 1532, possibly 1530 – 14 June 1594) was a Netherlandish or Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance.
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Osiris (alternatively Ausir, Asiri or Ausar, among other spellings), was an Egyptian god, usually identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld and the dead.
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The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.
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The Paleolithic (American spelling; British spelling: Palaeolithic; pronunciation: or) Age, Era or Period is a prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools discovered (Grahame Clark's Modes I and II), and covers roughly 95% of human technological prehistory.
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A number of flutes dating to the European Upper Paleolithic have been discovered.
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Paradigmatic analysis is the analysis of paradigms embedded in the text rather than of the surface structure (syntax) of the text which is termed syntagmatic analysis.
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Pérotin (fl. c. 1200), also called Perotin the Great, was a European composer, believed to be French, who lived around the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century.
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Perception (from the Latin perceptio, percipio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment.
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A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument.
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A performance, in the performing arts, generally comprises an event in which a performer or group of performers present one or more works of art to an audience.
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Performing arts are art forms in which artists use their voices and/or the movements of their bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression—as opposed to, for example, purely visual arts, in which artists use paint/canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects.
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Persian traditional music (mūsīqī-e sonnatī-e īrānī, mūsīqī-e aṣīl-e īrānī) is the traditional and indigenous music of Persia / Iran: mūsīqī, the science and art of music, and moosiqi, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983).
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Peter Kivy (born October 22, 1934) is a professor of philosophy at Rutgers University.
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The phonograph is a device invented in 1877 for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.
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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phúsis "nature") is the natural science that involves the study of matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization, and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
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Physiology is the scientific study of the normal function in living systems.
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A pianist is an individual who plays the piano.
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The piano (an abbreviation of pianoforte) is a musical instrument played using a keyboard.
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Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.
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Pittsburgh Press (formerly known as The Pittsburg Press) is an online newspaper in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US, currently owned and operated by the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
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Plainsong (also plainchant; cantus planus) is a body of chants used in the liturgies of the Western Church.
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Plaisir is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France.
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Plato (Greek: Πλάτων Plátōn "broad" in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher and mathematician in Classical Greece, and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
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In music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice which is called monophony, and in difference from musical texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords which is called homophony.
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Polyrhythm is the simultaneous use of two or more conflicting rhythms, that are not readily perceived as deriving from one another, or as simple manifestations of the same meter.
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Pop music (a term that originally derives from an abbreviation of "popular") is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the Western world during the 1950s and 1960s, deriving from rock and roll.
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The term popular music belongs to any of a number of musical genres "having wide appeal" and typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
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Porgy and Bess is an English-language opera composed in 1934 by George Gershwin, with a libretto written by DuBose Heyward and Ira Gershwin from Heyward's novel Porgy and later play of the same title.
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Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine, functional imaging technique that produces a three-dimensional image of functional processes in the body.
The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt in c. 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh Narmer (also known as Menes).
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A preschool (also nursery school, kindergarten outside the US and UK) is an educational establishment offering early childhood education to children between the ages of three and five, prior to the commencement of compulsory education at primary school.
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Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
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Progressive rock, also known as prog rock or prog, is a rock music subgenre that originated in the United Kingdom with further developments in Germany, Italy, and France, throughout the mid-to-late 1960s and 1970s.
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Propaganda is a form of communication aimed towards influencing the attitude of a population toward some cause or position.
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A prosumer is a person who consumes and produces media.
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A proto-language in the tree model of historical linguistics is a language – usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and unattested – from which a number of attested, or documented, known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, or slow modification of the proto-language into languages that form a language family.
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Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception.
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Psychology is the study of mind and behavior.
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The psychology of music preference refers to the psychological factors behind peoples' different music preferences.
Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they affect.
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Punk rock (or simply punk) is a rock music genre that developed between 1974 and 1976 in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia.
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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский;r; often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English. His names are also transliterated "Piotr" or "Petr"; "Ilitsch", "Il'ich" or "Illyich"; and "Tschaikowski", "Tschaikowsky", "Chajkovskij" and "Chaikovsky" (and other versions; the transliteration varies among languages). The Library of Congress standardized the usage Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky. tr. Pyotr Ilyich Chaykovsky; 25 April/7 May 1840 – 25 October/6 November 1893),Russia was still using old style dates in the 19th century, rendering his lifespan as 25 April 1840 – 25 October 1893.
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The quadrivium (plural: quadrivia and its use for the four subjects has been attributed to Boethius or Cassiodorus in the 6th century. Together, the trivium and the quadrivium comprised the seven liberal arts (based on thinking skills), as opposed to the practical arts (such as medicine and architecture). The quadrivium consisted of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. These followed the preparatory work of the trivium made up of grammar, logic, and rhetoric. In turn, the quadrivium was considered preparatory work for the serious study of philosophy (sometimes called the "liberal art par excellence") and theology.
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Radio is the radiation (wireless transmission) of electromagnetic energy through space.
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A raga or raag (literally "colour, hue" but also "beauty, melody"; also spelled raaga, ragam; pronounced rāga, or rāgam or "raag") is one of the melodic modes used in Indian classical music.
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The Ravanahatha (variant names: ravanhatta, rawanhattha, ravanastron, ravana hasta veena) is an ancient bowed violin, once popular in Western India and Sri Lanka.
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A record label is a brand or trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos.
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The recorder is a family of woodwind musical instruments of the group known as fipple flutes or internal duct flutes—whistle-like instruments that include the tin whistle.
Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence.
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A remix is a piece of media which has been altered from its original state by adding, removing, and/or changing pieces of the item.
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In physics, resonance is a phenomenon that occurs when a given system is driven by another vibrating system or external force to oscillate with greater amplitude at a specific preferential frequency.
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A rest is an interval of silence in a piece of music, marked by a symbol indicating the length of the pause.
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Rhapsody in Blue is a 1924 musical composition by American composer George Gershwin for solo piano and jazz band, which combines elements of classical music with jazz-influenced effects.
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Rhys Chatham (born September 19, 1952) is an American composer, guitarist, trumpet player, multi-instrumentalist (flutes in C, alto and bass, keyboard), primarily active in avant-garde and minimalist music.
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Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".
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A rhythm section is a group of musicians within an ensemble who provide the underlying rhythm and pulse of the accompaniment, providing a rhythmic reference for the rest of the band.
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Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
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The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise, shine" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.
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Robert Burton (8 February 1577 – 25 January 1640) was an English scholar at Oxford University, best known for the classic The Anatomy of Melancholy.
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Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s,Jim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992), ISBN 0-571-12939-0.
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Rock music is a genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States.
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Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, dating to the early 1950s in the United States, especially the South.
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Roger Vernon Scruton, FBA, FRSL (born 27 February 1944) is an English philosopher who specialises in aesthetics.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Romantic music is a term denoting an era of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.
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Rondo and its French part-equivalent rondeau are words that have been used in music in a number of ways, most often in reference to a musical form, but also to a character type that is distinct from the form.
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The saxophone (also referred to as the sax) is a family of woodwind instruments.
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In music theory, a scale is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch.
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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real.
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Scratching, sometimes referred to as scrubbing, is a DJ and turntablist technique used to produce distinctive sounds by moving a vinyl record back and forth on a turntable while optionally manipulating the crossfader on a DJ mixer.
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Secular music; Secular means being separate from (not associated or concerned with) religion.
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The Seikilos epitaph is a Hellenistic Ionic song in Phrygian octave species and the oldest surviving example of a complete musical composition, including musical notation, from anywhere in the world.
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In studies of linguistics and ethnology, the term Semitic (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was first used to refer to a family of languages native to West Asia (the Middle East).
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In music, a serenade (or sometimes serenata, from the Italian word) is a musical composition, and/or performance, in someone's honor.
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In music, serialism is a method or technique of composition that uses a series of values to manipulate different musical elements.
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Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
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Musical set theory provides concepts for categorizing musical objects and describing their relationships.
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The is a Japanese end-blown flute.
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Sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols.
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Silappatikaram (republished as The Tale of an Anklet) is one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition.
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Silence is the lack of audible sound or presence of sounds of very low intensity.
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Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, and augments regular speech by the use of both tonality and rhythm.
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Ska (Jamaican) is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and was the precursor to rocksteady and reggae.
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A skill is the learned ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both.
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In physiology and sociology, social behavior is behavior directed towards society, or taking place between members of the same species.
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Social class (or simply "class"), as in a class society, is a set of concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle, and lower classes.
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A social networking service (also social networking site or SNS) is a platform to build social networks or social relations among people who share similar interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.
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Socioeconomics (also known as socio-economics or social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.
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Sociology is the scientific study of social behavior, including its origins, development, organization, and institutions.
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Sociomusicology (from Latin: socius, "companion"; from Old French musique; and the suffix -ology, "the study of", from Greek λόγος, lógos, "knowledge"), also called music sociology or the sociology of music, refers to both an academic subfield of sociology that is concerned with music (often in combination with other arts), as well as a subfield of musicology that focuses on social aspects of musical behavior and the role of music in society.
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In music, a solo (from the solo, meaning alone, although assolo is now used in Italy when referring to the musical solo) is a piece or a section of a piece played or sung by a single performer.
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Sonata (Italian:, pl. sonate; from Latin and Italian: sonare, "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung.
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Sonata form (also sonata-allegro form or first movement form) is a large-scale musical structure used widely since the middle of the 18th century (the early Classical period).
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The soul, in many religious, philosophical and mythological traditions, is the incorporeal and, in many conceptions, immortal essence of a living thing.
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Work Music A prominent origin for 'Soul' music as far as the currently known United States were early Slavery year.
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In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as a typically audible mechanical wave of pressure and displacement, through a medium such as air or water.
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A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film.
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Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical or mechanical inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.
South India (ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಭಾರತ, തെക്കെ ഭാരതം, தெற்கு பாரதம், దక్షిణ భారతం) is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area. South India includes the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau and is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The geography of the region is diverse, encompassing two mountain ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, and a plateau heartland. The Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Kaveri, and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Coimbatore, Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram are the largest and most industrialized cities in the region. A majority of Indians from the southern region speak one of the following languages: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, and Tulu. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and cultures of modern sovereign states such as Sri Lanka, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia. The region was colonized by Britain and gradually incorporated into the British Empire. South India, particularly Kerala, has been a major entry point of the religions of Christianity and later Islam to the Indian Subcontinent. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. HDI in southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in southern states is also very high, with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing, while in Kerala (which has the highest literacy rate in India) 94% of the population are literate. Honour killings are non-existent in South India. Violence against women in South India is relatively low, with southern states having a progressive attitude toward the rights for women. Agriculture is the single largest contributor to the regional net domestic product, while Information technology is a rapidly growing industry. Literary and architectural styles, evolved over two thousand years, differ from other parts of the country. Politics in South India is dominated by smaller regional political parties rather than by national political parties. South India ranks the highest in terms of social and economic development in areas such as fertility rate and infrastructure; the fertility rate of South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.
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The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—is a region of the United States of America.
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Speech is the vocalized form of human communication.
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Stephen Davies is a Distinguished Professor of philosophy at the University of Auckland, New Zealand.
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings.
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A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group.
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Strophic form (also called "verse-repeating" or chorus form) is the term applied to songs in which all verses or stanzas of the text are sung to the same music.
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Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.
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Supplication (also known as petitioning) is a form of prayer, wherein one party humbly or earnestly asks another party to provide something, either for the party who is doing the supplicating (e.g., "Please spare my life.") or on behalf of someone else (e.g., "Please spare my child's life.").
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In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
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In jazz and related musical styles, the term swing is used to describe the sense of propulsive rhythmic "feel" or "groove" created by the musical interaction between the performers, especially when the music creates a "visceral response" such as feet-tapping or head-nodding (see pulse).
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written for orchestra.
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No.
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In music, syncopation involves a variety of rhythms which are in some way unexpected which make part or all of a tune or piece of music off-beat.
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Systematic musicology is an umbrella term, used mainly in Central Europe, for several subdisciplines and paradigms of musicology.
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Taala, Taal or Taalantainmah (Sanskrit tāla Telugu tāḷaṁ, literally a "clap"), is the term used in Indian classical music for the rhythmic pattern of any composition and for the entire subject of rhythm, roughly corresponding to metre in Western music, though closer conceptual equivalents are to be found in the older system of rhythmic mode and its relations with the "foot" of classical poetry, or with other Asian classical systems such as the notion of usul in the theory of Ottoman/Turkish music.
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A television, commonly referred to as TV, telly or the tube, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting sound with moving images in monochrome (black-and-white), colour, or in three dimensions.
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In musical terminology, tempo ("time" in Italian; plural: tempi) is the speed or pace of a given piece or subsection thereof.
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The temporal dynamics of music and language describes how the brain coordinates its different regions to process musical and vocal sounds.
In music, texture is how the melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic materials are combined in a composition, thus determining the overall quality of the sound in a piece.
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The Anatomy of Melancholy (full title: The Anatomy of Melancholy, What it is: With all the Kinds, Causes, Symptomes, Prognostickes, and Several Cures of it. In Three Maine Partitions with their several Sections, Members, and Subsections. Philosophically, Medicinally, Historically, Opened and Cut Up) is a book by Robert Burton, first published in 1621.
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The arts represent an outlet of expression, that is usually influenced by culture and which in turn helps to change culture.
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The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More is a book by Chris Anderson, Editor in chief of Wired magazine.
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The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
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The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.
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Theatre music refers to a wide range of music composed or adapted for performance in theatres.
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The Theatre of Ancient Greece or Ancient Greek drama, is a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece 700 BC.
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A theatre organ (also known as a theater organ, or a cinema organ) is a distinct type of pipe organ originally developed to provide music and sound effects to accompany silent films during the first 3 decades of the 20th century.
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Therapy (often abbreviated tx or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
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A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
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Thomas Morley (1557 or 1558 – October 1602) was an English composer, theorist, singer and organist of the Renaissance.
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Thoth (or; from Greek Θώθ, from Egyptian, perhaps pronounced *// or *//, depending on the phonological interpretation of Egyptian's emphatic consonants) was one of the deities of the Egyptian pantheon.
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In music, timbre also known as tone color or tone quality from psychoacoustics, is the quality of a musical note, sound, or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as voices and musical instruments, string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments.
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Time is a measure in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, and also the measure of durations of events and the intervals between them.
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The Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, is a piece of organ music attributed to Johann Sebastian Bach.
Tomás Luis de Victoria (sometimes Italianised as da Vittoria; c.1548 – 27 August 1611) was the most famous composer in 16th-century Spain, and was one of the most important composers of the Counter-Reformation, along with Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and Orlando di Lasso.
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Tonality is a musical system in which pitches or chords are arranged so as to induce a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities, and attractions.
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method used to stimulate small regions of the brain.
The trill (or shake, as it was known from the 16th until the 19th century) is a musical ornament consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes, usually a semitone or tone apart, which can be identified with the context of the trill.
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In music, a trio (an Italian word) is a method of instrumentation or vocalization by three different sounds or voices to make a melodious music or song.
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The 12-bar blues or blues changes is one of the most prominent chord progressions in popular music.
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Undergraduate education is the post-secondary education previous to the postgraduate education.
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A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which grants academic degrees in various subjects and typically provides undergraduate education and postgraduate education.
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Urban culture is the culture of towns and cities.
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In music, variation is a formal technique where material is repeated in an altered form.
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The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India.
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A virtual community is a social network of individuals who interact through specific social media, potentially crossing geographical and political boundaries in order to pursue mutual interests or goals.
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West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost subcontinent of Africa.
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West Side Story is an American musical with a book by Arthur Laurents, music by Leonard Bernstein, libretto/lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, and conception and choreography by Jerome Robbins.
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Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Western lifestyle, or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe, having both indigenous and foreign origin.
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Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything (ISBN 1591841380) is a book by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, first published in December 2006.
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Witold Roman Lutosławski (25 January 1913 – 7 February 1994) was a Polish composer and orchestral conductor.
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (English see fn.; 27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era.
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Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments within the more general category of wind instruments.
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World music is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the world, including traditional music, neotraditional music, and music where more than one cultural tradition intermingle.
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Yogyakarta (or; also Jogja or Jogjakarta) is a city and the capital of Yogyakarta Special Region in Java, Indonesia.
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YouTube is a video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California, United States.
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Zoomusicology is a field of musicology and zoology or more specifically, zoosemiotics.
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20th-century music is defined by the sudden emergence of advanced technology for recording and distributing music as well as dramatic innovations in musical forms and styles.
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