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Music of Iran

Index Music of Iran

The music of Iran encompasses music that is produced by Iranian artists. [1]

166 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Achaemenid Empire, Al-Farabi, Ali Rahbari, Ali-Naqi Vaziri, Ancient Greece, Andalusian classical music, Andy (singer), Angband (band), Assyria, Athenaeus, Avesta, Avicenna, Axiom of Choice (band), Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex, Baghdad, Bakshy, Balkans, Bamshad, Barbad, Behzad Ranjbaran, Brave Words & Bloody Knuckles, Central Asia, Cyropaedia, Cyrus the Great, Darius III, Dastan Ensemble, Dastgah, Dastgah music, Deep Dish (band), Deipnosophistae, Dutar, Elam, Electric guitar, Encyclopædia Britannica, Farah Pahlavi, Farrukhi Sistani, Ferdowsi, Geographica, Ghaznavids, Grand Prix du Disque for World Music, Greeks, Gusans, Harp, Harvard University Press, Hassan Sattar, Herodotus, Hip hop, Honorific nicknames in popular music, Hooshmand Aghili, ..., Hossein Alizâdeh, Ibrahim al-Mawsili, Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults, Iran, Iranian Armenians, Iranian calendars, Iranian diaspora, Iranian folk music, Iranian hip hop, Iranian jazz, Iranian pop music, Iranian Reformists, Iranian Revolution, Iranian rock, Ishaq al-Mawsili, Jazz, Kayhan Kalhor, Khosrow II, Kul-e Farah, Lament, Legion of Honour, Libretto, Lily Afshar, List of Iranian composers, List of Iranian musicians, Loris Tjeknavorian, Lute, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Magi, Mahasti, Makam, Masters of Persian Music, Medes, Mehregan, Melal Orchestra, Melody type, Middle Persian, Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, Mirza Abdollah, Mode (music), Mohammad Khatami, Mohammad Motamedi, Mohammad Reza Azadehfar, Mohammad-Reza Darvishi, Mohammad-Reza Shajarian, Monir Vakili, Mughal Empire, Music, Music genre, Muslim conquest of Persia, Nagisa (harpist), Naucratis, Nowruz, Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra, Opera, Pahlavi dynasty, Pari Zanganeh, Parisa, Parmenion, Parthian Empire, Parthian language, Parviz Mahmoud, Persian language, Persian Revolt, Persian traditional music, Persianate society, Peyman Soltani, Plutarch, Popular music, Power metal, Pure Steel Records, Qajar dynasty, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, Radif (music), Radio, Radio France, Rana Farhan, Record label, Religious music in Iran, Rock music, Rostam and Sohrab, Rostam and Sohrab (opera), Roudaki Hall, Rudaki, Ruhollah Khaleqi, Rumi, Safi al-Din al-Urmawi, Samanid Empire, Sarkash, Sasanian Empire, Sasanian music, Setar, Shahnameh, Shahram Nazeri, Shahrdad Rouhani, Shakila, Shiraz Arts Festival, Spain, Strabo, Sumer, Symphonische Dichtungen aus Persien, Symphony, Tanbur, Taq Bostan, Tar (string instrument), Tehran, Tehran Symphony Orchestra, The Guardian, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Trumpet, Vendidad, Viguen, Xenophon, Ziryab, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (116 more) »

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Al-Farabi (known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.

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Ali Rahbari

Ali (Alexander) Rahbari (علی رهبری.; 1948 –) is an Iranian (Persian) composer and conductor, who has worked with more than 120 European orchestras, including the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra.

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Ali-Naqi Vaziri

Ali-Naqi Vaziri, also transcribed as Ali Naghi Vaziri (Persian: علی نقی وزیری) (1887 in Tehran, Persia – September 9, 1979) was a composer, thinker and a celebrated player of the tar.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Andalusian classical music

Andalusian classical music (طرب أندَلُسي, trans. ṭarab andalusi, música andalusí) is a style of Arabic music found in different styles across the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, and to a lesser degree in Tunisia and Libya in the form of the Ma'luf style).

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Andy (singer)

Andranik Madadian (آندرانیک مددیان, Անդրանիկ Մադադյան), better known by his stage name, Andy (اندی, Անդի; born 1958), is an Armenian-Iranian singer-songwriter and actor.

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Angband (band)

Angband is a Persian/ American power metal/progressive musical group, formed in 2004 in Tehran.

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Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.

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The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Axiom of Choice (band)

Axiom of Choice is a southern California (United States) based world music group of Iranian émigrés who perform a modernized fusion style rooted in Persian classical music with inspiration from other classical Middle Eastern and Eastern paradigms.

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Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex

The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (short BMAC), also known as the Oxus civilisation, is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilisation of Central Asia, dated to c. 2300–1700 BC, located in present-day northern Afghanistan, eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centred on the upper Amu Darya (Oxus River).

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Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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The bakshy are traditional Turkmen musicians.

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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Bamshad (in Persian: بامشاد) was one of the four most famous and skilled musicians (with Barbad, Nagisa (Nakisa), and Ramtin) who lived in the Persian Sassanid dynasty when Xusro Parviz was in power (591-628).

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Barbad (بربد) or Barbad-ī MarvaziBorhan-e Ghate', By Mohammad Hossein ibn-khalaf Tabrizi (باربد جهرمی / باربد / باربذ) was a Persian musician of the Sassanid era, who lived during the rule of Khosrau II, 590 to 628.

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Behzad Ranjbaran

Behzad Ranjbaran (born 1955, in Tehran) is a Persian composer.

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Brave Words & Bloody Knuckles

Brave Words & Bloody Knuckles is a Canadian heavy metal magazine.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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The Cyropaedia, sometimes spelled Cyropedia, is a largely fictional biography of Cyrus the Great the founder of Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.

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Cyrus the Great

Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.

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Darius III

Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.

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Dastan Ensemble

Dastan Ensemble is an Iranian classical music ensemble.

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Dastgāh (دستگاه) is a musical modal system in traditional Persian art music.

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Dastgah music

Iranian/Persian Traditional Music (also known as mūsīqī-e sonnatī-e īrānī or mūsīqī-e aṣīl-e īrānī) is now modernly classified into the Dastgāh system.

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Deep Dish (band)

Deep Dish are an American electronic music duo, consisting of Ali "Dubfire" Shirazinia and Sharam Tayebi.

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The Deipnosophistae is an early 3rd-century AD Greek work (Δειπνοσοφισταί, Deipnosophistaí, lit. "The Dinner Sophists/Philosophers/Experts") by the Greco-Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis.

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The dutar (also dotar or doutar; دوتار; дутор; Duttar; dutor;; Дутар) is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Iran and Central Asia.

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Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.

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Electric guitar

An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Farah Pahlavi

Farah Pahlavi, née Diba (فرح پهلوی; born 14 October 1938) is the widow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the exiled shahbanu (empress) of Iran.

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Farrukhi Sistani

Abul Hasan Ali ibn Julugh Farrukhi Sistani (ابوالحسن علی بن جولوغ فرخی سیستانی) (c. 980 – 1037 or 1038) was a 10th- and 11th-century Persian royal poet of Ghaznavids.

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Abu ʾl-Qasim Firdowsi Tusi (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi (also transliterated as Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran.

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The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.

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The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.

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Grand Prix du Disque for World Music

The daf BAMA MUSIC AWARDS is an international multicultural music award show presented by Daf Entertainment based in Hamburg, Germany.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Gusans (գուսան; Parthian for poet-musician or minstrel) were creative and performing artists - singers, instrumentalists, dancers, storytellers, and professional folk actors in public theaters of Parthia and ancient and medieval Armenia.

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The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Hassan Sattar

Hassan Sattar (known as Sattar, ستار., born 19 November 1949) is an Iranian Pop-tenor, Oratorio singer with specialization in both Persian pop and classical music.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Hip hop

Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.

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Honorific nicknames in popular music

Honorific nicknames in popular music are terms used, most often in the media or by fans, to indicate the significance of an artist, and are often religious, familial, or (most frequently) royal and aristocratic titles, used metaphorically.

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Hooshmand Aghili

Hooshmand Aghili (هوشمند عقیلی) is a prominent Iranian singer, best known for his song Farda To Miaei (sometimes spelled Farda to Miayee).

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Hossein Alizâdeh

Hossein Alizâdeh (حسین علیزاده) is an Iranian composer, radif-preserver, researcher, teacher, and tar and setar instrumentalist and improviser, described by Allmusic as a leading Iranian classical composer and musician.

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Ibrahim al-Mawsili

Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm al-Mawṣilī (742–804), was a Persian Arabic-language singer who was settled in Kufa.

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Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults

Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults (IIDCYA, كانون پرورش فكری كودكان و نوجوانان., Kanoon-e Parvaresh-e Fekri-e Koodakan va Nojavanan, better known as Kanoon) is an Iranian institution with a wide range of cultural and artistic activities in the field of mental and cultural development for children and young adults.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian Armenians

Iranian-Armenians (իրանահայեր iranahayer) also known as Persian-Armenians (պարսկահայեր parskahayer), are Iranians of Armenian ethnicity who may speak Armenian as their first language.

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Iranian calendars

The Iranian calendars (گاه‌شماری ایرانی Gâhshomâriye Irâni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran (Persia).

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Iranian diaspora

Iranians abroad or Iranian diaspora are Iranian people living outside Iran and their children born abroad.

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Iranian folk music

Iranian folk music refers to the folk music transmitted through generations among the people of Iran, often consisting of tunes that exist in numerous variants.

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Iranian hip hop

Iranian hip hop, also referred to as Persian hip hop, refers to hip hop music developed in Iran.

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Iranian jazz

Iranian jazz refers to jazz music composed by Iranian musicians, sometimes combined with traditional Iranian elements.

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Iranian pop music

Iranian pop music refers to pop music originated in Iran, with songs mainly in Persian and other regional languages of the country.

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Iranian Reformists

The Iranian reformists (Eslâh-Talabân) are a political faction in Iran that support former President Mohammad Khatami's plans to change the Iranian political system to include more freedom and democracy.

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Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.

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Iranian rock

Iranian rock refers to rock music produced by Iranian artists.

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Ishaq al-Mawsili

Ishaq al-Mawsili (إسحاق الموصلي) (born 150 AH, 767 CE in Rey - died 235 AH, 850 CE in Baghdad) was a Persian"Isḥāq al-Mawṣilī." Encyclopædia Britannica.

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Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.

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Kayhan Kalhor

Kayhan Kalhor (کەیھان کەلھور,كيهان كلهر; also Romanized as Keyhan Kalhor and Keyhān Kalhor) (born 24 November 1963 in Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian Kamancheh player, composer and master of classical Kurdish and Iranian traditional music.

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Khosrow II

Khosrow II (Chosroes II in classical sources; Middle Persian: Husrō(y)), entitled "Aparvēz" ("The Victorious"), also Khusraw Parvēz (New Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from 590 to 628.

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Kul-e Farah

Kul-e Farah (or "Kul-e Fara") is the site of six Elamite rock reliefs that are located in a gorge on the plain's east side.

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A lament or lamentation is a passionate expression of grief, often in music, poetry, or song form.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

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A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.

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Lily Afshar

Lily Afshar (لیلی افشار) (born 9 March 1960) is an Iranian American classical guitarist.

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List of Iranian composers

This is a list of Iranian composers.

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List of Iranian musicians

This is a list of Iranian (Persian) musicians and musical groups.

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Loris Tjeknavorian

Loris Haykasi Tjeknavorian (also spelled Cheknavarian, Լորիս Ճգնավորյան; لوریس چکناواریان., born 13 October 1937 in Borujerd) is an Iranian Armenian composer and conductor.

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A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.

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Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.

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Magi (singular magus; from Latin magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster.

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Eftekhar Dadehbala (افتخار دده‌بالا), better known as Mahasti (مهستی, 16 November 1946 – 25 June 2007), was an Iranian singer.

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Makam (pl. makamlar; from the Arabic word مقام) is a system of melody types used in Arabic, Persian and Turkish classical music.

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Masters of Persian Music

Masters of Persian Music is a Persian classical music ensemble (or "supergroup") founded in 2000 by four internationally recognized ustāds (masters) of the genre: vocalist Mohammad-Reza Shajarian; composer-musicians Hossein Alizâdeh and Kayhan Kalhor; and M. R. Shajarian's son, multi-instrumentalist singer Homayoun Shajarian.

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The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.

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Mehregān (مهرگان or Jašn-e Mehr جشن مهر Mithra Festival) is a Zoroastrian and Persian festival celebrated to honor the yazata Mithra (Mehr), which is responsible for friendship, affection and love.

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Melal Orchestra

In 2007, Mr.

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Melody type

Melody type or type-melody is a set of melodic formulas, figures, and patterns.

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Middle Persian

Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.

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Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance

The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance (وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی also known as Ershad ارشاد) is the ministry of Culture of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Mirza Abdollah

Mirza Abdollah, also known as Agha Mirza Abdollah Farahani (میرزا عبدالله فراهانی) (b. 1843 – 1918), was a tar and setar player.

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Mode (music)

In the theory of Western music, a mode is a type of musical scale coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviors.

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Mohammad Khatami

Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (سید محمد خاتمی,; born 14 October 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician.

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Mohammad Motamedi

Mohammad Motamedi (محمد معتمدی; born on September 24, 1978) is an iranian traditional vocalist, and a Ney player.

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Mohammad Reza Azadehfar

Mohammad Reza Azadehfar (محمدرضا آزاده‌فر), an ethnomusicologist and santūr performer, was born in 1969 in Isfahan, the Safavid capital of Iran.

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Mohammad-Reza Darvishi

Mohammad-Reza Darvishi (محمدرضا درویشی; born 17 October 1955 in Shiraz) is an Iranian musician, researcher, and author of Encyclopedia of the Musical Instruments of Iran, a Klaus P. Wachsmann Prize-winner book about Iranian musical instruments.

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Mohammad-Reza Shajarian

Mohammad-Reza Shajarian (محمدرضا شجريان) (born 23 September 1940, Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran) is an internationally and critically acclaimed Iranian classical singer, composer and Ostad (master) of Persian traditional music.

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Monir Vakili

Monir Vakili (December 19, 1923 in Tabriz, Iran – February 28, 1983 in Belgium) was an Iranian soprano.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.

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Music genre

A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions.

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Muslim conquest of Persia

The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).

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Nagisa (harpist)

Nagisa (from Persian negin,(Negin-Sa) alternately Nakisa) was a master harpist and composer of the royal court of King Khosrau II of Persia (died 628 AD).

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Naucratis or Naukratis (Ναύκρατις, "Naval Victory"; Egyptian:Piemro) was a city of Ancient Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile river, and 45 mi (72 km) southeast of the open sea and Alexandria.

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Nowruz (نوروز,; literally "new day") is the name of the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups as the beginning of the New Year.

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Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra

The Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra (German: Nürnberger Symphoniker) is a German orchestra based in Nuremberg.

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Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.

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Pahlavi dynasty

The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.

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Pari Zanganeh

Pari Zanganeh (پری زنگنه) (b. 1939, Kashan, Iran —) is an Iranian opera and folklore singer (Spinto soprano).

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Parisā (Parisā.) is a Persian classical singer, Avaz master, and one of the foremost female vocalists from Iran and most revered classical singers.

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Parmenion (also Parmenio; Παρμενίων; c. 400 – Ecbatana, 330 BC) was an ancient Macedonian general in the service of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great.

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Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.

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Parthian language

The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran.

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Parviz Mahmoud

Parviz Mahmoud (1910 – 1996) was an Iranian composer and conductor.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Persian Revolt

The Persian Revolt, as it is known, was the first time the unified province of ancient Persis, after voluntary submission to the Assyrians and Medes two times earlier, declared its independence, and commenced its revolution as it later separated from the Median Empire.

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Persian traditional music

Persian traditional music or Iranian traditional music, also known as Persian classical music or Iranian classical music, refers to the classical music of Iran (also known as Persia).

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Persianate society

A Persianate society, or Persified society, is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language, culture, literature, art and/or identity.

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Peyman Soltani

Peyman Soltani (پیمان سلطانی, Peymân Soltâni; born 17 January 1971 in Iran) is a Persian composer, orchestra conductor, instrumentalist and critic.

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Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Popular music

Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.

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Power metal

Power metal is a subgenre of heavy metal combining characteristics of traditional heavy metal with speed metal, often within symphonic context.

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Pure Steel Records

Pure Steel Records is a record label based in Germany, focused on heavy metal music.

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Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.

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Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi

Qotb al-Din Mahmoud b. Zia al-Din Mas'ud b. Mosleh Shirazi (1236—1311) (قطب‌الدین محمود بن ضیاالدین مسعود بن مصلح شیرازی) was a 13th-century Iranian polymath and poet who made contributions to astronomy, mathematics, medicine, physics, music theory, philosophy and Sufism.

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Radif (music)

Radif (ردیف, meaning order) is a collection of many old melodic figures preserved through many generations by oral tradition.

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Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.

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Radio France

Radio France is a French public service radio broadcaster.

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Rana Farhan

Rana Farhan, (رعنا فرحان.) is an Iranian musician and singer of jazz and blues.

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Record label

A record label, or record company, is a brand or trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos.

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Religious music in Iran

Religious music in Iran is rich in melodies and genres.

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Rock music

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.

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Rostam and Sohrab

The tragedy of Rostam and Sohrab forms part of the 10th-century Persian epic Shahnameh by the Persian poet Ferdowsi.

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Rostam and Sohrab (opera)

Rostam and Sohrab is an opera by Loris Tjeknavorian.

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Roudaki Hall

The Roudaki Hall (تالار رودکی – Tālār e Rudaki), officially the Vahdat Hall (تالار وحدت – Tālār e Vahdat), is a performing arts complex in Tehran, Iran.

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https://www.britannica.com/biography/Rudaki Abū 'Abd Allāh Ja'far ibn Muḥammad al-Rūdhakī (ابو عبدالله جعفر بن محمد رودکی; died 941), better known as Rudaki رودکی), and also known as "Adam of Poets" (آدم الشعرا), was a Persian poet regarded as the first great literary genius of the Modern Persian language. Rudaki composed poems in the "New Persian" alphabet and is considered a founder of classical Persian literature. His poetry contains many of the oldest genres of Persian poetry including the quatrain, however, only a small percentage of his extensive poetry has survived.

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Ruhollah Khaleqi

Rūhollāh Khāleqi (1906 in Kerman, Iran – 12 November 1965 in Salzburg, Austria) (روح‌الله خالقی, Ruhollâh Xâleqi), also spelled as Khaleghi, was a prominent Iranian musician, composer, conductor and author.

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Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلال‌الدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.

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Safi al-Din al-Urmawi

Safi al-Din al-Urmawi al-Baghdadi (صفی الدین اورموی) or Safi al-Din Abd al-Mu'min ibn Yusuf ibn al-Fakhir al-Urmawi al-Baghdadi (born c. 1216 AD in Urmia, died in 1294 AD in Baghdad) was a renowned musician and writer on the theory of music, possibly of Persian origin.

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Samanid Empire

The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.

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Sarkash is the least renowned of the three most influential musicians of the Sassanids.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Sasanian music

Sasanian music refers to the golden age of Persian music that occurred under the reign of the Sasanian dynasty.

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The Setar (سه‌تار, from, meaning "three" and, meaning "string") is an Iranian musical instrument.

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The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.

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Shahram Nazeri

Shahram Nazeri (شهرام ناظری;; شارام نازری; also Romanized as Shahrām Nāzeri; born 18 February 1950 in Kermanshah) is a contemporary Kurdish Iranian tenor from Kermanshah who sings classical music.

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Shahrdad Rouhani

Shardad Rohani also spelled Shahrdad Rohani, Shahrdad Rouhani and Shahdad Rohani (شهرداد روحانی or شهداد روحانی, born 27 May 1954 in Tehran) is an Iranian-American composer, violinist/pianist, and conductor.

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Shakila is a Persian-American singer-songwriter based in San Diego, California.

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Shiraz Arts Festival

The Shiraz Festival of Arts (Persian: جشنواره هنر شیراز) was an annual international summer arts festival, held in Iran bringing about the encounter between the East and the West.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Symphonische Dichtungen aus Persien

Symphonische Dichtungen aus Persien (Symphonic Poems from Persia) is the name of 3 gramophone records recorded with Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra in 1980 conducted by Ali Rahbari.

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A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.

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The terms Tanbur, Tanbūr, Tanbura, Tambur, Tambura or Tanboor can refer to various long-necked, string instruments originating in Mesopotamia, Southern or Central Asia.

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Taq Bostan

Taq-e Bostan (طاق بستان, تاقوەسان) means "Arch of the Garden" or "Arch made by stone" is a site with a series of large rock reliefs from the era of Sassanid Empire of Persia (Iran), carved around 4th century AD.

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Tar (string instrument)

Tar (تار; tar) is an Iranian.

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Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Tehran Symphony Orchestra

The Tehran Symphony Orchestra (TSO, ارکستر سمفونیک تهران), founded in 1933, is Iran's oldest and largest symphony orchestra.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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A trumpet is a brass instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles.

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The Vendidad or Videvdat is a collection of texts within the greater compendium of the Avesta.

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Vigen or Viguen, born Vigen Derderian (ویگن دردریان, Vigen Derderyân; Վիգեն Դէրդէրեան, Vigen Dērdērean; November 23, 1929 - October 26, 2003), known as "King of Iranian pop" and the "Sultan of Jazz", was an Iranian pop music singer and actor, well known throughout the Near East.

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Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.

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Abu l-Hasan 'Ali Ibn Nafi or Ziryab (789–857; rtl) was a singer, oud player, composer, poet, and teacher who lived and worked in Iraq, Northern Africa, and Andalusia of the medieval Islamic period.

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Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Iran

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