249 relations: Accordion, Acoustic membrane, Aerophone, Africa, Akkadian language, Alboka, Alto, Alto flute, Alto saxophone, Amenhotep III, Anthropological theories of value, Anthropology, Arabian Peninsula, Arnolt Schlick, Aulos, Autoharp, Babylon, Bagpipes, Balinese people, Banjo, Baritone, Baritone horn, Baritone saxophone, Baryton, Basque Country (autonomous community), Bass (sound), Bass clarinet, Bass drum, Bass guitar, Bass saxophone, Bassoon, Bharata Muni, Bible, Bolivia, Bow (music), Brass instrument, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bullroarer, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine lyra, Cain and Abel, Castanets, Cello, Central America, Chamber music, Chile, Chinese philosophy, Chordophone, Chukchi people, Clapper (musical instrument), ..., Clarinet, Classical period (music), Claves, Colombia, Concert pitch, Confucius, Contrabass, Contrabass clarinet, Cor anglais, Cuneiform script, Curt Sachs, Cymbal, Diatonic scale, Division of labour, Divje Babe Flute, Double bass, Double clarinet, Dravidian languages, Drum, Drum kit, Ecuador, Electric guitar, Electrophone, End-blown flute, England, Erich von Hornbostel, Estonia, Ethnomusicology, Etruria, Euphonium, Experimental musical instrument, Flute, Folk instrument, Frame drum, French horn, Güiro, Georgia (country), Glockenspiel, Greece, Guitar, Hammered dulcimer, Hammond organ, Han dynasty, Handbell, Harp, Harpsichord, Hector Berlioz, Henan, Homo habilis, Hurdy-gurdy, Hyksos, Ibn Khordadbeh, Idiophone, India, Indus script, Indus Valley Civilisation, Islamic culture, Israel, Java, Javanese people, Jew's harp, Jiahu, Johannes de Muris, Jubal (Bible), Kassites, Kazoo, Keyboard instrument, Kinnor, Laozi, Leonard Woolley, Leprosy, List of Cambridge Companions to Music, List of musical instruments, Lute, Luthier, Lyre, Lyres of Ur, Madagascar, Mammoth, Maritime Southeast Asia, Mbira, Melanesia, Melody, Membranophone, Mencius, Mercury (mythology), Mesopotamia, Metallophone, Michael Praetorius, Middle Ages, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Monochord, Monophony, Moog synthesizer, Morus (plant), Munda languages, Musée de l'Homme, Music, Music instrument technology, Musical bow, Musical instrument, Musical keyboard, Musicology, Mute (music), Myanmar, Natya Shastra, Neanderthal, Neck (music), New Kingdom of Egypt, Oboe, Orchestra, Orchestration, Order of Saint Benedict, Organ (music), Organ stop, Organology, Orient, Pan (god), Pan flute, Pedal keyboard, Percussion instrument, Persian people, Peru, Piano, Piccolo, Pitch (music), Pitch pipe, Polyphony, Pre-Columbian era, Radiocarbon dating, Range (music), Rattle (percussion instrument), Recording studio as musical instrument, Reduplication, Renaissance, Rigveda, Robert Moog, Romantic music, Rome, Royal Cemetery at Ur, Russian Far East, Sebastian Virdung, Shang dynasty, Shofar, Sistrum, Sitar, Slide trumpet, Slit drum, Slovenia, Snake charming, Sopranino saxophone, Soprano, Soprano saxophone, South America, Southeast Asia, Spain, String instrument, String orchestra, Sulawesi, Sumer, Sumerian language, Swabian Jura, Swan, Synthesizer, Tablature, Talmud, Tbilisi, Tenor, Tenor drum, Tenor horn, Tenor saxophone, Theremin, Tibet, Timpani, Tortoise, Tremolo, Trombone, Trumpet, Tuba, Turkestan, Upper Paleolithic, Ur, Veena, Victor-Charles Mahillon, Victoria and Albert Museum, Viola, Violin, Wahinda, Western world, Whip, Wooden fish, Woodwind instrument, Xiao (flute), Xylophone, Yakuts, Yaqui, Yu (percussion instrument), Zhou dynasty, Zither. Expand index (199 more) » « Shrink index
Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.
An acoustic membrane is a thin layer that vibrates and is used in acoustics to produce or transfer sound, such as a drum, microphone, or loudspeaker.
An aerophone is any musical instrument that produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate, without the use of strings or membranes, and without the vibration of the instrument itself adding considerably to the sound.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
The Basque alboka (albogue), is a single-reed woodwind instrument consisting of a single reed, two small diameter melody pipes with finger holes and a bell traditionally made from animal horn.
The musical term alto, meaning "high" in Italian (Latin: altus), refers to the second highest part of a contrapuntal musical texture and is also applied to its associated vocal range, especially in choral music.
The alto flute is a type of Western concert flute, a musical instrument in the woodwind family.
The alto saxophone, also referred to as the alto sax, is a member of the saxophone family of woodwind instruments invented by Belgian instrument designer Adolphe Sax in the 1840s, and patented in 1846.
Amenhotep III (Hellenized as Amenophis III; Egyptian Amāna-Ḥātpa; meaning Amun is Satisfied), also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
Anthropological theories of value attempt to expand on the traditional theories of value used by economists or ethicists.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arnolt Schlick (July 18?,Keyl 1989, 110–11. c. 1455–1460 – after 1521) was a German organist, lutenist and composer of the Renaissance.
An aulos (αὐλός, plural αὐλοί, auloi) or tibia (Latin) was an ancient Greek wind instrument, depicted often in art and also attested by archaeology.
The Autoharp is a musical instrument in the chorded zither family.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag.
The Balinese (Indonesian: Suku Bali) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Bali.
The banjo is a four-, five- or six-stringed instrument with a thin membrane stretched over a frame or cavity as a resonator, called the head.
A baritone is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice types.
The baritone horn, or sometimes just called baritone, is a low-pitched brass instrument in the saxhorn family.
The baritone saxophone or "bari sax" is one of the largest members of the saxophone family, only being smaller than the bass, contrabass and subcontrabass saxophones.
The baryton is a bowed string instrument similar to the viol, but distinguished by an extra set of plucked strings.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
Bass describes tones of low (also called "deep") frequency, pitch and range from 16-256 Hz (C0 to middle C4) and bass instruments that produce tones in the low-pitched range C2-C4.
The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family.
A bass drum, or kick drum, is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch.
The bass guitar (also known as electric bass, or bass) is a stringed instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, and four to six strings or courses.
The bass saxophone is one of the largest members of the saxophone family—larger than the more commonly encountered baritone saxophone.
The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor clefs, and occasionally the treble.
Bharata Muni was an ancient Indian theatrologist and musicologist who wrote the Natya Shastra, a theoretical treatise on ancient Indian dramaturgy and histrionics, especially Sanskrit theatre.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
In music, a bow is a tensioned stick with hair affixed to it that is moved across some part of a musical instrument to cause vibration, which the instrument emits as sound.
A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
The bullroarer, rhombus, or turndun, is an ancient ritual musical instrument and a device historically used for communicating over great distances.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine lyra or lira (λύρα) was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire.
In the biblical Book of Genesis, Cain and Abel are the first two sons of Adam and Eve.
Castanets are a percussion instrument (idiophone), used in Kalo, Moorish, Ottoman, ancient Roman, Italian, Spanish, Sephardic, Swiss, and Portuguese music.
The cello (plural cellos or celli) or violoncello is a string instrument.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
Chamber music is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
A chordophone is a musical instrument that makes sound by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two points.
The Chukchi, or Chukchee (Чукчи, sg. Чукча), are an indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula and the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.
A clapper is a basic form of percussion instrument.
The clarinet is a musical-instrument family belonging to the group known as the woodwind instruments.
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
Claves are a percussion instrument (idiophone), consisting of a pair of short (about, thick dowels. Traditionally they are made of wood, typically rosewood, ebony or grenadilla. In modern times they are also made of fibreglass or plastics. When struck they produce a bright clicking noise. Claves are sometimes hollow and carved in the middle to amplify the sound.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Concert pitch is the pitch reference to which a group of musical instruments are tuned for a performance.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Contrabass (from contrabbasso) refers to a musical instrument of very low pitch—generally one octave below bass register instruments.
The contrabass clarinet and contra-alto clarinet are the two largest members of the clarinet family that are in common usage.
The cor anglais or original; plural: cors anglais) Longman has /kɔːz/ for British and /kɔːrz/ for American --> or English horn in North America, is a double-reed woodwind instrument in the oboe family. It is approximately one and a half times the length of an oboe. The cor anglais is a transposing instrument pitched in F, a perfect fifth lower than the oboe (a C instrument). This means that music for the cor anglais is written a perfect fifth higher than the instrument actually sounds. The fingering and playing technique used for the cor anglais are essentially the same as those of the oboe and oboists typically double on the cor anglais when required. The cor anglais normally lacks the lowest B key found on most oboes and so its sounding range stretches from E3 (written B) below middle C to C6 two octaves above middle C.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Curt Sachs (June 29, 1881 – February 5, 1959) was a German-born but American-domiciled musicologist.
A cymbal is a common percussion instrument.
In western music theory, a diatonic scale is a heptatonic scale that includes five whole steps (whole tones) and two half steps (semitones) in each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps, depending on their position in the scale.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
The Divje Babe Flute is a cave bear femur pierced by spaced holes that was found in 1995 at the Divje Babe archeological park located near Cerkno in northwestern Slovenia.
The double bass, or simply the bass (and numerous other names), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra.
The term double clarinet refers to any of several woodwind instruments consisting of two parallel pipes made of cane, bird bone, or metal, played simultaneously, with a single reed for each.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments.
A drum kit — also called a drum set, trap set, or simply drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments, typically cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, and the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals.
The electrophone category was added to the Hornbostel-Sachs musical instrument classification system by Sachs in 1940, to describe instruments involving electricity.
The end-blown flute (also called an edge-blown flute or rim-blown flute) is a keyless woodwind instrument played by directing an airstream against the sharp edge of the upper end of a tube.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Erich Moritz von Hornbostel (25 February 1877 – 28 November 1935) was an Austrian ethnomusicologist and scholar of music.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Ethnomusicology is the study of music from the cultural and social aspects of the people who make it.
Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
The euphonium is a large, conical-bore, baritone-voiced brass instrument that derives its name from the Ancient Greek word εὔφωνος euphōnos, meaning "well-sounding" or "sweet-voiced" (εὖ eu means "well" or "good" and φωνή phōnē means "sound", hence "of good sound").
An experimental musical instrument (or custom-made instrument) is a musical instrument that modifies or extends an existing instrument or class of instruments, or defines or creates a new class of instrument.
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.
A folk instrument is a musical instrument that developed among common people and usually does not have a known inventor.
A frame drum is a drum that has a drumhead width greater than its depth.
The French horn (since the 1930s known simply as the "horn" in some professional music circles) is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell.
The güiro is a Latin American percussion instrument consisting of an open-ended, hollow gourd with parallel notches cut in one side.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
A glockenspiel (or, Glocken: bells and Spiel: set) is a percussion instrument composed of a set of tuned keys arranged in the fashion of the keyboard of a piano.
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings.
The hammered dulcimer is a percussion-stringed instrument which consists of strings typically stretched over a trapezoidal resonant sound board.
The Hammond organ is an electric organ, invented by Laurens Hammond and John M. Hanert and first manufactured in 1935.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
A handbell is a bell designed to be rung by hand.
The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers.
A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.
Louis-Hector Berlioz; 11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique, Harold en Italie, Roméo et Juliette, Grande messe des morts (Requiem), L'Enfance du Christ, Benvenuto Cellini, La Damnation de Faust, and Les Troyens. Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and conducted several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 compositions for voice, accompanied by piano or orchestra. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, and Gustav Mahler.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
Homo habilis was a species of early humans, who lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago.
The hurdy-gurdy is a stringed instrument that produces sound by a hand crank-turned, rosined wheel rubbing against the strings.
The Hyksos (or; Egyptian heqa khasut, "ruler(s) of the foreign countries"; Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a people of mixed origins, possibly from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC.
Abu'l-Qasim Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Khordadbeh (ابوالقاسم عبیدالله ابن خردادبه) (c. 820 – 912 CE), better known as Ibn Khordadbeh or Ibn Khurradadhbih, was the author of the earliest surviving Arabic book of administrative geography.
An idiophone is any musical instrument that creates sound primarily by the instrument as a whole vibrating—without the use of strings or membranes.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indus script (also known as the Harappan script) is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilisation during the Kot Diji and Mature Harappan periods between 3500 and 1900 BCE.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people -- i.e., the culture of the Islamicate.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
The Javanese (Ngoko Javanese:, Madya Javanese:,See: Javanese language: Politeness Krama Javanese:, Ngoko Gêdrìk: wòng Jåwå, Madya Gêdrìk: tiyang Jawi, Krama Gêdrìk: priyantun Jawi, Indonesian: suku Jawa) are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java.
The Jew's harp, also known as the jaw harp, mouth harp, Ozark harp or juice harp, is a lamellophone instrument, consisting of a flexible metal or bamboo tongue or reed attached to a frame.
Jiahu was the site of a Neolithic settlement based in the central plain of ancient China, near the Yellow River.
Johannes de Muris (c.1290 - c.1355), or John of Murs, was a French philosopher, astronomer, mathematician, and music theorist best known for treatises on the ars nova, titled Ars nove musice.
Jubal (or Yuval or Yubal) is a man mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, in.
The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).
The kazoo is a musical instrument that adds a "buzzing" timbral quality to a player's voice when the player vocalizes into it.
A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers.
Kinnor (כִּנּוֹר) is an ancient Israelite musical instrument, the exact identification of which is unclear, but in the modern day is generally translated as "harp" or "lyre", and associated with a type of lyre depicted in Israelite imagery, particular the Bar Kochba coins.
Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.
Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (17 April 1880 – 20 February 1960) was a British archaeologist best known for his excavations at Ur in Mesopotamia.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
The Cambridge Companions to Music form a book series published by Cambridge University Press.
A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.
A luthier is someone who builds or repairs string instruments generally consisting of a neck and a sound box.
The lyre (λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods.
The Lyres of Ur or Harps of Ur are considered to be the world's oldest surviving stringed instruments.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
The mbira is an African musical instrument consisting of a wooden board (often fitted with a resonator) with attached staggered metal tines, played by holding the instrument in the hands and plucking the tines with the thumbs.
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.
A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.
A membranophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating stretched membrane.
Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.
Mercury (Latin: Mercurius) is a major god in Roman religion and mythology, being one of the Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
A metallophone is any musical instrument consisting of tuned metal bars which are struck to make sound, usually with a mallet.
Michael Praetorius (probably 15 February 1571 – 15 February 1621) was a German composer, organist, and music theorist.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
A monochord, also known as sonometer (see below), is an ancient musical and scientific laboratory instrument, involving one (mono) string (Chord).
In music, monophony is the simplest of musical textures, consisting of a melody (or "tune"), typically sung by a single singer or played by a single instrument player (e.g., a flute player) without accompanying harmony or chords.
Moog synthesizer (pronounced; often anglicized to, though Robert Moog preferred the former) may refer to any number of analog synthesizers designed by Robert Moog or manufactured by Moog Music, and is commonly used as a generic term for older-generation analog music synthesizers.
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.
The Munda languages are a language family spoken by about nine million people in central and eastern India and Bangladesh.
The Musée de l'Homme (French, "Museum of Man") is an anthropology museum in Paris, France.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
Music instrument technology refers to the construction of instruments and the way they have changed over time.
The musical bow (bowstring or string bow) is a simple string musical instrument part of a number of South African cultures, also found in other places in the world through the result of slave trade.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers or keys on a musical instrument.
Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music.
A mute is a device fitted to a musical instrument to alter the sound produced: by affecting the timbre (or "tone"), reducing the volume, or most commonly both.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Nāṭya Śāstra (Sanskrit: नाट्य शास्त्र, Nāṭyaśāstra) is a Sanskrit Hindu text on the performing arts.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The neck is the part of certain string instruments that projects from the main body and is the base of the fingerboard, where the fingers are placed to stop the strings at different pitches.
The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.
Oboes are a family of double reed woodwind instruments.
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.
Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble, such as a concert band) or of adapting music composed for another medium for an orchestra.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
In music, the organ (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals.
An organ stop (or just stop) is a component of a pipe organ that admits pressurized air (known as wind) to a set of organ pipes.
Organology (from Greek: ὄργανον – organon, "instrument" and λόγος – logos, "study") is the science of musical instruments and their classification.
The Orient is the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world, in relation to Europe.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Pan (Πάν, Pan) is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, rustic music and impromptus, and companion of the nymphs.
The pan flutes (also known as panpipes or syrinx) are a group of musical instruments based on the principle of the closed tube, consisting of multiple pipes of gradually increasing length (and occasionally girth).
A pedalboard (also called a pedal keyboard, pedal clavier, or, with electronic instruments, a bass pedalboard) is a keyboard played with the feet that is usually used to produce the low-pitched bass line of a piece of music.
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers.
The piccolo (Italian for "small", but named ottavino in Italy) is a half-size flute, and a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments.
Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.
A pitch pipe is a small device used to provide a pitch reference for musicians without absolute pitch.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
In music, the range, or chromatic range, of a musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play.
A rattle is a type of percussion instrument which produces a sound when shaken.
The use of recording studios as a distinct musical instrument or compositional tool began in the early to mid 20th-century, as composers started exploiting the newfound potentials of multitrack recording.
Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Robert Arthur Moog ("mogue"; May 23, 1934 – August 21, 2005), founder of Moog Music, was an American engineer and pioneer of electronic music, best known as the inventor of the Moog synthesizer.
Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Royal Cemetery at Ur is an archaeological site in modern-day Dhi Qar Governorate in southern Iraq.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
Sebastian Virdung (born c. 1465) was a German composer and theorist on musical instruments.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
A shofar (pron., from Shofar.ogg) is an ancient musical horn typically made of a ram's horn, used for Jewish religious purposes.
A sistrum (plural: sistrums or Latin sistra; from the Greek σεῖστρον seistron of the same meaning; literally "that which is being shaken", from σείειν seiein, "to shake") is a musical instrument of the percussion family, chiefly associated with ancient Iraq and Egypt.
The sitar (or; सितार, Punjabi: ਸਿਤਾਰ) is a plucked stringed instrument used in Hindustani classical music.
The slide trumpet is a type of trumpet that is fitted with a slide much like a trombone.
A slit drum is a hollow percussion instrument.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Snake charming is the practice of appearing to hypnotize a snake by playing and waving around an instrument called a pungi.
The sopranino saxophone is one of the smallest members of the saxophone family.
A soprano is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types.
The soprano saxophone is a higher-register variety of the saxophone, a woodwind instrument, invented in the 1840s.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner.
A string orchestra is an orchestra consisting solely of a string section made up of the bowed strings used in Western Classical music.
Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
The Swabian Jura (more rarely), sometimes also named Swabian Alps in English, is a mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, extending from southwest to northeast and in width.
Swans are birds of the family Anatidae within the genus Cygnus.
A synthesizer (often abbreviated as synth, also spelled synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones.
Tablature (or tabulature, or tab for short) is a form of musical notation indicating instrument fingering rather than musical pitches.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Tenor is a type of classical male singing voice, whose vocal range is normally the highest male voice type, which lies between the baritone and countertenor voice types.
A tenor drum is a membranophone without a snare.
The tenor horn (British English; alto horn in American English, Althorn in Germany; occasionally referred to as E horn) is a brass instrument in the saxhorn family, and is usually pitched in E. It has a bore that is mostly conical, like the flugelhorn and baritone horn, and normally uses a deep, cornet-like mouthpiece.
The Tenor saxophone is a medium-sized member of the saxophone family, a group of instruments invented by Adolphe Sax in the 1840s.
The theremin (--> originally known as the ætherphone/etherphone, thereminophone or termenvox/thereminvox) is an electronic musical instrument controlled without physical contact by the thereminist (performer).
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Timpani or kettledrums (also informally called timps) are musical instruments in the percussion family.
Tortoises are a family, Testudinidae. Testudinidae is a Family under the order Testudines and suborder Cryptodira.
In music, tremolo, or tremolando, is a trembling effect.
The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family.
A trumpet is a brass instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles.
The tuba is the largest and lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family.
Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
The veena (வீணை, वीणा, IAST: vīṇā), comprises a family of chordophone instruments of the Indian subcontinent.
Victor-Charles Mahillon (March 10, 1841 in Brussels – June 17, 1924 in Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, France) was a Belgian musician, instrument builder and writer on musical topics.
The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 2.3 million objects.
The viola is a string instrument that is bowed or played with varying techniques.
The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
The Wahinda tribe of Eastern Africa, are mentioned in Richard Francis Burton's The Lake Regions of Central Africa: A Picture of Exploration, Vol.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
A whip is a tool which was traditionally designed to strike animals or people to aid guidance or exert control over animals or other people, through pain compliance or fear of pain, although in some activities, whips can be used without use of pain, such as an additional pressure aid or visual directional cue in equestrianism.
A wooden fish, also known as a Chinese temple block. is a wooden percussion instrument.
Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments within the more general category of wind instruments.
The xiao (pronounced) is a Chinese vertical end-blown flute.
The xylophone (from the Greek words ξύλον—xylon, "wood" + φωνή—phōnē, "sound, voice", meaning "wooden sound") is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets.
Yakuts (Саха, Sakha) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in North East Asia.
The Yaqui or Yoeme are an Uto-Aztecan ethnic group who inhabit the valley of the Río Yaqui in the Mexican state of Sonora and the Southwestern United States.
The yu (pinyin: yǔ) was a wooden percussion instrument carved in the shape of a tiger with a serrated back comprising 27 "teeth", used since ancient times in China for Confucian court ritual music.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Zither is a class of stringed instruments.
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