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Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
Abdulmejid II (عبد المجید الثانی, Abd al-Madjeed al-Thâni – Halife İkinci Abdülmecit Efendi, 29 May 1868 – 23 August 1944) was the last Caliph of Islam, nominally the 37th Head of the Ottoman Imperial House from 1922 to 1924.
Adnan Menderes (1899 – 17 September 1961) or Ali Adnan Ertekin Menderes was the Turkish Prime Minister between 1950–1960.
Adult education is a practice in which adults engage in systematic and sustained self-educating activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values.
The Aegean Region is one of the 7 geographical regions of Turkey.
Ayşe Afet İnan or Afetinan (29 November 1908 – June 8, 1985) was a Turkish historian and sociologist.
Afyonkarahisar (afyon "poppy, opium", kara "black", hisar "fortress") is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province.
Agop Dilâçar (Armenian: Յակոբ Մարթայեան, Constantinople, May 22, 1895 – Istanbul, September 12, 1979) was a Turkish-Armenian linguist who specialized in Turkic languages and the first Secretary General and head specialist of the Turkish Language Association.
Ahmed İzzet Pasha (1864 – 31 March 1937), known as Ahmet İzzet Furgaç after the Turkish Surname Law of 1934, was an Ottoman general during World War I. He was also one of the last Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire (14 October 1918 - 8 November 1918) and its last Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Ahmet Adnan Saygun (7 September 1907 – 6 January 1991) was a Turkish composer, musicologist and writer on music.
Albania was ruled by the Ottoman Empire in different periods from 1480 to 1912.
The Albanian revolt of 1910 was reaction to the new centralization policies of the Young Turk Ottoman government in Albania.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Albany is a port city in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, 418 km SE of Perth, the state capital.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
The Vilayet of Aleppo (Vilâyet-i Halep; ولاية حلب) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire, centered on the city of Aleppo.
Ali Fuat Cebesoy (September 1882,Ayfer Özçelik, Ali Fuad Cepesoy, Akçağ Yayınları, 1993,, p. 1. Constantinople (Istanbul) – January 10, 1968, Istanbul) was a Turkish army officer and politician.
Ali Rıza Efendi (1839–1888) was the father of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and the husband of Zübeyde Hanım.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Amānullāh Khān (امان الله خان) was the sovereign of the Kingdom of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929, first as Emir and after 1926 as Malik (King).
Amasya Circular (Amasya Genelgesi or Amasya Tamimi) was a joint circular issued on 22 June 1919 in Amasya, Sivas Vilayet by Fahri Yaver-i Hazret-i Şehriyari ("Honorary Aide-de-camp to His Majesty Sultan") Mirliva Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (Inspector of the Third Army Inspectorate), Rauf Orbay (former Naval Minister), Miralay Refet Bele (Commander of the III Corps stationed at Sivas) and Mirliva Ali Fuat Cebesoy (Commander of the XX Corps stationed at Ankara).
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Amsterdam-Noord is a borough of Amsterdam, Netherlands with a population of about 90,000.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anıtkabir (literally, "memorial tomb") is the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the leader of the Turkish War of Independence and the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey.
Andrew James Alexander Mango (14 June 1926 – 6 July 2014) was a British author who was born in Turkey as one of three sons of a prosperous Anglo-Russian family.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Ankara University (Ankara Üniversitesi) is a public university in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey.
Antakya (انطاكيا, Anṭākyā, previously أنطاكيّة (Anṭākīyyah) from ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ, Anṭiokia; Ἀντιόχεια, Antiócheia) is the seat of the Hatay Province in southern Turkey.
Arabic names were historically based on a long naming system; most Arabs did not have given/middle/family names, but a full chain of names.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Armenia (translit,; Армения; Armeniya), officially the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian SSR; translit; translit), also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armistice of Mudros (Mondros Mütarekesi), concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS ''Agamemnon'' in Moudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos.
Association of Defence of National Rights (Turkish: Müdafaa-i hukuk Cemiyeti) was a group of Ottoman associations established in 1919.
Atatürk Bridge, alternatively known as the Unkapanı Bridge, is a highway bridge on the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey.
Atatürk Centennial was declared in 1981 by United Nations and UNESCO.
The Atatürk Dam (Atatürk Barajı), originally the Karababa Dam, is a zoned rock-fill dam with a central core on the Euphrates River on the border of Adıyaman Province and Şanlıurfa Province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey.
The Atatürk Olympic Stadium (Atatürk Olimpiyat Stadı) located in İkitelli, a district in the western outskirts of Istanbul, is the largest-capacity stadium of Turkey.
Atatürk's Reforms (Atatürk Devrimleri) were a series of political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes that were designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state and implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in accordance with Kemalist ideology.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Aydın Province (Aydın ili) is a province of southwestern Turkey, located in the Aegean Region. The provincial capital is the city of Aydın which has a population of approx. 150,000 (2000). Other towns in the province include the summer seaside resorts of Didim and Kuşadası.
İleri (lit. Forward in Turkish), was a Turkish newspaper founded on 1 January 1918 by Celal Nuri İleri (1877-1938) and his brother Suphi Nuri İleri (1887-1945).
İskenderun (الإسكندرونة, Αλεξανδρέττα "Little Alexandria"), historically known as Alexandretta and Scanderoon, is a city and the largest district in Hatay Province on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.
Mustafa İsmet İnönü (24 September 1884 – 25 December 1973) was a Turkish general and statesman, who served as the second President of Turkey from 10 November 1938 to 27 May 1950, when his Republican People's Party was defeated in Turkey's second free elections.
İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.
İzmir Economic Congress (İzmir İktisat Kongresi) was held in İzmir, Turkey between 17 February - 4 March 1923, shortly after the end of the Turkish War of Independence and during the interval between the two conferences that led to the Lausanne Treaty the same year.
Şevket Süreyya Aydemir (1897 in Edirne – 25 March 1976 in Ankara) was a Turkish writer, intellectual, economist, historian, and one of the founders and a key theorist of Kadro ("Cadre"), an influential policy journal published in Turkey from 1932 to 1934.
Şişli is one of 39 districts of Istanbul, Turkey.
The Balkan Pact was a treaty signed by Greece, Turkey, Romania and Yugoslavia—the Balkan Entente—on 9 February 1934 in Athens, aimed at maintaining the geopolitical status quo in the region following World War I. In order to present a united front against Bulgarian designs on their territories, the signatories agreed to suspend all disputed territorial claims against each other and their immediate neighbors.
The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Battle for Baby 700 (2/3 May 1915), was an engagement fought during the Gallipoli Campaign of the First World War.
The Battle for No.3 Post (28–30 May 1915) was fought during the Gallipoli Campaign in the First World War, between the forces of the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade and the Turkish 19th Division.
The Battle of Aleppo was fought on 25 October 1918, when Prince Feisal's Sherifial Forces captured the city during the Pursuit to Haritan from Damascus, in the last days of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in the First World War.
The Battle of Bitlis refers to a series of engagements in the summer of 1916 for the town of Bitlis and to a lesser extent nearby Moush, between Russian Imperial forces and their Ottoman counterparts.
The battle of Bulair (Битка при Булаир, Bolayır Muharebesi) took place on 26 January 1913 between the Bulgarian Seventh Rila Infantry Division under General Georgi Todorov and the Ottoman 27th Infantry Division.
The Battle of Chunuk Bair (Conk Bayırı Muharebesi) was a World War I battle fought between the Ottoman defenders and troops of the British Empire over control of the peak in August 1915.
The Battle of Dumlupınar (Μάχη του Τουμλού Μπουνάρ; Dumlupınar (Meydan) Muharebesi or Başkumandanlık Meydan Muharebesi, literally "Field Battle of the Commander-in-Chief") was the last battle in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922) (part of the Turkish War of Independence).
The Battle of Hill 60 was the last major assault of the Gallipoli Campaign.
The Battle of Jisr Benat Yakub was fought on 27 September 1918 at the beginning of the pursuit by the Desert Mounted Corps of the retreating remnants of the Yildirim Army Group towards Damascus during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. After the Battle of Samakh and the Capture of Tiberias, which completed the Egyptian Expeditionary Force's decisive victory in the Battle of Sharon section of the Battle of Megiddo, the Australian Mounted Division attacked and captured a series of rearguard positions.
The Battle of Marash (Maraş Muharebesi) was a battle that took place in the early winter of 1920 between the French forces occupying the city of Maraş in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish National Forces linked to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
The Battle of Megiddo (Megiddo Muharebesi) also known in Turkish as the Nablus Hezimeti ("Rout of Nablus"), or the Nablus Yarması ("Breakthrough at Nablus") was fought between 19 and 25 September 1918, on the Plain of Sharon, in front of Tulkarm, Tabsor and Arara in the Judean Hills as well as on the Esdralon Plain at Nazareth, Afulah, Beisan, Jenin and Samakh.
The Battle of Nablus took place, together with the Battle of Sharon during the set piece Battle of Megiddo between 19 and 25 September 1918 in the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Battle of Sakarya (Sakarya Meydan Muharebesi), also known as the Battle of the Sangarios (Μάχη του Σαγγάριου), was an important engagement in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), the western front of the Turkish War of Independence.
The Battle of Samakh was fought on 25 September 1918, during the Battle of Sharon which together with the Battle of Nablus formed the set piece Battle of Megiddo fought from 19 to 25 September 1918, in the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Battle of Sari Bair (Sarı Bayır Harekâtı), also known as the August Offensive (Ağustos Taarruzları), was the final attempt made by the British in August 1915 to seize control of the Gallipoli peninsula from the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.
The Battle of Scimitar Hill (Turkish: Yusufçuk Tepe Muharebesi, literally: Batte of the Dragonfly Hill) was the last offensive mounted by the British at Suvla during the Battle of Gallipoli in World War I. It was also the largest single-day attack ever mounted by the Allies at Gallipoli, involving three divisions.
The Battle of the Nek (Kılıçbayır Muharebesi) was a small World War I battle fought as part of the Gallipoli campaign.
Battle of Tobruk (1911) or Nadura Hill Battle was a small engagement in the Italo-Turkish War.
Beşiktaş (pronounced) is a district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European shore of the Bosphorus strait.
The Vilayet of Beirut was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
Benghazi (بنغازي) is the second-most populous city in Libya and the largest in Cyrenaica.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
A binbashi, alternatively bimbashi, (from Binbaşı, "chief of a thousand", "chiliarch") is a major in the Turkish army, of which term originated in the Ottoman army.
Bitola (Битола known also by several alternative names) is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia.
Bolayır is a town in the Gelibolu district of Çanakkale Province, situated on the Gallipoli Peninsula in the European part of Turkey.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Mandate for Mesopotamia (الانتداب البريطاني على العراق) was a Mandate proposed to be entrusted to Britain at the San Remo, Italy-based conference,The new Cambridge modern history.
Calico (in British usage since 1505) is a plain-woven textile made from unbleached and often not fully processed cotton.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia.
Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire were contracts between the Ottoman Empire and European powers, particularly France.
The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers.
The Capture of Damascus occurred on 1 October 1918 after the capture of Haifa and the victory at the Battle of Samakh which opened the way for the pursuit north from the Sea of Galilee and the Third Transjordan attack which opened the way to Deraa and the inland pursuit, after the decisive Egyptian Expeditionary Force victory at the Battle of Megiddo during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Damascus was captured when Desert Mounted Corps and Prince Feisal's Sherifial Hejaz Army encircled the city, after a cavalry pursuit northwards along the two main roads to Damascus.
The Capture of Jisr ed Damieh took place on 22 September 1918 during the Third Transjordan attack of the Battle of Nablus which, along with the main Battle of Sharon formed the Battle of Megiddo fought during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Caucasus Campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, later including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the German Empire, the Central Caspian Dictatorship and the British Empire as part of the Middle Eastern theatre during World War I. The Caucasus Campaign extended from the South Caucasus to the Armenian Highlands region, reaching as far as Trabzon, Bitlis, Mush and Van.
Among the causes of World War II were Italian fascism in the 1920s, Japanese militarism and invasion of China in the 1930s, and especially the political takeover in 1933 of Germany by Hitler and his Nazi Party and its aggressive foreign policy.
Mahmut Celâl Bayar (16 May 1883 – 22 August 1986) was a Turkish politician who was the third President of Turkey from 1950 to 1960; previously he was Prime Minister of Turkey from 1937 to 1939.
Video-sharing platform YouTube is the second-most popular website as of 2017, according to Alexa Internet.
A censure is an expression of strong disapproval or harsh criticism.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, CBRT (Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankası, TCMB) is the central bank of Turkey and is founded as a joint stock company on 11 June 1930.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
The Charge at Haritan occurred on 26 October 1918 at the end of the Pursuit to Haritan during the final stages of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Charge at Kaukab took place on 30 September 1918 about south of Damascus during the pursuit by Desert Mounted Corps following the decisive Egyptian Expeditionary Force victory at the Battle of Megiddo and the Battle of Jisr Benat Yakub during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. As the Australian Mounted Division rode along the main road north, which connects the Galilee with Damascus via Quneitra, units of the division charged a Turkish rearguard position located across the main road on the ridge at Kaukab.
The Charge at Khan Ayash occurred on 2 October 1918 about north of Damascus after the pursuit to, and capture of Damascus, which followed the decisive Egyptian Expeditionary Force victory at the Battle of Megiddo on 25 September during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. After Damascus had been encircled by Desert Mounted Corps on 30 September, the 3rd Light Horse Brigade advanced through the city on 1 October to charge and capture remnants of the Ottoman Yildirim Army Group withdrawing along the road north to Rayak and Homs.
The Charge at Kiswe took place on 30 September 1918 about south of Damascus, during the pursuit by Desert Mounted Corps following the decisive Egyptian Expeditionary Force victory at the Battle of Megiddo, the Battle of Jisr Benat Yakub and the Charge at Kaukab during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in World War I. As Desert Mounted Corps rode along the main road from Nablus, units of the 14th Cavalry Brigade, 5th Cavalry Division, were ordered to charge a rearguard north of Kiswe, protecting columns of the Ottoman Fourth Army, retreating towards Damascus.
Charles I or Karl I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 18871 April 1922) was the last reigning monarch of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
The Citizen, speak Turkish! (Vatandaş Türkçe konuş!) campaign was an initiative created by law students but sponsored by the Turkish government which aimed to put pressure on non-Turkish speakers to speak Turkish in public in the 1930s.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (İttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti إتحاد و ترقى جمیعتی), later Party of Union and Progress (İttihad ve Terakki Fırkası, Birlik ve İlerleme Partisi) began as a secret society established as the "Committee of Ottoman Union" (İttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti) in Istanbul on February 6, 1889 by medical students Ibrahim Temo, Mehmed Reshid, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti, Ali Hüseyinzade, Kerim Sebatî, Mekkeli Sabri Bey, Nazım Bey, Şerafettin Mağmumi, Cevdet Osman and Giritli Şefik.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of Turkey (Türkiye Komünist Partisi, TKP) was a political party in Turkey.
The Conference of Lausanne was a conference held in Lausanne, Switzerland, during 1922 and 1923.
A cotton mill is a factory housing powered spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution when the early mills were important in the development of the factory system.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Damat Mehmed Adil Ferid Pasha (محمد عادل فريد پاشا Damat Ferit Paşa;‎ 1853 – 6 October 1923), known simply as Damat Ferid Pasha, was an Ottoman statesman, who held the office of Grand Vizier, the de facto prime minister of the Ottoman Empire, during two periods under the reign of the last Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI, the first time between 4 March 1919 and 2 October 1919 and the second time between 5 April 1920 and 21 October 1920.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, first President of the Republic of Turkey, died at the Dolmabahçe Palace, his official residence in Istanbul, on 10 November 1938.
Debt restructuring is a process that allows a private or public company, or a sovereign entity facing cash flow problems and financial distress to reduce and renegotiate its delinquent debts to improve or restore liquidity so that it can continue its operations.
The Democratic Party (Turkish: Demokrat Parti, DP for short) was a Turkish moderately right-wing political party, and the country's third legal opposition party, after the Liberal Republican Party (Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası) established by Ali Fethi Okyar in 1930, and the National Development Party (Milli Kalkınma Partisi) established by Nuri Demirağ in 1945.
Derna (درنة) is a port city in eastern Libya.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled").
Didymóteicho (Διδυμότειχο) is a town located on the eastern edge of the Evros regional unit of East Macedonia and Thrace, in northeastern Greece.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
In Turkey, the Directorate of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı, normally referred to simply as the Diyanet) is an official state institution established in 1924 under article 136 of the Constitution of Turkey by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey as a successor to the Shaykh al-Islām after the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate.
The period of the defeat and end of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.
Diyarbakır (Amida, script) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey.
Dobruja or Dobrudja (Добруджа, transliterated: Dobrudzha or Dobrudža; Dobrogea or; Dobruca) is a historical region in Eastern Europe that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania.
The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.
Dolmabahçe Palace (Dolmabahçe Sarayı) located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coast of the Bosphorus, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1887 and 1909 to 1922 (Yıldız Palace was used in the interim).
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Eastern Rumelia (Източна Румелия, Iztochna Rumeliya; روم الى شرقى, Rumeli-i Şarkî; Ανατολική Ρωμυλία, Anatoliki Romylia) was an autonomous territory (oblast in Bulgarian, vilayet in Turkish) in the Ottoman Empire, created in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin and de facto ended in 1885, when it was united with the principality of Bulgaria, also under Ottoman suzerainty.
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, (23 April 1861 – 14 May 1936) was an English soldier and British Imperial Governor.
Education in Turkey is governed by a national system which was established in accordance with the Atatürk Reforms after the Turkish War of Independence.
Elazığ) is a city in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, and the administrative center of Elazığ Province. It is located in the uppermost Euphrates valley. The plain on which the city extends has an altitude of 1067 metres. Elazığ resembles an inland peninsula surrounded by the natural Lake Hazar and reservoirs of Keban Dam, Karakaya Dam, Kıralkızı and Özlüce.http://www.kultur.gov.tr/genel/medya/iltanitimbrosuru-eng/elazig_eng.pdf Elazığ initially developed in 1834 as an extension of the historic city of Harput, which was situated on a hill and difficult to access in winter.
Eleftherios Kyriakou Venizelos (full name Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos, Ελευθέριος Κυριάκου Βενιζέλος,; 23 August 1864 – 18 March 1936) was an eminent Greek leader of the Greek national liberation movement and a charismatic statesman of the early 20th century remembered for his promotion of liberal-democratic policies.
Eleni Karinte (Greek: Ελένη Καριντέ) was a Greek woman, popularly known as the first love of the founder of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
Ismail Enver Pasha (اسماعیل انور پاشا; İsmail Enver Paşa; 22 November 1881 – 4 August 1922) was an Ottoman military officer and a leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution.
Eqrem Vlora (1 December 1885 – 25 May 1964) also known as Ekrem bey Vlora, was an Albanian lord, politician, writer, and one of the delegates to the Assembly of Vlorë, which proclaimed the Albanian Declaration of Independence in November 28, 1912.
General Erich Georg Anton von Falkenhayn (11 September 1861 – 8 April 1922) was the Chief of the German General Staff during the First World War from September 1914 until 29 August 1916.
The Ethnography Museum of Ankara is a museum of ethnography dedicated to the cultures of Turkic civilizations.
Etibank A.Ş is a defunct Turkish bank.
Although considerable conflict took place outside Europe, the European theatre (also known as the First European War) was the main theatre of operations during World War I and was where the war began and ended.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy.
Falih Rıfkı Atay (1894, Istanbul – 20 March 1971, Istanbul) was a Turkish journalist, writer and politician between 1923 and 1950.
The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of his country, state, or nation.
Female education is a catch-all term of a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education, and health education in particular) for girls and women.
Ferdinand I (Фердинанд I; 26 February 1861 – 10 September 1948),Louda, 1981, ''Lines of Succession'', Table 149 born Ferdinand Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was the second monarch of the Third Bulgarian State, firstly as knyaz (ruling prince) from 1887 to 1908, and later as tsar (emperor) from 1908 until his abdication in 1918.
Ali Fethi Okyar (29 April 1880 – 7 May 1943) was a Turkish diplomat and politician who also served as a military officer and diplomat during the last decade of the Ottoman Empire.
Mustafa Fevzi Çakmak (12 January, 1876 – 10 April 1950) was a Turkish field marshal (Mareşal) and politician.
The fez (more correctly ṭarbūsh from the Persian sarpūsh) is a felt headdress in the shape of a short cylindrical peakless hat, usually red, and sometimes with a tassel attached to the top.
Fezzan (ⴼⴻⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; فزان, Fizzān; Fizan; Phasania) or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya.
The Fifth Army of the Ottoman Empire or Turkish Fifth Army was formed on March 24, 1915 and dissolved on October 1918.
The First Balkan War (Балканска война; Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; Први балкански рат, Prvi Balkanski rat; Birinci Balkan Savaşı), lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League (the kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire.
The First Republic of Armenia, officially known at the time of its existence as the Republic of Armenia (classical Հայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն), was the first modern Armenian state since the loss of Armenian statehood in the Middle Ages.
The Bulgarian Fourth Army was a Bulgarian field army during the Balkan Wars, World War I, and World War II.
Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
The Armenian Legion (Légion arménienne) was a foreign legion unit within the French Army active during and just after World War I which fought against the Ottoman Empire.
The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
The Gallipolli Star is a military decoration awarded by the Ottoman Empire.
Gaziantep, previously and still informally called Antep (Այնթապ, Kurdish: Dîlok), is a city in the western part of Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Region, some east of Adana and north of Aleppo, Syria.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
The General Assembly (Meclis-i Umumî or Genel Parlamento) of the Ottoman Empire was the first attempt at representative democracy at the imperial level in the Ottoman Empire.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Geographical name changes in Turkey have been undertaken, periodically, in bulk from 1913 to the present by successive Turkish governments.
Georgi Stoyanov Todorov (Георги Тодоров) (born on 10 August 1858 in Bolgrad (contemporary Ukraine); died on 16 November 1934 in Sofia) was a Bulgarian general who fought in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Serbo-Bulgarian War (1885), Balkan Wars (1912–1913) and First World War (1914–1918).
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
Around 45% of English vocabulary is of French origin, most coming from the Anglo-Norman spoken by the upper classes in England for several hundred years after the Norman Conquest, before the language settled into what became Modern English.
The Golden Horn (Altın Boynuz; Χρυσόκερας, Chrysókeras; Sinus Ceratinus), also known by its modern Turkish name as Haliç, is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier (Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Offensive (Büyük Taarruz) was the largest and final military operation of the Turkish War of Independence, fought between the Turkish Armed Forces loyal to the government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the Kingdom of Greece, during the Greco-Turkish War.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
The Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922 was fought between Greece and the Turkish National Movement during the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after World War I between May 1919 and October 1922.
Hagop Vahram Çerçiyan was a professor of mathematics, geography, and calligraphy at the Robert College of Istanbul, known for designing the signature of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the first president of Turkey.
Hatay State (Hatay Devleti, État du Hatay, دولة خطاي Dawlat Khaṭāy), also known informally as the Republic of Hatay, was a transitional political entity that existed from September 7, 1938, to June 29, 1939, in the territory of the Sanjak of Alexandretta of the French Mandate of Syria.
Hürriyet (Liberty) is one of the major Turkish newspapers, founded in 1948.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
A hieroglyph (Greek for "sacred writing") was a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system.
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
Hilaire de Barenton, born Étienne Boulé (28 February 1864 in Barenton – 24 February 1946 in Paris), was a friar, linguist and historian of Middle Eastern languages.
The history of Anatolia (Asia Minor) can be roughly subdivided into prehistory, Ancient Near East (Bronze Age and Early Iron Age), Classical Anatolia, Hellenistic Anatolia, Byzantine Anatolia, the age of the Crusades followed by the gradual Seljuk/Ottoman conquest in the 13th to 14th centuries, Ottoman Anatolia (14th to 19th centuries) and the modern history of the Republic of Turkey.
The history of Turkey, understood as the history of the region now forming the territory of the Republic of Turkey, includes the history of both Anatolia (the Asian part of Turkey) and Eastern Thrace (the European part of Turkey).
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
The Imtiyaz Medal / Imtiaz Medal (İmtiyaz Madalyası) or Nishan-i-Imtiaz (Nişan-ı İmtiyaz) was an Ottoman military decoration, instituted in 1882.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Ioannis Metaxas (Ιωάννης Μεταξάς; 12 April 1871 – 29 January 1941) was a Greek military officer and politician, serving as Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941.
The Iran–Iraq boundary runs for 1,458 kilometers, from the Shatt al-Arab (known as Arvand Rud in Iran) waterway to the tripoint boundary with Turkey at the Kuh e-Dalanper.
The Iraqi revolt against the British, also known as the 1920 Iraqi Revolt or Great Iraqi Revolution, started in Baghdad in the summer of 1920 with mass demonstrations by Iraqis, including protests by embittered officers from the old Ottoman army, against the British occupation of Iraq.
The Iraqi Turkmens (also spelled Turcomans, Turkomens, and Turkmans; Irak Türkmenleri), also referred to as Iraqi Turks, or Turks of Iraq (تركمان العراق, Irak Türkleri), are Iraqi citizens of Turkic origin who mostly adhere to a Turkish heritage and identity.
The Iron Cross (abbreviated EK) is a former military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945).
Isa Boletini (15 January 1864 – 23 (24) January 1916) was a Kosovo Albanian nationalist figure and guerrilla fighter in the Ottoman Kosovo Vilayet.
Gender segregation in Islamic law, custom and traditions refers to the practices and requirements in Islamic countries and communities for the separation of men and boys from women and girls in social and other settings.
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Istanbul Atatürk Airport (İstanbul Atatürk Havalimanı) is the main international airport serving Istanbul, and the biggest airport in Turkey by total number of passengers, destinations served and aircraft movements.
Istanbul University (İstanbul Üniversitesi) is a prominent Turkish university located in Istanbul.
The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, "Libyan War") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Kadro was an influential leftist magazine published in Turkey between 1932 and 1934.
Karlovy Vary or Carlsbad (Karlsbad) is a spa town situated in western Bohemia, Czech Republic, on the confluence of the rivers Ohře and Teplá, approximately west of Prague (Praha).
Kastamonu is the capital district of the Kastamonu Province, Turkey.
Qaim Maqam, Qaimaqam or Kaymakam (also spelled kaimakam and caimacam; قائم مقام, "sub-governor") is the title used for the governor of a provincial district in the Republic of Turkey, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and in Lebanon; additionally, it was a title used for roughly the same official position in the Ottoman Empire.
Kâzım Fikri Özalp (1880 – 6 June 1968) was a Turkish military officer, politician, and one of the leading figures in the Turkish War of Independence.
Musa Kâzım Karabekir (also spelled Kiazim Karabekir in English; 23 July 1882 – 26 January 1948) was a Turkish general and politician.
The Kemal Atatürk Memorial is a memorial directly opposite the Australian War Memorial on Anzac Parade, the principal memorial and ceremonial parade in Canberra, the capital of Australia.
Kemalism (Kemalizm), also known as Atatürkism (Atatürkçülük, Atatürkçü düşünce), or the '''Six Arrows''' (Altı ok), is the founding ideology of the Republic of Turkey.
The Khedivate of Egypt (خدیویت مصر) was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt.
The Kingdom of Afghanistan (د افغانستان واکمنان, Dǝ Afġānistān wākmanān; Persian:, Pādešāhī-ye Afġānistān) was a constitutional monarchy in southern and central Asia established in 1926 as a successor state to the Emirate of Afghanistan.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov (Kliment Jefremovič Vorošilov; Климент Охрімович Ворошилов, Klyment Okhrimovyč Vorošylov), popularly known as Klim Voroshilov (Клим Вороши́лов, Klim Vorošilov) (4 February 1881 – 2 December 1969), was a prominent Soviet military officer and politician during the Stalin era.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Laïcité, literally "secularity", is a French concept of secularism.
The landing at Anzac Cove on Sunday, 25 April 1915, also known as the landing at Gaba Tepe, and to the Turks as the Arıburnu Battle, was part of the amphibious invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula by the forces of the British Empire, which began the land phase of the Gallipoli Campaign of the First World War.
The landing at Suvla Bay was an amphibious landing made at Suvla on the Aegean coast of Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire as part of the August Offensive, the final British attempt to break the deadlock of the Battle of Gallipoli.
Larkana (لاڑکانہ; لاڙڪاڻو) is a city in the north-west of the Sindh province of Pakistan, where the historic Indus River flows in south of the city.
Latife Uşakizâde (later Latife Uşaklıgil after the Surname Law of 1934; with the honorifics, Latife Hanım) (17 June 1898 – 12 July 1975) was Mustafa Kemal Pasha's (later Atatürk) wife between 1923 and 1925.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Lütfi Müfit Özdeş (1874; Kırşehir - April 18, 1940; Heybeliada) was a military officer of the Ottoman Army, a politician of the Republic of Turkey.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The Liakat Medal (Liyakat Madalyasi) translated as "Medal of Merit," was a decoration of the Ottoman Empire established in 1890.
The Liberal Republican Party (sometimes referred to as the Free Republican Party; in Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası) was a political party founded by Fethi Okyar in the early years of the Turkish Republic.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is a list of people appearing on the cover of ''Time'' magazine in the 1920s.
Curtiss Hawk was a name common to many aircraft designed and produced by the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, most of them fighters.
This list includes high-ranking commanders who took part in Turkish War of Independence.
This is a comprehensive list of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's awards, (1881 – 10 November 1938), who was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, and founder of the Republic of Turkey as well as its first President.
Below is a list of national printed newspapers published in Turkey.
The following is a complete list of Presidents of Turkey, consisting of the twelve heads of state and one Executive President of Turkey since the inception of the republican period in 1923, following the Turkish War of Independence.
The following is a complete list of Prime Ministers of Turkey, since the establishment of that position in 1920, during the Turkish War of Independence.
The Lydians were an Anatolian people living in Lydia, a region in western Anatolia, who spoke the distinctive Lydian language, an Indo-European language of the Anatolian group.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.
Mahmud Beg Tarzi (محمود طرزۍ, Dari Persian: محمود بیگ طرزی; August 23, 1865 – November 22, 1933) was a politician and one of Afghanistan's greatest intellectuals.
Makbule Atadan (1885 – January 18, 1956Mürşit Balabanlılar, Şebnem Kandır, Mine Söğüt, Türkiye'nin Yetmiş Yılı: 1923-1993: Gün Gün Cumhuriyet Tarihi, 1. cilt, Hürgüç Gazetecilik, 1994) was the sister of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey.
Mare Nostrum (mare nostrvm, "Our Sea") was a Roman name for the Mediterranean Sea.
Mareşal/Büyükamiral (Marshal) is the highest rank in the Army of Turkey, the Turkish Armed Forces.
Marmara University (Turkish: Marmara Üniversitesi) is a public university in the Fatih district of Istanbul, in Turkey.
Medal of Independence (İstiklal Madalyası) was a special military decoration issued in limited number by Grand National Assembly of Turkey in accordance with the Act 66 of November 29, 1920.
Mehmed V. Reşâd (Ottoman Turkish: محمد خامس Meḥmed-i ẖâmis, Beşinci Mehmet Reşat or Reşat Mehmet) (2 November 1844 – 3 July 1918) was the 35th and penultimate Ottoman Sultan.
Mehmed VI (محمد السادس Meḥmed-i sâdis, وحيد الدين Vahideddin, Vahideddin or Altıncı Mehmet), who is also known as Şahbaba (meaning "Emperor-father") among his relatives, (14 January 1861 – 16 May 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918 to 1922.
Mehmet Cavit Bey, Mehmed Cavid Bey or Mehmed Djavid Bey (1875–1926) was an Ottoman Sabbatean economist, newspaper editor and leading politician during the dissolution period of the Ottoman Empire.
Menemen, is a district of İzmir Province in Turkey as well as the district's central town.
The Menemen Incident (Kubilay Olayı or Menemen Olayı) refers to a chain of events which occurred in Menemen, a small town near İzmir in the Aegean region of Turkey, on 23 December 1930.
The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I fought between the Allies represented by the British Empire, mostly troops from Britain, Australia and the British Indian, and the Central Powers, mostly of the Ottoman Empire.
The Mevlâna Museum, located in Konya, Turkey, is the mausoleum of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi, a Persian Sufi mystic also known as Mevlâna or Rumi.
The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I saw action between 29 October 1914 and 30 October 1918.
The Military Merit Cross (Militärverdienstkreuz, Katonai Érdemkereszt, Vojni križ za zasluge) was a decoration of the Empire of Austria and, after the establishment of the Dual Monarchy in 1867, the Empire of Austria-Hungary.
The Military Merit Medal (Militär-Verdienstmedaille, Katonai Érdemérem, Vojna medalja za zasluge) was a military decoration of the Empire of Austria-Hungary.
Milliyet (Turkish for "nationality") is a major Turkish daily newspaper published in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı) is a government ministry of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for culture and tourism affairs in Turkey.
The Ministry of External Relations (MER) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Министерство иностранных дел СССР), formed on 16 July 1923, was one of the most important government offices in the Soviet Union.
The Ministry of Justice (Adalet Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for justice affairs.
The Ministry of National Education (Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı) is a government ministry of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for the supervision of public and private educational system, agreements and authorizations under a national curriculum.
Mirliva or Mîr-i livâ was a military rank of the Ottoman Army and Navy.
Misak-ı Millî (National Pact or National Oath) is the set of six decisions made by the last term of the Ottoman Parliament.
Mixed-sex education, also known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation (abbreviated to co-ed or coed), is a system of education where males and females are educated together.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Mohammed Zahir Shah (محمد ظاهرشاه, محمد ظاهر شاه; 16 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973.
The Monastir Military High School (Manastır Askerî İdadisi), established in 1847, was one of the three-year educational military high schools of the Ottoman Empire.
The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits is a 1936 agreement that gives Turkey control over the Bosporus Straits and the Dardanelles and regulates the transit of naval warships.
The Mosul Vilayet (ولايت موصل, Vilâyet-i Musul) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
Muş (transliterated as Mush, also historically Moush or Moosh; Մուշ, script) is a city and the provincial capital of Muş Province in Turkey.
The multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey started with the establishment of the opposition Liberal Republican Party (Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası) by Ali Fethi Okyar in 1930 after President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk asked Okyar to establish the party as part of an attempted transition to multi-party democracy in Turkey.
Mustafa is an Arabic given name and surname.
Mustafa Elvan Cantekin (1878 – 21 October 1955) was a military physician of the Ottoman Army and a politician in the Republic of Turkey.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
Namık Kemal (21 December 1840 – 2 December 1888) was an Ottoman democrat, writer, intellectual, reformer, journalist, playwright, and political activist who was influential in the formation of the Young Ottomans and their struggle for governmental reform in the Ottoman Empire during the late Tanzimat period, which would lead to the First Constitutional Era in the Empire in 1876.
The Naqshbandi (نقشبندی) or Naqshbandiyah is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Nazilli is the second largest town in Aydın Province in the Aegean region of western Turkey, east of the city of Aydın, on the road to Denizli.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
A non-aggression pact or neutrality pact is a national treaty between two or more states/countries where the signatories promise not to engage in military action against each other.
Norman Itzkowitz (born May 6, 1931 in New York) is a Polish American Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University.
Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a partially recognised state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.
Nuri Demirağ (born 1886 in Divriği – died 1957 in Istanbul) was an early Turkish business magnate.
The Nuri Demirağ Nu D.36 was a 1930s Turkish two-seat training biplane built by the Nuri Demirağ Aircraft Works in Istanbul for the Turkish military.
The Nuri Demirağ Nu.D.38 was a Turkish light civil transport, with twin engines and seating for four passengers, built in the early 1940s.
The Occupation of Constantinople (İstanbul'un İşgali) (November 13, 1918 – September 23, 1923), the capital of the Ottoman Empire, by British, French and Italian forces, took place in accordance with the Armistice of Mudros, which ended Ottoman participation in the First World War.
The Occupation of Smyrna was the military control by Greek forces of the city of Smyrna (modern-day İzmir) and surrounding areas from 15 May 1919 until 9 September 1922.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
The Order of Osmanieh or Osmaniye (Osmanlı Devlet Nişanı) was a military decoration of the Ottoman Empire.
The Royal Order of the Crown (Königlicher Kronen-Orden) was a Prussian order of chivalry.
Medjidie or Mejidie (Mecidiye Nişanı, August 29, 1852 – 1922) is the name of a military and knightly order of the Ottoman Empire.
Orders, decorations and medals of Bulgaria are regulated by the law on the Orders and Medals of the Republic Of Bulgaria of 29 May 2003.
Otto Viktor Karl Liman von Sanders (17 February 1855 – 22 August 1929) was a German general who served as an adviser and military commander to the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.
The Ottoman Bank (Osmanlı Bankası) (formerly Imperial Ottoman Bank, Bank-ı Osmanî-i Şahane) was founded in 1856 in the Galata business section of Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, as a joint venture between British interests, the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas of France, and the Ottoman government.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
General elections were held in the Ottoman Empire in 1919 and were the last official elections held in the Empire.
The Ottoman Military College or Imperial Military Staff College or Ottoman Army War College (script or Erkân-ı Harbiye Mektebi), was a two-year military staff college of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman public debt was a term which dated back to 24 August 1855, when the Ottoman Empire first entered into loan contracts with its European creditors shortly after the beginning of the Crimean War.
The Ottoman Public Debt Administration (OPDA) (Ottoman Turkish: Düyun-u Umumiye-i Osmaniye Varidat-ı Muhassasa İdaresi, or simply Düyun-u Umumiye as it was popularly known), was a European-controlled organization that was established in 1881 to collect the payments which the Ottoman Empire owed to European companies in the Ottoman public debt.
Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.
The coastal region of what is today Libya was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania (ایالت طرابلس غرب Eyālet-i Trâblus Gârb) or Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary from 1551 to 1864 and as the Vilayet of Tripolitania (ولايت طرابلس غرب Vilâyet-i Trâblus Gârb) from 1864 to 1911.
The Ottoman Turkish alphabet (الفبا) is a version of the Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write Ottoman Turkish until 1928, when it was replaced by the Latin-based modern Turkish alphabet.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pan-Turkism is a movement which emerged during the 1880s among Turkic intellectuals of Azerbaijan (part of the Russian Empire at the time) and the Ottoman Empire (modern day Turkey), with its aim being the cultural and political unification of all Turkic peoples.
Panagis Tsaldaris (also Panagiotis Tsaldaris or Panayotis Tsaldaris; Παναγιώτης (Παναγής) Τσαλδάρης; 5 March 1868 – 17 May 1936) was a Greek politician and the 48th Prime Minister of Greece.
A Panama hat (toquilla straw hat) is a traditional brimmed straw hat of Ecuadorian origin.
Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.
The partition of the Ottoman Empire (Armistice of Mudros, 30 October 1918 – Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate, 1 November 1922) was a political event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918.
Pasha or Paşa (پاشا, paşa), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others.
In Turkish, the phrase "Yurtta sulh, cihanda sulh" - "Peace at Home, Peace in the World" - was first pronounced by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk on 20 April 1931 to the public during his tours of Anatolia.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
People's Houses (Народный дом) were originally leisure and cultural centres built with the intention of making art and cultural appreciation available to the working classes.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phryges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.
Picardy (Picardie) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Plastic arts are art forms which involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by moulding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics.
Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
Political Order in Changing Societies is a 1968 book by Samuel P. Huntington dealing with changes in political systems and political institutions.
A polyglot is a book that contains side-by-side versions of the same text in several different languages.
The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.
The postal history of Turkey and its predecessor state, the Ottoman Empire, dates to the 18th century when foreign countries maintained courier services through their consular offices in the Empire.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
The President of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
The Prime Minister of Turkey (Turkish: Başbakan) was the head of government of Turkey.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The Progressive Republican Party (Terakkiperver Cumhuriyet Fırkası, ترقیپرور جمهوریت فرقهسی) was a political party in Turkey between 1924 and 1925.
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.
The Pursuit to Haritan occurred between 29 September and 26 October 1918 when the XXI Corps and Desert Mounted Corps of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) pursued the retreating remnants of the Yildirim Army Group advanced north from Damascus after that city was captured on 1 October during the final weeks of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
Translations of the Qur'an are interpretations of the scripture of Islam in languages other than Arabic.
Iraq Command was the Royal Air Force (RAF) commanded inter-service command in charge of British forces in Iraq in the 1920s and early 1930s, during the period of the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
In international relations, a rapprochement, which comes from the French word rapprocher ("to bring together"), is a re-establishment of cordial relations, as between two countries.
The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.
Hüseyin Rauf Orbay (27 July 1881 – 16 July 1964) was an Ottoman-born Turkish naval officer, statesman and diplomat.
Realism is a school of thought in international relations theory, theoretically formalising the Realpolitik statesmanship of early modern Europe.
Refet Bele also known as Refet Bey or Refet Pasha (1877; Salonica – October 3, 1963; Istanbul) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and the Turkish Army, where he retired as a general.
The reforms of Amānullāh Khān began following his accession in 1919 and his securing independence for Afghanistan in 1920.
The Régie Company (la Société de la régie co-intéressée des tabacs de l'empire Ottoman) was a parastatal company formed in the later Ottoman Empire by the Ottoman Public Debt Administration, with backing from a consortium of European banks.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Republic Day of Turkey (Cumhuriyet Bayramı) is one of the public holidays in Turkey commemorating the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923.
The Republican People's Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi, CHP) is a Kemalist and social-democratic political party in Turkey.
A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.
Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
The Russian Caucasus Army (Кавказскaя армия) of World War I was the Russian field army that fought in the Caucasus Campaign and Persian Campaign of World War I. It was renowned for inflicting heavy casualties on the opposing forces of the Ottoman Empire, particularly at the Battle of Sarikamish.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Sabiha Gökçen (22 March 1913 – 22 March 2001) was a Turkish aviator.
Saffet Arıkan (1888–1946) was a former Turkish politician.
The Sakarya (Sakarya Irmağı, translit) is the third longest river in Turkey.
The Vilayet of Salonica (ولايت سلانيك, Vilâyet-i Selânik, Selanik Vilayeti) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire from 1867 to 1912.
Samsun is a city on the north coast of Turkey with a population over half a million people.
Samuel Marinus Zwemer (April 12, 1867 – April 2, 1952), nicknamed The Apostle to Islam, was an American missionary, traveler, and scholar.
Sanjaks (سنجاق, modern: Sancak) were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire.
The Sanjak of Alexandretta (İskenderun Sancağı, Sandjak d'Alexandrette, لواء الإسكندرونة) was a sanjak of the Mandate of Syria composed of two qadaas of the former Aleppo Vilayet (Alexandretta and Antioch, now İskenderun and Antakya) and became autonomous under Article 7 of the 1921 Treaty of Ankara: "A special administrative regime shall be established for the district of Alexandretta.
Santo Domingo (meaning "Saint Dominic"), officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population.
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
Söke is a town and a large district of Aydın Province in the Aegean region of western Turkey, 54 km (34 miles) south-west of the city of Aydın, near the Aegean coast.
Sümerbank was a Turkish bank and industrial holding company established in 1933 and originally owned by the Turkish state, now part of Oyak Bank.
The Second Army of the Ottoman Empire was one of the field armies of the Ottoman Army.
The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.) / 29 (N.S.) June 1913.
The Second Constitutional Era (ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire established shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore the constitutional monarchy by the revival of the Ottoman Parliament, the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and the restoration of the constitution of 1876.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Secularism in Turkey defines the relationship between religion and state in the country of Turkey.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Semiha Berksoy was born in Istanbul.
Senior captain is a rare military rank which is used in some countries' armed forces, navies and merchant marines.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
The Ottoman Seventh Army was a large military formation of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Sheikh Said of Palu or Piran (Kurdî Zazaki: Şêx Seîdê Pîranij, Kurdî Kurmancî: Şêx Seîdê Pîranî) (1865 in Hınıs – June 29, 1925 in Amed) was a Zaza Kurd sheikh of the Sunni order and one of the leaders of Zaza Kurd rebellion, also known as the Sheikh Said Rebellion.
The Sheikh Said Rebellion (Serhildana Seîdê Pîran, Şeyh Said İsyanı) or Genç Incident (Genç Hâdisesi) was a Kurdish rebellion aimed at reviving the Islamic caliphate and sultanate.
In Shi'a Islam the guidance of clergy and keeping such a structure holds a great importance.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sivas (Latin and Greek: Sebastia, Sebastea, Sebasteia, Sebaste, Σεβάστεια, Σεβαστή) is a city in central Turkey and the seat of Sivas Province.
The Sivas Congress (Sivas Kongresi) was an assembly of the Turkish National Movement held for one week from 4 to 11 September 1919 in the city of Sivas, in central-eastern Turkey, that united delegates from all Anatolian provinces of the Ottoman Empire, which was defunct at the time in practical terms.
Skill is a measure of the amount of worker's expertise, specialization, wages, and supervisory capacity.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
The Sorbonne is an edifice of the Latin Quarter, in Paris, France, which was the historical house of the former University of Paris.
This article lists the Speakers of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.
The Stalemate in Southern Palestine was a six month standoff between the British Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) and the Ottoman Army in World War I. The two hostile forces faced each other along the Gaza to Beersheba line during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, with neither side able to force its opponent to withdraw.
The State Art and Sculpture Museum (Resim ve Heykel Müzesi) is a museum dedicated to fine arts and sculpture in Ankara, Turkey.
State capitalism is an economic system in which the state undertakes commercial (i.e. for-profit) economic activity and where the means of production are organized and managed as state-owned business enterprises (including the processes of capital accumulation, wage labor and centralized management), or where there is otherwise a dominance of corporatized government agencies (agencies organized along business-management practices) or of publicly listed corporations in which the state has controlling shares.
A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honour people of national significance.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
State socialism is a classification for any socialist political and economic perspective advocating state ownership of the means of production either as a temporary measure in the transition from capitalism to socialism, or as characteristic of socialism itself.
In political science, statism is the belief that the state should control either economic or social policy, or both, to some degree.
Stiliyan Kovachev (Стилиян Ковачев) (born on 26 February 1860 in Yanbolu (Yambol), died on 11 July 1939 in Sofia) was a Bulgarian general.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
The Sun Language Theory (Güneş Dil Teorisi) was a Turkish nationalist pseudoscientific linguistic hypothesis developed in Turkey in the 1930s that proposed that all human languages are descendants of one proto-Turkic primal language.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Surname Law (Soyadı Kanunu) of the Republic of Turkey was adopted on June 21, 1934.
Surname law can refer to any law regulating the use of surnames.
The Swiss Civil Code (SR 210, Schweizerisches Zivilgesetzbuch (ZGB); Code civil suisse (CC); Codice civile svizzero (CC); Cudesch civil svizzer) is the codified law ruling in Switzerland and regulating relationship between individuals.
The Vilayet of Syria (Vilâyet-i Suriye), also known as Vilayet of Damascus,.
Tafsir (lit) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.
Mehmed Talaat (محمد طلعت; Mehmet Talât; 10 April 1874 – 15 March 1921), commonly known as Talaat Pasha (طلعت پاشا; Talât Paşa), was one of the triumvirate known as the Three Pashas that de facto ruled the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.
The Tanzimât (lit) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.
Türkiye İş Bankası or simply İşbank is Turkey's largest bank.
A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Tekel, (Turkish, literally single-hand or monopoly and generally capitalised as TEKEL) was a Turkish tobacco and alcoholic beverages company.
Terminology is the study of terms and their use.
Tevfik Rüştü Aras (1883 in Çanakkale – January 5, 1972 in Istanbul) was a Turkish politician, serving as deputy and foreign minister of Turkey during the Atatürk era (1923–1938).
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
The Third Army was originally established in the Balkans and later defended the northeastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
The Third Transjordan attack by Chaytor's Force, part of the British Empire's Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF), took place between 21 and 25 September 1918, against the Ottoman Empire's Fourth Army and other Yildirim Army Group units.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
Timeline of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is a time line of events during the lifespan of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
This chronology of the Turkish War of Independence is a timeline of events during the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923).
Women's suffrage – the right of women to vote – has been achieved at various times in countries throughout the world.
Tobruk or Tubruq (Αντίπυργος) (طبرق Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
The Touring and Automobile Club of Turkey (Türkiye Turing ve Otomobil Kurumu) (TTOK), also known as Turkish Automobile Association, is an amateur and international organization dedicated to tourism and the automobile sector.
The Treaty of Kars (Kars Antlaşması, Карсский договор / Karskii dogovor, ყარსის ხელშეკრულება, Կարսի պայմանագիր, Qars müqaviləsi) was a peace treaty that established the common borders between Turkey and the three Transcaucasian republics of the Soviet Union (today the independent republics of Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan).
The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
The Treaty of Moscow or Treaty of Brotherhood (Moskova Antlaşması, Московский договор) was a peace treaty between the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM), under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and the Russian SFSR, under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, signed on 16 March 1921.
The Treaty of Saadabad (or the Saadabad Pact) was a non-aggression pact signed by Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan on July 8, 1937.
The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkification, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire.
Turkish Aeronautical Association (Türk Hava Kurumu - THK) is a non-profit organization with an aim of increasing public awareness and participation in aviation related activities and the national body governing air sports in Turkey.
The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
The Constitution of 1921 (Ottoman Turkish: Teşkilât-ı Esasiye Kanunu; 1921 Türk Anayasası) was the fundamental law of Turkey for a brief period from 1921 to 1924.
The Constitution of 1924, formally titled the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Ottoman Turkish: Teşkilât-ı Esasiye Kanunu; 1924 Türk Anayasası), was the fundamental law of Turkey from 1924 to 1961.
The Turkish Education Association (Türk Eğitim Derneği) was established on January 1, 1928, under Atatürk's vision and leadership.
General elections were held in Turkey on 8 February 1935.
The Turkish Historical Society also known as Turkish Historical Association or Turkish History Foundation (Türk Tarih Kurumu, TTK) is a research society studying the history of Turkey and the Turkish people, founded in 1931 by the initiative of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, with headquarters in Ankara, Turkey.
The Turkish Land Forces (Türk Kara Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Army (Türk Ordusu), is the main branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Turkish Language Institution (Türk Dil Kurumu, TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 by the initiative of Atatürk and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey.
The Turkish lira (Türk lirası; sign: ₺; code: TRY; usually abbreviated as TL) is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
The Turkish Military Academy (Kara Harp Okulu) is a four-year co-educational military academy located in the center of Ankara, Turkey.
The Turkish National Movement (Türk Ulusal Hareketi) encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries that resulted in the creation and shaping of the modern Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the subsequent occupation of Constantinople and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros.
Turkish nationalism is a political ideology that promotes and glorifies the Turkish people, as either a national, ethnic, or linguistic group.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The State Railways of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları), abbreviated as TCDD, is a government-owned national railway company responsible with the ownership and maintenance of railway infrastructure in Turkey, as well as the planning and construction of new lines.
The Turkish Straits (Türk Boğazları) are a series of internationally significant waterways in northwestern Turkey that connect the Aegean and Mediterranean seas to the Black Sea.
Turkish tobacco, or Oriental tobacco, is a highly aromatic, small-leafed variety of tobacco which is sun-cured.
The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.
The Turkish–Armenian war, known in Turkey as the Eastern Operation or Eastern Front (Doğu Cephesi) of the Turkish War of Independence, refers to a conflict in the autumn of 1920 between the First Republic of Armenia and the Turkish nationalists, following the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The 1935 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 14 November 1935 and resulted in a large, albeit reduced, majority for the National Government now led by Stanley Baldwin of the Conservative Party.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The 1934 United States House of Representatives elections were held in the middle of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's first term.
Vamık D. Volkan, M.D., DFLAPA, FACPsa, (born 1932 in Lefkoşa, Cyprus) is a Turkish Cypriot Emeritus Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, the Senior Erik Erikson Scholar at the Erikson Institute of Education and Research of the Austen Riggs Center, Stockbridge, Massachusetts, and an Emeritus Training and Supervising Analyst at the Washington Psychoanalytic Institute, Washington, D.C. He is the President Emeritus of International Dialogue Initiative (IDI).
Vatan ve Hürriyet ("Motherland and Liberty" in Turkish) was a small, secret revolutionary society of reformist officers opposed to the autocratic regime of Ottoman sultan Abdul Hamid II in the early 20th century.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Wellington (Te Whanganui-a-Tara) is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with residents.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, and names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution.
Lieutenant-General Sir William Raine Marshall (29 October 1865 – 29 May 1939) was a British Army officer who in November 1917 succeeded Sir Frederick Stanley Maude (upon the latter's death from cholera) as Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in Mesopotamia.
Women in Turkey have an active participation in national politics, and the number of women in the Turkish parliament has been increasing steadily in recent elections.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The XVI Corps of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: 16 ncı Kolordu or On Altıncı Kolordu) was one of the corps of the Ottoman Army.
Yahoo! GeoCities is a web hosting service.
Yakub Kadri Karaosmanoğlu (March 27, 1889 – December 13, 1974) was a Turkish novelist, journalist, diplomat, and senator.
Yalova is a city located in northwestern Turkey, near the eastern coast of the Sea of Marmara.
The Yörüks, also Yuruks or Yorouks (Yörükler;, Youroúkoi; юруци; Јуруци, Juruci), are a Turkish ethnic subgroup, some of whom are nomadic, primarily inhabiting the mountains of Anatolia, and partly in the Balkan peninsula.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Yildirim Army Group or Thunderbolt Army Group of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Yıldırım Ordular Grubu) or Army Group F (German: Heeresgruppe F) was one of the army groups of the Ottoman Army.
The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire was when the Young Turks movement restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and ushered in multi-party politics in a two stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament.
Young Turks (Jön Türkler, from Les Jeunes Turcs) was a Turkish nationalist party in the early 20th century that consisted of Ottoman exiles, students, civil servants, and army officers.
A zaouia or zawiya (زاوية zāwiyah; "assembly" "group" or "circle", also spelled zawiyah, zawiyya, zaouiya, zaouïa and zwaya) is an Islamic religious school or monastery.
Zübeyde Hanım (1856 – 14 January 1923) was the mother of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey.
The 1934 Resettlement Law (also known as the Law no. 2510) was a policy adopted on 14 June 1934 by the Turkish government which set forth the basic principles of immigration.
The 31 March Incident (31 Mart Vakası, 31 Mart Olayı, 31 Mart Hadisesi, or 31 Mart İsyanı) was the defeat of the Ottoman countercoup of 1909 by the Hareket Ordusu ("Army of Action"), which was the 11th Salonika Reserve Infantry Division of the Third Army stationed in the Balkans and commanded by Mahmud Shevket Pasha on 24 April 1909.
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