69 relations: Adrenergic receptor, Alkaloid, Amnesia, Amphetamine, Anisocoria, Anticholinergic, Atropa belladonna, Atropine, Autonomic nervous system, Brain herniation, Central nervous system, Chemical warfare, Ciliary muscle, Cocaine, Constriction, Cranial nerves, Cycloplegia, Darkness, Depressant, Disease, Dopamine, Drug, Epilepsy, Eye injury, Eye surgery, Head injury, Heroin, Horner's syndrome, Hyoscine, Hyoscyamine, Injury, Intracranial pressure, Iris (anatomy), Iris dilator muscle, Iris sphincter muscle, LASIK, Light, MDMA, Medical test, Medicine, Miosis, Morphine, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Muscle, Muscle contraction, Neurology, Neurotransmitter, Norepinephrine, Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Oculomotor nerve, ..., Ophthalmology, Opiate, Oxycodone, Oxytocin, Parasympathetic nervous system, Phenylephrine, Photophobia, Psychiatry, Pupil, Pupillary light reflex, Pupillary response, Retina, Solanaceae, Spasm, Stimulant, Stroke, Sympathetic nervous system, Tropicamide, 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate. Expand index (19 more) » « Shrink index
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anisocoria is a condition characterized by an unequal size of the eyes' pupils.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, which includes tomatoes, potatoes, and aubergine.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Brain herniation is a potentially deadly side effect of very high pressure within the skull that occurs when a part of the brain is squeezed across structures within the skull.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
The ciliary muscle is a ring of smooth muscleSchachar, Ronald A. (2012). "Anatomy and Physiology." (Chapter 4). in the eye's middle layer (vascular layer) that controls accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humour into Schlemm's canal. It changes the shape of the lens within the eye, not the size of the pupil which is carried out by the sphincter pupillae muscle and dilator pupillae.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Constriction is a method used by various snake species to kill their prey.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
Cycloplegia is paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye, resulting in a loss of accommodation.
Darkness, the polar opposite to brightness, is understood as a lack of illumination or an absence of visible light.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Physical or chemical injuries of the eye can be a serious threat to vision if not treated appropriately and in a timely fashion.
Eye surgery, also known as ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist.
A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Horner's syndrome is a combination of symptoms that arises when a group of nerves known as the sympathetic trunk is damaged.
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Hyoscyamine (also known as daturine) is a tropane alkaloid.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
The iris dilator muscle (pupil dilator muscle, pupillary dilator, radial muscle of iris, radiating fibers), is a smooth muscle of the eye, running radially in the iris and therefore fit as a dilator.
The iris sphincter muscle (pupillary sphincter, pupillary constrictor, circular muscle of iris, circular fibers) is a muscle in the part of the eye called the iris.
LASIK or Lasik (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis), commonly referred to as laser eye surgery or laser vision correction, is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
A norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI, NERI) or adrenergic reuptake inhibitor (ARI), is a type of drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET).
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist of the phenethylamine class used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, to increase blood pressure, and to relieve hemorrhoids.
Photophobia is a symptom of abnormal intolerance to visual perception of light.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness.
Pupillary response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Tropicamide, sold under the brand name Mydriacyl among others, is a medication used to dilate the pupil and help with examination of the eye.
3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) — IUPAC name 1-azabicyclooctan-3-yl hydroxy(diphenyl)acetate; US Army code EA-2277; NATO code BZ; Soviet code Substance 78 — is an odorless military incapacitating agent.