296 relations: Abdomen, ABO blood group system, ACE inhibitor, Acute coronary syndrome, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, ADAMTS7, Adenosine triphosphate, Aerobic exercise, Air pollution, Alcohol, Alcoholic drink, Allergy, American Heart Association, Anemia, Angina, Angioplasty, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Antibiotic, Anticoagulant, Antimineralocorticoid, Antiplatelet drug, Aorta, Aortic dissection, APOA5, Apoptosis, Arterial embolism, Artery, Aspirin, Asthma, Atheroma, Atherosclerosis, Atrial fibrillation, Autonomic neuropathy, Autopsy, Beta blocker, Biomarker, Biomarker (medicine), Blood pressure, Blood test, Body mass index, Boerhaave syndrome, Brain, Calcification, Carbon monoxide, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac examination, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac output, Cardiac tamponade, Cardiogenic shock, ..., Cardiology, Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, Carvedilol, Catecholamine, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, Chest pain, Chest radiograph, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Cholesterol, Chromosome 9, Clopidogrel, Coagulation, Cocaine, Collagen, Collagen, type IV, alpha 1, Collateralization, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Common law, Copeptin, Coronary arteries, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Coronary artery disease, Coronary catheterization, Coronary circulation, Coronary reflex, Coronary vasospasm, Costochondritis, CPK-MB test, Creatinine, CT scan, Daylight saving time, Defibrillation, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Diet (nutrition), Disability-adjusted life year, Disease, Dissection (medical), Dressler syndrome, Echocardiography, Ejection fraction, Electrocardiography, Embolectomy, Embolism, Endocardium, Endometriosis, Eplerenone, Eptifibatide, Ezetimibe, Family history (medicine), Fatigue, Femoral artery, Fibrinolysis, Fludeoxyglucose (18F), Foam cell, Framingham Risk Score, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gastrointestinal tract, Genome-wide association study, Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, Gross pathology, Growth factor, Health impact assessment, Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Heart block, Heart failure, Heart rate, Heart transplantation, Heartburn, Helicobacter pylori, Hemodynamics, Heparin, High-density lipoprotein, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperhomocysteinemia, Hyperkalemia, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism, Hypotension, Hypoxemia, India, Infarction, Infection, Influenza, Injury, Intracranial hemorrhage, Ischemia, Ischemic cascade, Kawasaki disease, KCNE2, Kidney failure, Killip class, LDL receptor, Left bundle branch block, Left coronary artery, Legume, Levine's sign, Lightheadedness, Likelihood function, Lipoprotein(a), Loading dose, Locus (genetics), Low-density lipoprotein, Lower respiratory tract infection, Lung, Macrophage, Major depressive disorder, Medical guideline, Mediterranean diet, Metabolic acidosis, Metoprolol, Mitochondrion, Mitral insufficiency, Morphine, Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3, MRAS, MRPS6, Myocardial perfusion imaging, Myocardial scarring, Myoglobin, Na+/K+-ATPase, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Necrosis, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitroglycerin, Nitroglycerin (drug), Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Nuclear medicine, Nut (fruit), Obesity, Occupational injury, Occupational stress, Old age, Olive oil, Omega-3 fatty acid, Opioid, Organ donation, Oxygen, Oxygen therapy, Ozone, P2Y12, Palpitations, Passive smoking, PCSK9, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Pericardial effusion, Pericarditis, Peripheral artery disease, Perspiration, PHACTR1, Physical examination, Phytosterol, Pneumonia, Pneumothorax, Police officer, Polyunsaturated fat, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Positive and negative predictive values, Positron emission tomography, Prairie View A&M University, Prasugrel, Presyncope, Preventive healthcare, Psychology, Public health, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary embolism, Radial artery, Radioactive decay, Radiocontrast agent, Rapeseed, Recommended maximum intake of alcoholic beverages, Renal artery, Reteplase, Rib fracture, Right coronary artery, Rubidium-82, Saturated fat, Scar, Sedentary lifestyle, Seed, Sensitivity and specificity, Shift work, Shortness of breath, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Single-photon emission computed tomography, SLC5A3, SMG6, Smoking, Smoking cessation, Smooth muscle tissue, SNF8, Socioeconomic status, Sortilin 1, Spironolactone, ST elevation, ST segment, Stanol ester, Statin, Stent, Sternum, Streptokinase, Stroke, Sulfur dioxide, Sympathetic nervous system, Syncope (medicine), Systole, T wave, Tachycardia, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, TANGO1/MIA3, Targeted temperature management, TCF21 (gene), Technetium (99mTc) sestamibi, Technetium (99mTc) tetrofosmin, Tenecteplase, Thallium(I) chloride, Threshold of pain, Thrombolysis, Thrombus, Ticagrelor, TIMI, Tirofiban, Tissue plasminogen activator, Tobacco smoking, Trans fat, Triglyceride, Troponin, Ultrasound, Unconsciousness, Unstable angina, Vaccination, Variant angina, Ventricle (heart), Ventricular aneurysm, Ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular tachycardia, Vitamin, Waist, Warfarin, WDR12, 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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes.
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a syndrome (set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical condition occurring in critically ill or critically wounded patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs.
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 7 (ADAMTS7) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADAMTS7 gene on chromosome 15.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.
An antiplatelet drug (antiaggregant) is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decrease platelet aggregation and inhibit thrombus formation.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
Aortic dissection (AD) occurs when an injury to the innermost layer of the aorta allows blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall, forcing the layers apart.
Apolipoprotein A-V is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA5 gene on chromosome 11.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Arterial embolism is a sudden interruption of blood flow to an organ or body part due to an embolus adhering to the wall of an artery blocking the flow of blood, the major type of embolus being a blood clot (thromboembolism).
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
An atheroma is a reversible accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of an artery wall.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.
Autonomic neuropathy (also AN or AAN) is a form of polyneuropathy that affects the non-voluntary, non-sensory nervous system (i.e., the autonomic nervous system), affecting mostly the internal organs such as the bladder muscles, the cardiovascular system, the digestive tract, and the genital organs.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.
In medicine, a biomarker is a measurable indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
Esophageal rupture is a rupture of the esophageal wall.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
In medicine, the cardiac examination, also precordial exam, is performed as part of a physical examination, or when a patient presents with chest pain suggestive of a cardiovascular pathology.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.
Cardiac tamponade, also known as pericardial tamponade, is when fluid in the pericardium (the sac around the heart) builds up, resulting in compression of the heart.
Cardiogenic shock is a medical emergency resulting from inadequate blood flow due to the dysfunction of the ventricles of the heart.
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a branch of rehabilitation medicine/Physical Therapy dealing with optimizing physical function in patients with cardiac disease or recent cardiac surgeries.
Carvedilol, sold under the brand name Coreg among others, is a medication used for treating mild to severe congestive heart failure (CHF), left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) following heart attack in people who are otherwise stable, and for treating high blood pressure.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
CDKN2A, also known as cyclin-dependent kinase Inhibitor 2A, is a gene which in humans is located at chromosome 9, band p21.3.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B also known as multiple tumor suppressor 2 (MTS-2) or p15INK4b is a protein that is encoded by the CDKN2B gene in humans.
Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.
A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.
Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a species of Chlamydophila, an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects humans and is a major cause of pneumonia.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Chromosome 9 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Clopidogrel, sold as the brandname Plavix among others, is an antiplatelet medication that is used to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke in those at high risk.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Collagen alpha-1(IV) chain (COL4A1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL4A1 gene on chromosome 13.
In medicine, collateralization, also vessel collateralization and blood vessel collateralization, is the growth of a blood vessel or several blood vessels that serve the same end organ or vascular bed as another blood vessel that cannot adequately supply that end organ or vascular bed sufficiently.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
Copeptin (also known as CT-proAVP) is a 39-amino acid-long peptide derived from the C-terminus of pre-pro-hormone of arginine vasopressin, and copeptin.
The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.
Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
A coronary catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure to access the coronary circulation and blood filled chambers of the heart using a catheter.
Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle (myocardium).
Coronary reflex is the change of coronary diameter in response to chemical, neurological or mechanical stimulation of the coronary arteries.
Coronary vasospasm is a sudden, intense vasoconstriction of an epicardial coronary artery that causes occlusion (stoppage) or near-occlusion of the vessel.
Costochondritis, also known as chest wall pain, costosternal syndrome, or costosternal chondrodynia is an acute and often temporary inflammation of the costal cartilage, the structure that connects each rib to the sternum at the costosternal joint.
The CPK-MB test is a cardiac marker used to assist diagnoses of an acute myocardial infarction.
Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Daylight saving time (abbreviated DST), sometimes referred to as daylight savings time in U.S., Canadian, and Australian speech, and known as summer time in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times.
Defibrillation is a treatment for life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias, specifically ventricular fibrillation (VF) and non-perfusing ventricular tachycardia (VT).
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
In medical pathology, a dissection is a tear within the wall of a blood vessel, which allows blood to separate the wall layers.
Dressler syndrome is a secondary form of pericarditis that occurs in the setting of injury to the heart or the pericardium (the outer lining of the heart).
An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.
An ejection fraction (EF) is the volumetric fraction of fluid (usually blood) ejected from a chamber (usually the heart) with each contraction (or heartbeat).
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
Embolectomy is the emergency surgical removal of emboli which are blocking blood circulation.
An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.
The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
Eplerenone is a steroidal antimineralocorticoid of the spirolactone group that is used as an adjunct in the management of chronic heart failure.
Eptifibatide (Integrilin, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, also co-promoted by Schering-Plough/Essex), is an antiplatelet drug of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor class.
Ezetimibe is a drug that lowers plasma cholesterol levels.
In medicine, a family history (FH or FHx) consists of information about disorders from which the direct blood relatives of the patient have suffered.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
The femoral artery is a large artery in the thigh and the main arterial supply to the leg.
Fibrinolysis is a process that prevents blood clots from growing and becoming problematic.
Fludeoxyglucose (18F) (INN), or fludeoxyglucose F 18 (USAN and USP), also commonly called fluorodeoxyglucose and abbreviated FDG, 18F-FDG or FDG, is a radiopharmaceutical used in the medical imaging modality positron emission tomography (PET).
Foam cells are the fat-laden M2 macrophages that serve as the hallmark of early stage atherosclerotic lesion formation.
The Framingham Risk Score is a gender-specific algorithm used to estimate the 10-year cardiovascular risk of an individual.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.
In medicine, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, also GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors, is a class of antiplatelet agents.
Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Health impact assessment (HIA) is defined as "a combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.".
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart block is a disease or inherited condition that causes a fault within the heart's natural pacemaker due to some kind of obstruction (or "block") in the electrical conduction system of the heart.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
A heart transplant, or a cardiac transplant, is a surgical transplant procedure performed on patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease when other medical or surgical treatments have failed.
Heartburn, also known as acid indigestion, is a burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hyperhomocysteinemia or hyperhomocysteinaemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high level of homocysteine in the blood, conventionally described as above 15 µmol/L.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Hypoxemia (or hypoxaemia in British English) is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), also known as intracranial bleed, is bleeding within the skull.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
The ischemic (ischaemic) cascade is a series of biochemical reactions that are initiated in the brain and other aerobic tissues after seconds to minutes of ischemia (inadequate blood supply).
Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a disease in which blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed.
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member 2 (KCNE2), also known as MinK-related peptide 1 (MiRP1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNE2 gene on chromosome 21.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
The Killip classification is a system used in individuals with an acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), taking into account physical examination and the development of heart failure in order to predict and stratify their risk of mortality.
The Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal peptide) that mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich LDL.
Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is a cardiac conduction abnormality seen on the electrocardiogram (ECG).
The left coronary artery (abbreviated LCA) is an artery that arises from the aorta above the left cusp of the aortic valve and feeds blood to the left side of the heart.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Levine's sign is a clenched fist held over the chest to describe ischemic chest pain.
Lightheadedness is a common and typically unpleasant sensation of dizziness and/or a feeling that one may faint.
In frequentist inference, a likelihood function (often simply the likelihood) is a function of the parameters of a statistical model, given specific observed data.
Lipoprotein(a) (also called Lp(a) or LPA) is a lipoprotein subclass.
A loading dose is an initial higher dose of a drug that may be given at the beginning of a course of treatment before dropping down to a lower maintenance dose.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
A medical guideline (also called a clinical guideline or clinical practice line) is a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria regarding diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas of healthcare.
The Mediterranean diet is a diet inspired by the eating habits of Greece, Southern Italy, and Spain in the 1940s and 1950s.
Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.
Metoprolol, marketed under the tradename Lopressor among others, is a medication of the selective β1 receptor blocker type.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Mitral insufficiency (MI), mitral regurgitation or mitral incompetence is a disorder of the heart in which the mitral valve does not close properly when the heart pumps out blood.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 also known as SMAD family member 3 or SMAD3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMAD3 gene.
Ras-related protein M-Ras, also known as muscle RAS oncogene homolog and R-Ras3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRAS gene on chromosome 3.
28S ribosomal protein S6, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS6 gene.
Myocardial perfusion scan (also referred to as MPI or MPS) is a nuclear medicine procedure that illustrates the function of the heart muscle (myocardium).
Myocardial scarring is fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue destroyed by injury or disease pertaining to the muscular tissue of the heart.
Myoglobin (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), is a medication used for heart failure, high blood pressure, and to treat and prevent chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart (angina) or due to cocaine.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
An occupational injury is bodily damage resulting from working.
Occupational stress is stress related to one's job.
Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Organ donation is when a person allows an organ of theirs to be removed, legally, either by consent while the donor is alive or after death with the assent of the next of kin.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen therapy, also known as supplemental oxygen, is the use of oxygen as a medical treatment.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
In the field of purinergic signaling, the P2Y12 protein is found mainly but not exclusively on the surface of blood platelets, and is an important regulator in blood clotting.
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is an enzyme encoded by the PCSK9 gene in humans on chromosome 1.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.
Pericardial effusion ("fluid around the heart") is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity.
Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium (the fibrous sac surrounding the heart).
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Phosphatase and actin regulator 1 (PHACTR1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PHACTR1 gene on chromosome 6.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Phytosterols, which encompass plant sterols and stanols, are phytosteroids, similar to cholesterol, which occur in plants and vary only in carbon side chains and/or presence or absence of a double bond.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.
A police officer, also known as an officer, policeman, policewoman, cop, police agent, or a police employee is a warranted law employee of a police force.
Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.
Porphyromonas gingivalis belongs to the phylum Bacteroidetes and is a nonmotile, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic, pathogenic bacterium.
The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV respectively) are the proportions of positive and negative results in statistics and diagnostic tests that are true positive and true negative results, respectively.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Prairie View A&M University, commonly abbreviated PVAMU or PV, is a public historically black university (HBCU) located in Prairie View, Texas, United States (northwest of Houston).
Prasugrel (trade name Effient in the US and India, and Efient in the EU) is a drug used to prevent formation of blood clots.
Presyncope is a state of lightheadedness, muscular weakness, blurred vision, and feeling faint (as opposed to a syncope, which is actually fainting).
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main artery of the lateral aspect of the forearm.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiocontrast agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (contrast CT), projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.
There is no global consensus on recommended maximum intake of the drug alcohol (also known formally as ethanol).
The renal arteries normally arise off the left interior side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood.
Reteplase (trade names Retavase, Rapilysin) is a thrombolytic drug, used to treat heart attacks by breaking up the clots that cause them.
A rib fracture is a break in a rib bone.
In the coronary circulation, the right coronary artery (RCA) is an artery originating above the right cusp of the aortic valve, at the right aortic sinus in the heart.
Rubidium-82 (82Rb) is a radioactive isotope of rubidium.
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
A scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after an injury.
A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with little or no physical activity.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week (often abbreviated as 24/7).
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.
Sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC5A3 gene.
Telomerase-binding protein EST1A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SMG6 gene on chromosome 17.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Vacuolar-sorting protein SNF8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNF8 gene.
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
Sortilin (SORT1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SORT1 gene on chromosome 1.
Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
ST elevations refers to a finding on an electrocardiogram wherein the trace in the ST segment is abnormally high above the baseline.
In electrocardiography, the ST segment connects the QRS complex and the T wave and has a duration of 0.005 to 0.150 sec (5 to 150 ms).
Stanol ester is a heterogeneous group of chemical compounds known to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood when ingested, though to a much lesser degree than prescription drugs such as statins.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
In medicine, a stent is a metal or plastic tube inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open, and stenting is the placement of a stent.
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.
Streptokinase (SK) is a thrombolytic medication and enzyme.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
The systole is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.
In electrocardiography, the T wave represents the repolarization, or recovery, of the ventricles.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as stress cardiomyopathy, is a type of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy in which there is a sudden temporary weakening of the muscular portion of the heart.
Melanoma inhibitory activity protein 3 (MIA3), also known as transport and Golgi organization protein 1 (TANGO1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MIA3 gene on chromosome 1.
Targeted temperature management (TTM) previously known as therapeutic hypothermia or protective hypothermia is an active treatment that tries to achieve and maintain a specific body temperature in a person for a specific duration of time in an effort to improve health outcomes during recovery after a period of stopped blood flow to the brain.
Transcription factor 21 (TCF21), also known as pod-1, capsulin, or epicardin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TCF21 gene on chromosome 6.
Technetium (99mTc) sestamibi (INN) (commonly sestamibi; USP: technetium Tc 99m sestamibi; trade name Cardiolite) is a pharmaceutical agent used in nuclear medicine imaging.
Technetium (99mTc) tetrofosmin is a drug used in nuclear medicine cardiac imaging.
Tenecteplase (sold under the trade name TNKase) is an enzyme used as a thrombolytic drug.
Thallium(I) chloride, also known as thallous chloride, is a chemical compound with the formula TlCl.
The threshold of pain or pain threshold is the point along a curve of increasing perception of a stimulus at which pain begins to be felt.
Thrombolysis is the breakdown (lysis) of blood clots formed in blood vessels, using medication.
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
Ticagrelor (trade name Brilinta, Brilique, and Possia) is a platelet aggregation inhibitor produced by AstraZeneca.
The 'Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction', or TIMI Study Group is an Academic Research Organization (ARO) affiliated with Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School.
Tirofiban (INN, trade name Aggrastat) is an antiplatelet drug.
Tissue plasminogen activator (abbreviated tPA or PLAT) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Trans fat, also called trans-unsaturated fatty acids or trans fatty acids, are a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature but became widely produced industrially from vegetable fats starting in the 1950s for use in margarine, snack food, and packaged baked goods and for frying fast food.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost.
Unstable angina (UA) is a type of angina pectoris that is irregular.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
Variant angina, often termed Prinzmetal's angina, Prinzmetal angina, and less commonly vasospastic angina, angina inversa, coronary vessel spasm, or coronary artery vasospasm, is a syndrome typically consisting of angina (cardiac chest pain) that unlike classical angina, which is triggered by exertion or exercise, commonly occurs in individuals at rest or even asleep.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
Ventricular aneurysms are one of the many complications that may occur after a heart attack.
Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is when the heart quivers instead of pumping due to disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles.
Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a type of regular and fast heart rate that arises from improper electrical activity in the ventricles of the heart.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
The waist is the part of the abdomen between the rib cage and hips.
Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Ribosome biogenesis protein WDR12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WDR12 gene on chromosome 2.
Workers' compensation is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue their employer for the tort of negligence.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Nuclear-interacting partner of ALK (NIPA), also known as zinc finger C3HC-type protein 1 (ZC3HC1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZC3HC1 gene on chromosome 7.
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