76 relations: Acetylcholine, Actin, Action potential, Adenosine triphosphate, ATPase, Axon, Biceps, Calcium, Capillary, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac muscle cell, Cell (biology), Cell biology, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cellular differentiation, Cellular respiration, Central nervous system, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Directed differentiation, Endomysium, Endoplasmic reticulum, Epimysium, Esophagus, FERMT2, GATA4, GATA6, Glycogen, Glycolysis, Heart, Histology, Immunohistochemistry, Induced pluripotent stem cell, Intercalated disc, Lamina densa, Lamina lucida, List of human cell types derived from the germ layers, Mitochondrion, Motor unit, Motor unit recruitment, Multinucleate, Muscle, Muscle fascicle, Muscle spindle, Muscle tissue, MYF5, MYF6, MyoD, Myofibril, ..., Myogenesis, Myogenic regulatory factors, Myogenin, Myoglobin, Myosatellite cell, Myosin, Nature Biotechnology, Neuromuscular junction, Perimysium, Peristalsis, PH, Progenitor cell, Protein isoform, Sarcolemma, Sarcomere, Sarcoplasm, Sarcoplasmic reticulum, Sinoatrial node, Skeletal muscle, Smooth muscle tissue, Stomach, Striated muscle tissue, Synapse, T-tubule, Titin, Troponin. Expand index (26 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
The biceps, also biceps brachii is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes (also known as myocardiocytes or cardiac myocytes) are the muscle cells (myocytes) that make up the cardiac muscle (heart muscle).
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
Directed differentiation is a bioengineering methodology at the interface of stem cell biology, developmental biology and tissue engineering.
The endomysium, meaning within the muscle, is a wispy layer of areolar connective tissue that ensheaths each individual myocyte (muscle fiber, or muscle cell).
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Epimysium (plural epimysia) (Greek epi- for on, upon, or above + Greek mys for muscle) The epimysium is the fibrous tissue envelope that surrounds skeletal muscle.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Fermitin family homolog 2 (FERMT2) also known as pleckstrin homology domain-containing family C member 1 (PLEKHC1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FERMT2 gene.
Transcription factor GATA-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GATA4 gene.
Transcription factor GATA-6, also known as GATA-binding factor 6 (GATA6), is protein that in humans is encoded by the GATA6 gene.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells.
Intercalated discs are microscopic identifying features of cardiac muscle.
The lamina densa is a component of the basement membrane zone between the epidermis and dermis of the skin, and is an electron-dense zone between the lamina lucida and dermis, synthesized by the basal cells of the epidermis, and composed of (1) type IV collagen, (2) anchoring fibrils made of type VII collagen, and (3) dermal microfibrils.
The lamina lucida is a component of the basement membrane which is found between the epithelium and underlying connective tissue (e.g., epidermis and dermis of the skin).
This is a list of cells in humans derived from the germ layers, which includes the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A motor unit is made up of a motor neuron and the skeletal muscle fibers innervated by that motor neuron's axonal terminals.
Motor unit recruitment refers to the activation of additional motor units to accomplish an increase in contractile strength in a muscle.
Multinucleate cells (also called multinucleated or polynuclear cells) are eukaryotic cells that have more than one nucleus per cell, i.e., multiple nuclei share one common cytoplasm.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
A muscle fascicle is a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers surrounded by perimysium, a type of connective tissue.
Muscle spindles are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle.
Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract.
Myogenic factor 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYF5 gene.
Myogenic factor 6 (herculin) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYF6 gene.
MyoD is a protein that plays a major role in regulating muscle differentiation.
A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.
Myogenesis is the formation of muscular tissue, particularly during embryonic development.
Myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that regulate myogenesis: MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4.
Myogenin (myogenic factor 4), also known as MYOG, is a gene.
Myoglobin (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals.
Myosatellite cells or satellite cells are small multipotent cells with virtually no cytoplasm found in mature muscle.
Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.
Nature Biotechnology is a peer reviewed scientific journal published monthly by the Nature Publishing Group.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
Perimysium is a sheath of connective tissue that groups muscle fibers into bundles (anywhere between 10 and 100 or more) or fascicles.
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A progenitor cell is a biological cell that, like a stem cell, has a tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell, but is already more specific than a stem cell and is pushed to differentiate into its "target" cell.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
The sarcolemma (sarco (from sarx) from Greek; flesh, and lemma from Greek; sheath) also called the myolemma, is the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber cell.
A sarcomere (Greek sarx "flesh", meros "part") is the basic unit of striated muscle tissue.
Sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of a myocyte (muscle fiber).
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a membrane-bound structure found within muscle cells that is similar to the endoplasmic reticulum in other cells.
The sinoatrial node (SA node), also known as sinus node, is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Striated muscle tissue is a muscle tissue that features repeating functional units called sarcomeres, in contrast with smooth muscle tissue which does not.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Transverse tubules (T-tubules) are extensions of the cell membrane that penetrate into the centre of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells.
Titin, also known as connectin, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TTN gene.
Fast twitch muscle, Fast-twitch muscle, Miocyte, Muscle cell, Muscle cells, Muscle fiber, Muscle fibers, Muscle fibers, fast-twitch, Muscle fibre, Myoblast, Myoblasts, Myocytes, Myofiber, Myofibers, Myofibra, Myonuclei, Slow twitch muscle, Slow-twitch muscle.