57 relations: Ao (turtle), Blue–green distinction in language, Chinese mythology, Chu Ci, Classic of Mountains and Seas, Clay, Daji, De (Chinese), Four Great Books of Song, Fuxi, Gonggong, Han dynasty, Heavenly Questions, Huainanzi, Investiture of the Gods, Jade Emperor, Ji Province, Ji Yun, Jiutou Zhiji Jing, King Zhou of Shang, Kunlun (mythology), Li Fang (Song dynasty), Li Rong (philosopher), Lie Yukou, Liezi, Lu Tong, Mandate of Heaven, Mawangdui, Ming dynasty, Mother goddess, Nüwa Mends the Heavens, Nine Provinces, Pipa Jing, Qu Yuan, Records of the Grand Historian, Rock (geology), Shang dynasty, Shang Rong, Shennong, Shuowen Jiezi, Siku Quanshu, Sima Qian, Sima Zhen, Taiping Yulan, Tang of Shang, Tao, Theocracy, Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, Tian, Warring States period, ..., Wu Family Shrines, Wu Xing, Xia dynasty, Xu Shen, Yellow Emperor, Zhongyuan, Zhuanxu. Expand index (7 more) » « Shrink index
Ao (Chinese: 鳌, Áo) is a large marine turtle in Chinese mythology.
Many languages do not distinguish between what in English are described as "blue" and "green" and instead use a cover term spanning both.
Chinese mythology refers to myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, which have their own languages and myths.
The Chu Ci, variously translated as Verses of Chu or Songs of Chu, is an anthology of Chinese poetry traditionally attributed mainly to Qu Yuan and Song Yu from the Warring States period (ended 221 BC), though about half of the poems seem to have been composed several centuries later, during the Han dynasty.
The Classic of Mountains and Seas or Shan Hai Jing, formerly romanized as the Shan-hai Ching, is a Chinese classic text and a compilation of mythic geography and myth.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Daji, was the favorite consort of King Zhou of Shang, the last king of the Shang dynasty in ancient China.
De is a key concept in Chinese philosophy, usually translated "inherent character; inner power; integrity" in Taoism, "moral character; virtue; morality" in Confucianism and other contexts, and "quality; virtue" (guna) or "merit; virtuous deeds" (punya) in Chinese Buddhism.
The Four Great Books of Song was compiled by Li Fang (925–996) and others during the Song dynasty (960–1279).
Fuxi (Chinese: 伏羲), also romanized as Fu-hsi, is a culture hero in Chinese legend and mythology, credited (along with his sister Nüwa 女娲) with creating humanity and the invention of hunting, fishing and cooking as well as the Cangjie system of writing Chinese characters c. 2,000 BCE.
Gonggong, also known as Kanghui, is a Chinese water god or monster who is often depicted in Chinese mythology, folktales, and religious stories as having red hair and the tail of a serpent or dragon.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Heavenly Questions or Questions to Heaven is a piece contained in the Classical Chinese poetry collection of Chu Ci, which is noted both in terms of poetry and as a source for information on the ancient culture of China, especially the area of the ancient state of Chu.
The Huainanzi is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of essays that resulted from a series of scholarly debates held at the court of Liu An, King of Huainan, sometime before 139.
The Investiture of the Gods or also known by its Chinese names and is a 16th-century Chinese novel and one of the major vernacular Chinese works in the gods-and-demons (shenmo) genre written during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).
The Jade Emperor (or 玉帝) in Chinese culture, traditional religions and myth is one of the representations of the first god (太帝). In Daoist theology he is the assistant of Yuanshi Tianzun, who is one of the Three Pure Ones, the three primordial emanations of the Tao.
Ji Province, also known by its Chinese name Jizhou, was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China.
Ji Yun (1724–1805), also known as Ji Xiaolan or Ji Chunfan (紀春帆) was an influential scholar of Qing dynasty China and many anecdotes have been recorded about him.
Jiutou Zhiji Jing (Chinese: 九头雉鸡精; Pinyin: Jiǔtóu Zhìjī Jīng; roughly Nine Pheasant Splendor) is a yaojing, changed from a pheasant with nine heads.
King Zhou was the pejorative posthumous name given to Di Xin, the last king of the Shang dynasty of ancient China.
The Kunlun or Kunlun Shan is a mountain or mountain range in Chinese mythology, an important symbol representing the axis mundi and divinity.
Li Fang (925–996), courtesy name Mingyuan, was a Chinese scholar and bureaucrat of the Song Dynasty, best known for serving as the main editor of three of the Four Great Books of Song. He was born in what is now Hengshui, Hebei, and once served the Later Han and Later Zhou.
Li Rong (fl. 658–663) was a Chinese philosopher from the Tang dynasty.
Lie Yukou (fl. ca. 400 BCE) is considered the author of the Daoist book Liezi, which uses his honorific name Liezi.
The Liezi is a Daoist text attributed to Lie Yukou, a c. 5th century BCE Hundred Schools of Thought philosopher, but Chinese and Western scholars believe it was compiled around the 4th century CE.
(pinyin;;; 790–835) was a Tang dynasty Chinese poet, known for his lifelong study of the tea culture.
The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.
Mawangdui is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
A mother goddess is a goddess who represents, or is a personification of nature, motherhood, fertility, creation, destruction or who embodies the bounty of the Earth.
Nüwa Mends the Heavens is a well-known theme in Chinese culture.
The term Nine Provinces or "Nine Regions" is used in ancient Chinese histories to refer to territorial divisions or islands during the Xia and Shang dynasties, and has now come to symbolically represent China.
Pipa Jing (Chinese: 琵琶精; Pinyin: Pípa Jīng), a yaojing changed from jade pipa, is a fictional character featured within the famed classic Chinese novel Fengshen Yanyi.
Qu Yuan (–278 BC) was a Chinese poet and minister who lived during the Warring States period of ancient China.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shang Rong (Chinese: 商容; Pinyin: Shāng Róng) was a high official of Shang dynasty.
Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.
Shuowen Jiezi, often shortened to Shuowen, was an early 2nd-century Chinese dictionary from the Han Dynasty.
The Siku Quanshu, variously translated as the Complete Library in Four Sections, Imperial Collection of Four, Emperor's Four Treasuries, Complete Library in Four Branches of Literature, or Complete Library of the Four Treasuries, is the largest collection of books in Chinese history.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
Sima Zhen (679–732), courtesy name Zizheng (Tzu-cheng; 子正), was a Tang dynasty Chinese historian born in what is now Jiaozuo, Henan.
The Taiping Yulan, translated as the Imperial Reader or Readings of the Taiping Era, is a massive Chinese leishu encyclopedia compiled by a number of officers under Li Fang from 977 to 983.
Tang (– 1646 BC) or Cheng Tang (成湯), recorded on oracle bones as Da Yi (大乙), was the first king of the Shang dynasty in Chinese history.
Tao or Dao (from) is a Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science' Dr Zai, J..
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were a group of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China who in later history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC.
Tiān (天) is one of the oldest Chinese terms for heaven and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
The Wu Family Shrines, of which the Wu Liang Shrine is the best known, was the family shrine of the Wu clan of the Eastern Han dynasty.
The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.
Xu Shen (CE) was a Chinese scholar-official and philologist of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-189).
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).
Zhongyuan, Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu, Chungtu or Zhongzhou, Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.
Zhuanxu (Chinese: trad. 頊, simp. 颛顼, pinyin Zhuānxū), also known as Gao Yang (t 陽, s 高阳, p Gāoyáng), was a mythological emperor of ancient China.
Empress Wa, Nu Gua, Nu Kua, Nu Wa, Nu Wa (Fengshen Yanyi), Nu Wa Niang Niang, Nu gua, Nu-Kwa, Nu-wa, NuWa, Nue Gua, Nue Kua, Nue Wa, Nuewa, Nugua, Nuwa, Nuwa and Fuxi, Nuwo Shi, Nvwa, Nyuwa, Nü Gua, Nü Kua, Nü Wa, Nügua, Nüwa creation myth, Nǚwā, The Earthly Sovereign, Wa Huang, Wahuang, 女娲, 女媧.