45 relations: Acetyl group, Acetylation, Alanine, Amine, Aminopeptidase, C-terminus, Carboxylic acid, Cell membrane, Chloroplast, Dehydration reaction, Endoplasmic reticulum, Eukaryote, Fatty acid, Genetic code, Glycine, Messenger RNA, Methionine, Methyl group, Mitochondrion, Myristic acid, N-end rule, N-Formylmethionine, Organelle, Palmitoylation, Peptide, Peptide bond, Post-translational modification, Postal code, Prokaryote, Protease, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein precursor, Ribosome, Secretion, Serine, Signal peptide, Signal recognition particle, Start codon, Target peptide, Thylakoid, TopFIND, Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), Valine.
In organic chemistry, acetyl is a moiety, the acyl with chemical formula CH3CO.
Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Aminopeptidases are enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of amino acids from the amino terminus (N-terminus) of proteins or peptides.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Myristic acid (IUPAC systematic name: 1-tetradecanoic acid) is a common saturated fatty acid with the molecular formula CH3(CH2)12COOH.
The N-end rule is a rule that governs the rate of protein degradation through recognition of the N-terminal residue of proteins.
N-Formylmethionine (fMet) is a derivative of the amino acid methionine in which a formyl group has been added to the amino group.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Palmitoylation is the covalent attachment of fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, to cysteine and less frequently to serine and threonine residues of proteins, which are typically membrane proteins.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, Eircode, PIN Code or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
A protein precursor, also called a pro-protein or pro-peptide, is an inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an active form by post-translational modification, such as breaking off a piece of the molecule or adding on another molecule.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A signal peptide (sometimes referred to as signal sequence, targeting signal, localization signal, localization sequence, transit peptide, leader sequence or leader peptide) is a short peptide (usually 16-30 amino acids long) present at the N-terminus of the majority of newly synthesized proteins that are destined towards the secretory pathway.
The signal recognition particle (SRP) is an abundant, cytosolic, universally conserved ribonucleoprotein (protein-RNA complex) that recognizes and targets specific proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes and the plasma membrane in prokaryotes.
The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome.
A target peptide is a short (3-70 amino acids long) peptide chain that directs the transport of a protein to a specific region in the cell, including the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), chloroplast, apoplast, peroxisome and plasma membrane.
A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria.
TopFIND is the Termini oriented protein Function Inferred Database (TopFIND) is an integrated knowledgebase focused on protein termini, their formation by proteases and functional implications.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Amino terminal, Amino terminus, Amino-terminal, Amino-terminus, N terminal, N terminal end, N terminus, N-Terminal domain, N-ter, N-term, N-terminal, N-terminal domain, N-terminal end, N-terminal tail, N-termini.