112 relations: Aerojet, Aerospike engine, Air-augmented rocket, Air-to-air missile, Aircraft principal axes, Antares (rocket), Apollo (spacecraft), Apollo program, Ares V, Baikonur, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 110, Blok D, Buran (spacecraft), Carbon, Coking, Comparison of orbital launch systems, Comparison of orbital launchers families, Cyrillic script, Dinitrogen tetroxide, Doubleday (publisher), Earth orbit rendezvous, Eddy (fluid dynamics), En (Cyrillic), Energia, Energia (corporation), Frustum, Gas-generator cycle, Gigabyte, Gimbal lock, Glasnost, Grid fin, Hypergolic propellant, Impulse (physics), Inertial navigation system, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Jet engine, Kerosene, Kuznetsov Design Bureau, Launch escape system, Launch vehicle, Leonid Brezhnev, Liquid hydrogen, Liquid oxygen, LK (spacecraft), Low Earth orbit, Lunar orbit, Lunar orbit rendezvous, Lunokhod programme, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, ..., Max Q, Mikhail Yangel, Molniya (rocket), Moment (physics), Momentum, Multistage rocket, Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov, NK-33, Nova (rocket), NPO Mashinostroyeniya, October Revolution, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Pogo oscillation, Powered Descent Initiation, Project Gemini, Propulsive efficiency, Proton (rocket family), R-16 (missile), R-26 (missile), R-36 (missile), R-7 (rocket family), RD-170, RD-270, RD-58, Rocketdyne F-1, Rocketplane Kistler, RP-1, Russian alphabet, Russian language, Saturn V, Sergei Khrushchev, Sergei Korolev, Sergey Afanasyev (engineer), Soviet crewed lunar programs, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz 7K-L1, Soyuz 7K-LOK, Soyuz-2-1v, Space station, Specific impulse, Staged combustion cycle, Super heavy-lift launch vehicle, Syntin, Telemetry, Titan II GLV, TMK, Trans-lunar injection, Tyuratam, United States dollar, Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, UR-100, UR-200, Valentin Glushko, Vasily Mishin, Ve (Cyrillic), Vladimir Chelomey, Water hammer, Ze (Cyrillic), Zenit (rocket family), Zond program, Zvezda (moonbase). Expand index (62 more) » « Shrink index
Aerojet was an American rocket and missile propulsion manufacturer based primarily in Rancho Cordova, California, with divisions in Redmond, Washington, Orange and Gainesville in Virginia, and Camden, Arkansas.
The aerospike engine is a type of rocket engine that maintains its aerodynamic efficiency across a wide range of altitudes.
Air-augmented rockets (also known as rocket-ejector, ramrocket, ducted rocket, integral rocket/ramjets, or ejector ramjets) use the supersonic exhaust of some kind of rocket engine to further compress air collected by ram effect during flight to use as additional working mass, leading to greater effective thrust for any given amount of fuel than either the rocket or a ramjet alone.
Python family of AAM for comparisons, Python-5 (displayed lower-front) and Shafrir-1 (upper-back) An air-to-air missile (AAM) is a missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft.
An aircraft in flight is free to rotate in three dimensions: yaw, nose left or right about an axis running up and down; pitch, nose up or down about an axis running from wing to wing; and roll, rotation about an axis running from nose to tail.
Antares, known during early development as Taurus II, is an expendable launch system developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation (now part of Northrop Grumman Innovation System after Northrop Grumman acquired Orbital ATK) and the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau to launch the Cygnus spacecraft to the International Space Station as part of NASA's COTS and CRS programs.
The Apollo spacecraft was composed of three parts designed to accomplish the American Apollo program's goal of landing astronauts on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning them safely to Earth.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The Ares V (formerly known as the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV) was the planned cargo launch component of the cancelled NASA Constellation program, which was to have replaced the Space Shuttle after its retirement in 2011.
Baikonur (translit; translit), formerly known as Leninsk (also, see Tyuratam), is a city of republic significance in Kazakhstan on the Northern bank of the Syr Darya river, rented and administered by the Russian Federation.
Baikonur Cosmodrome (translit; translit) is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.
Site 110 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome is a launch facility which was used by the N1 rocket during the late 1960s and early 1970s, and by the Energia rocket during the 1980s.
Blok D (Блок Д meaning Block D) is an upper stage used on Soviet and later Russian expendable launch systems, including the N1, Proton-K and Zenit.
Buran (Бура́н,, meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Coking is the deposition of carbon-rich solids.
This is a comparison of orbital launch systems.
This page contains a list of orbital launchers' families.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide, is the chemical compound N2O4.
Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.
Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) is a potential methodology for conducting round trip human flights to the Moon, involving the use of space rendezvous to assemble, and possibly fuel, components of a translunar vehicle in low Earth orbit.
In fluid dynamics, an eddy is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current created when the fluid is in a turbulent flow regime.
En (Н н; italics: Н н) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Energia (Энергия, Energiya, "Energy") (GRAU 11K25) was a Soviet rocket that was designed by NPO Energia to serve as a heavy-lift partially recoverable launch system for a variety of payloads including the Buran spacecraft.
PAO S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya “Energiya” im.), also known as RSC Energia (РКК «Энергия», RKK “Energiya”), is a Russian manufacturer of ballistic missile, spacecraft and space station components.
In geometry, a frustum (plural: frusta or frustums) is the portion of a solid (normally a cone or pyramid) that lies between one or two parallel planes cutting it.
The gas-generator cycle is a power cycle of a bipropellant rocket engine.
The gigabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
Gimbal lock is the loss of one degree of freedom in a three-dimensional, three-gimbal mechanism that occurs when the axes of two of the three gimbals are driven into a parallel configuration, "locking" the system into rotation in a degenerate two-dimensional space.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
Grid fins (or lattice fins) are a type of flight control surface used on rockets and bombs, sometimes in place of more conventional control surfaces, such as planar fins.
A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.
In classical mechanics, impulse (symbolized by J or Imp) is the integral of a force, F, over the time interval, t, for which it acts.
An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers), rotation sensors (gyroscopes), and occasionally magnetic sensors (magnetometers) to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation, and the velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
The Kuznetsov Design Bureau (СНТК им., also known as OKB-276) is a Russian design bureau for aircraft engines, administrated in Soviet times by Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov.
A launch escape system (LES) or launch abort system (LAS) is a crew safety system connected to a space capsule, used to quickly separate the capsule from its launch vehicle rocket in case of a launch abort emergency, such as an impending explosion.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
The LK (ЛК, from Лунный корабль, "Lunniy korabl", meaning "Lunar craft"; GRAU index: 11F94) was a piloted lunar lander developed in the 1960s as a part of the Soviet attempts at human exploration of the Moon. Its role was analogous to the American Apollo Lunar Module (LM). Several LK articles were flown without crew in Earth orbit, but no LK ever reached the Moon. The development of the N1 launch vehicle required for the Moon flight suffered setbacks (including several launch failures), and the first Moon landings were achieved by US astronauts. As a result, both the N1 and the LK programs were cancelled without any further development.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
In astronomy, lunar orbit (also known as a selenocentric orbit) is the orbit of an object around the Moon.
Lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) is a key concept for efficiently landing humans on the Moon and returning them to Earth.
Lunokhod (Луноход, "Moonwalker") was a series of Soviet robotic lunar rovers designed to land on the Moon between 1969 and 1977.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
In aerospace engineering, the maximum dynamic pressure, often referred to as maximum Q or max Q, is the point at which aerodynamic stress on a vehicle in atmospheric flight is maximized.
Mikhail Kuzmich Yangel (Михаил Кузьмич Янгель; November 7, 1911 – October 25, 1971), was a leading missile designer in the Soviet Union.
The Molniya (Молния, meaning "lightning"), GRAU Index 8K78, was a modification of the well-known R-7 Semyorka rocket and had four stages.
In physics, a moment is an expression involving the product of a distance and a physical quantity, and in this way it accounts for how the physical quantity is located or arranged.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.
Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov was a Chief Designer of the Soviet Design Bureau OKB-276 which deals with the development, manufacture and distribution of equipment, especially aircraft engines, turbines and gearboxes.
The NK-33 and NK-43 are rocket engines designed and built in the late 1960s and early 1970s by the Kuznetsov Design Bureau.
Nova was a series of proposed rocket designs, originally as NASA's first large launchers for missions similar to the production-level Saturn V. The Nova studied designs that closely mirrored the Saturn V in basic concept, power, size, and function.
NPO Mashinostroyeniya (НПО машиностроения) is a rocket design bureau based in Reutov, Russia.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Orbital Sciences Corporation (commonly referred to as Orbital) was an American company specializing in the design, manufacture and launch of small- and medium- class space and rocket systems for commercial, military and other government customers.
Pogo oscillation is a self-excited vibration in liquid-propellant rocket engines caused by combustion instability.
Powered Descent Initiation (PDI) is a term used during the Apollo program Moon landing missions to describe the maneuver of the Apollo Lunar Module as it descended from lunar orbit to landing.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
In aircraft and rocket design, overall propulsive efficiency \eta is the efficiency with which the energy contained in a vehicle's propellant is converted into kinetic energy of the vehicle, to accelerate it, or to replace losses due to aerodynamic drag or gravity.
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
The R-16 was the first successful intercontinental ballistic missile deployed by the Soviet Union.
The R-26 was a second-generation intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) designed but not deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The R-36 (Р-36) is a family of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and space launch vehicles (Tsyklon) designed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The R-7 family of rockets (Р-7) is a series of rockets, derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka, the world's first ICBM.
The RD-170 (РД-170, Ракетный Двигатель-170, Rocket Engine-170) is the world's most powerful liquid-fuel rocket engine, designed and produced in the Soviet Union by NPO Energomash for use with the Energia launch vehicle.
RD-270 (Ра́кетный дв́игатель 270, Rocket Engine 270, 8D420) is a single-chamber liquid-bipropellant rocket engine designed by Energomash (USSR) in 1960–1970.
The RD-58 (manufacturer designation 11D58) was a rocket engine, developed in the 1960s by OKB-1, now RKK Energia.
The F-1 is a gas-generator cycle rocket engine developed in the United States by Rocketdyne in the late 1950s and used in the Saturn V rocket in the 1960s and early 1970s.
Rocketplane Kistler (RpK) was a reusable launch system firm originally based in Oklahoma.
RP-1 (alternately, Rocket Propellant-1 or Refined Petroleum-1) is a highly refined form of kerosene outwardly similar to jet fuel, used as rocket fuel.
The Russian alphabet (ˈruskʲɪj ɐɫfɐˈvʲit̪) uses letters from the Cyrillic script.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.
Sergei Nikitich Khrushchev (Серге́й Ники́тич Хрущёв, born July 2, 1935) is the son of former Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
Sergey Alexandrovich Afanasyev (Серге́й Алекса́ндрович Афана́сьев) (August 30, 1918 – May 13, 2001) was a prominent Soviet engineer, space and defence industry executive, the first Minister of the Soviet-era Ministry of General Machine Building.
The Soviet crewed lunar programs were a series of unsuccessful programs pursued by the Soviet Union to land a man on the Moon, in competition with the United States Apollo program to achieve the same goal set publicly by President John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
The Soyuz 7K-L1 "Zond" spacecraft was designed to launch men from the Earth to circle the Moon without going into lunar orbit in the context of the Soviet manned moon-flyby program in the Moon race.
The Soyuz 7K-LOK, or simply LOK (translit meaning "Lunar Orbital Craft") was a Soviet manned spacecraft designed to launch men from Earth to orbit the Moon, developed in parallel to the 7K-L1.
The Soyuz-2-1v (Союз 2.1в, Union 2.1v), GRAU index 14A15, known earlier in development as the Soyuz-1 (Союз 1, Union 1), is a Russian expendable carrier rocket.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of how effectively a rocket uses propellant or jet engine uses fuel.
The staged combustion cycle (sometimes known as topping cycle or preburner cycle) is a power cycle of a bipropellant rocket engine.
A super heavy-lift launch vehicle (SHLLV) is a launch vehicle capable of lifting more than of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO).
Syntin is a hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C10H16 used as a rocket fuel.
Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.
The Titan II GLV (Gemini Launch Vehicle) or Gemini-Titan II was an American expendable launch system derived from the Titan II missile, which was used to launch twelve Gemini missions for NASA between 1964 and 1966.
TMK (Тяжелый Межпланетный Корабль - Tyazhely Mezhplanetny Korabl or Heavy Interplanetary Spacecraft) was the designation of a Soviet space exploration project to send a manned flight to Mars and Venus (TMK-MAVR design) without landing.
A trans-lunar injection (TLI) is a propulsive maneuver used to set a spacecraft on a trajectory that will cause it to arrive at the Moon.
Tyuratam (Төретам, (Töretam); Тюратам, (Tyuratam)) is a station on the main Moscow to Tashkent railway, located in Kazakhstan.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH; 1,1-dimethylhydrazine) is a chemical compound with the formula H2NN(CH3)2.
The UR-100 (УР-100) was an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed and deployed by the Soviet Union from 1966 to 1996. УР in its designation stands for " Универсальная Ракета" (Universal Rocket). It was known during the Cold War by the NATO reporting name SS-11 Sego and internally by the GRAU index 8K84. The Strela and Rokot carrier rockets are based on it. The similar designation UR-100MR actually refers to an entirely different missile, the MR-UR-100 Sotka (SS-17 Spanker).
The UR-200 was an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed by OKB-52 of Vladimir Nikolaevich Chelomey in the Soviet Union.
Valentin Petrovich Glushko (Валенти́н Петро́вич Глушко́, Valentin Petrovich Glushko; Валентин Петрович Глушко, Valentyn Petrovych Hlushko; born 2 September 1908 – 10 January 1989), was a Soviet engineer, and designer of rocket engines during the Soviet/American Space Race.
Vasily Pavlovich Mishin (Василий Павлович Мишин) (January 18, 1917 – October 10, 2001) was a Soviet engineer and a prominent rocketry pioneer, best remembered for the failures in the Soviet Space program that took place under his leadership.
Ve (В в; italics: В в) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Челоме́й; Ukrainian: Володимир Миколайович Челомей; 30 June 1914 – 8 December 1984) was a Soviet mechanics scientist, aviation and missile engineer.
Water hammer (or, more generally, fluid hammer, also called hydraulic shock) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid, usually a liquid but sometimes also a gas, in motion is forced to stop or change direction suddenly, a momentum change.
Ze (З з; italics: З з) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Zenit (Зеніт, Зени́т; meaning Zenith) is a family of space launch vehicles designed by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau in Dnipro, Ukraine, which was then part of the Soviet Union.
Zond (Зонд; Russian for "probe") was the name given to two distinct series of Soviet unmanned space program undertaken from 1964 to 1970.
Zvezda moonbase (звезда, "star"), also called DLB Lunar Base was a Soviet plan and project from 1962 to 1974 to construct a crewed moonbase as successor to the N1-L3 crewed lunar expedition program.