201 relations: Abraham Lincoln, African Americans, Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics, Al Gore, Al Sharpton, American Federation of Labor, American Jewish Congress, American Jews, Andrew Breitbart, Anti-imperialism, Archibald Grimké, Bail in the United States, Baltimore, Bancroft Library, Benjamin Chavis, Benjamin Hooks, Benjamin Jealous, Blackvoices.com, Boston, Brown v. Board of Education, Bruce S. Gordon, Buchanan v. Warley, Buffalo, New York, California, Canada, Charles Edward Russell, Charles Hamilton Houston, Chicago Better Housing Association, Civil and political rights, Civil rights movement, Civil rights movement (1896–1954), Clayton State University, CNN, Colorado, Colored, Columbia University, Communist Party USA, Congressional Black Caucus, Constitutionality, Coretta Scott King, Cornell William Brooks, D. W. Griffith, Daisy Bates (activist), Dallas, David Levering Lewis, Democratic Party (United States), Derrick Johnson (activist), Des Moines, Iowa, Discrimination, Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era, ..., Dred Scott, E. D. Nixon, Elaine race riot, Ella Baker, Emerald Cities Collaborative, Emil G. Hirsch, Ethical movement, Florence Kelley, Fort Erie, Ontario, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Frances Blascoer, George W. Bush, Georgia (U.S. state), Gold standard, Grandfather clause, Grover Cleveland, Guinn v. United States, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, Henry Moskowitz (activist), Henry Street Settlement, HIV/AIDS in the United States, Howard Sachar, Howard University, HuffPost, Ida B. Wells, Internal Revenue Code, Internal Revenue Service, International Labor Defense, Interwar period, Jacob Billikopf, Jacob Schiff, James Weldon Johnson, Jesse Jackson, Jim Crow laws, Joe Lieberman, Joel Elias Spingarn, John Elmer Milholland, John J. Parker, Julian Bond, Julius Rosenwald, Kivie Kaplan, Ku Klux Klan, Kweisi Mfume, Laissez-faire, Legal case, Library of Congress, Lillian Wald, Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, List of world expositions, Little Rock Nine, Little Rock, Arkansas, Lloyd L. Gaines, Lobbying, Lochner v. New York, Lorraine Miller, Lynching, Lyndon B. Johnson, March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Martin Luther King Jr., Mary Church Terrell, Mary White Ovington, Maryland, Maya Wiley, Miami, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Missouri Compromise, Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, Montgomery bus boycott, Montgomery, Alabama, Moore v. Dempsey, Moorfield Storey, Morrow, Georgia, Muckraker, Multiracial, Murray v. Pearson, Myrlie Evers-Williams, NAACP Image Awards, NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, NAACP New Orleans Branch, NAACP Theatre Award – President's Award, NAACP Theatre Awards, NAACP v. Alabama, National Negro Committee, Native Americans in the United States, New York (state), New York City, Niagara Movement, Niagara River, North Carolina Amendment 1, Oklahoma, Oswald Garrison Villard, Pan-American Exposition, Pennsylvania, Person of color, Phillips County, Arkansas, Plessy v. Ferguson, Presbyterianism, ProQuest, Racial integration, Racial segregation in the United States, Republican Party (United States), Richmond, Virginia, Rosa Parks, Roslyn Brock, Roy Wilkins, Same-sex marriage, Scottsboro Boys, Separate but equal, Sharecropping, Shirley Sherrod, Smith v. Allwright, Solid South, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Southern United States, Spingarn Medal, Springfield race riot of 1908, Springfield, Illinois, State school, Stephen Samuel Wise, Stonewall riots, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Supreme Court of the United States, Tax exemption, Texas, The Birth of a Nation, The Crisis, The Journal of American History, The New York Times, The Washington Post, Thurgood Marshall, United States presidential election, 2000, University of North Carolina, University of Washington, Venezuela, Voting Rights Act of 1965, W. E. B. Du Bois, W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868–1919, W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919–1963, Walter Francis White, Washington Blade, Washington, D.C., White primaries, William Barber II, William English Walling, William Gibson (NAACP), William Montague Cobb, Woodrow Wilson, World War I, World War II. Expand index (151 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
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African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
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Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics
The Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO), informally named the "Olympics of the Mind," is a youth program of the NAACP that is "designed to recruit, stimulate, improve and encourage high academic and cultural achievement among African American high school students." The year-long program recognizes and awards young people who have demonstrated academic and cultural achievement.
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Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
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Alfred Charles Sharpton Jr. (born October 3, 1954) is an American civil rights activist, Baptist minister, television/radio talk show host and a former White House adviser for President Barack Obama.
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American Federation of Labor
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was a national federation of labor unions in the United States founded in Columbus, Ohio, in December 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor union.
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American Jewish Congress
The American Jewish Congress is as an association of Jewish Americans organized to defend Jewish interests at home and abroad through public policy advocacy, using diplomacy, legislation, and the courts.
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American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality.
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Andrew James Breitbart (February 1, 1969 – March 1, 2012) was an American conservative publisher, writer and commentator.
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Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
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Archibald Henry Grimké (August 17, 1849 – February 25, 1930) was an American lawyer, intellectual, journalist, diplomat and community leader in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
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Bail in the United States
Bail in the United States refers to the practice of releasing suspects from custody before their hearing, on payment of money or pledge of property to the court which may be refunded if suspects return to court for their trial.
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Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
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The Bancroft Library in the center of the campus of the University of California, Berkeley, is the university's primary special-collections library.
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Benjamin Lawson Hooks (January 31, 1925 – April 15, 2010) was an American civil rights leader.
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Benjamin Todd Jealous (born January 18, 1973) is an American civic leader and Democratic nominee for Governor of Maryland in the 2018 gubernatorial election.
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Blackvoices.com is an American historical website.
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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
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Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
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Bruce S. Gordon
Bruce Scott Gordon (born February 15, 1946) is a business executive who spent most of his career with Verizon and currently serves as a corporate director of CBS, Northrop Grumman, and Tyco International.
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Buchanan v. Warley
Buchanan v. Warley,, is a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States addressed civil government-instituted racial segregation in residential areas.
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Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second largest city in the state of New York and the 81st most populous city in the United States.
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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
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Charles Edward Russell
Charles Edward Russell (September 25, 1860 in Davenport, Iowa – April 23, 1941 in Washington, DC) was an American journalist, opinion columnist, newspaper editor, and political activist.
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Charles Hamilton Houston
Charles Hamilton Houston (September 3, 1895 – April 22, 1950) was a prominent African-American lawyer, Dean of Howard University Law School, and NAACP first special counsel, or Litigation Director.
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Chicago Better Housing Association
The Chicago Better Housing Association (CBHA) is an open housing organization created in the 1950s to counter discrimination in the allocation of housing in the United States.
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Civil and political rights
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
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Civil rights movement
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
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Civil rights movement (1896–1954)
The African-American civil rights movement (1896–1954) was a long, primarily nonviolent series of events to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans.
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Clayton State University
Clayton State University is a public university in Morrow, Georgia, serving Metro Atlanta, and is a selective Senior Unit of the University System of Georgia.
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Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
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Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
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Colored is an ethnic descriptor historically used in the United States (predominantly during the Jim Crow era) and the United Kingdom.
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Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
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Communist Party USA
The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) is a communist political party in the United States established in 1919 after a split in the Socialist Party of America.
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Congressional Black Caucus
The Congressional Black Caucus is a political organization made up of the African-American members of the United States Congress.
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Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.
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Coretta Scott King
Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927January 30, 2006) was an American author, activist, civil rights leader, and the wife of Martin Luther King, Jr.
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Cornell William Brooks
Cornell William Brooks (born 1961) is an American lawyer and activist.
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D. W. Griffith
David Wark Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was an American director, writer, and producer who pioneered modern cinematic techniques.
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Daisy Bates (activist)
Daisy Lee Gatson Bates (November 11, 1914 – November 4, 1999) was an American civil rights activist, publisher, journalist, and lecturer who played a leading role in the Little Rock Integration Crisis of 1957.
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Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.
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David Levering Lewis
David Levering Lewis (born May 25, 1936) is an American Historian; he is the Julius Silver University Professor, and the Professor of History at New York University.
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Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
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Derrick Johnson (activist)
Derrick Johnson is an American lawyer, activist, and executive.
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Des Moines, Iowa
Des Moines is the capital and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Iowa.
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In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
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Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era
Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era in the United States of America was based on a series of laws, new constitutions, and practices in the South that were deliberately used to prevent black citizens from registering to vote and voting.
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Dred Scott (c. 1799 – September 17, 1858) was an enslaved African American man in the United States who unsuccessfully sued for his freedom and that of his wife and their two daughters in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case of 1857, popularly known as the "Dred Scott case." Scott claimed that he and his wife should be granted their freedom because they had lived in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory for four years, where slavery was illegal.
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E. D. Nixon
Edgar Daniel Nixon (July 12, 1899 – February 25, 1987), known as E. D. Nixon, was an African-American civil rights leader and union organizer in Alabama who played a crucial role in organizing the landmark Montgomery Bus Boycott there in 1955.
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Elaine race riot
The Elaine race riot, also called the Elaine massacre, began on September 30–October 1, 1919 at Hoop Spur in the vicinity of Elaine in rural Phillips County, Arkansas.
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Ella Josephine Baker (December 13, 1903 – December 13, 1986) was an African-American civil rights and human rights activist.
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Emerald Cities Collaborative
Emerald Cities Collaborative is a national non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C. with affiliate offices in ten US cities.
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Emil G. Hirsch
Emil Gustav Hirsch (May 22, 1851 – January 7, 1923) was a major Reform movement rabbi in the United States.
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The Ethical movement, also referred to as the Ethical Culture movement, Ethical Humanism or simply Ethical Culture, is an ethical, educational, and religious movement that is usually traced back to Felix Adler (1851–1933).
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Florence Kelley (September 12, 1859 – February 17, 1932) was a social and political reformer and the pioneer of the term wage abolitionism.
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Fort Erie, Ontario
Fort Erie is a town on the Niagara River in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada.
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Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
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Frances Blascoer was the NAACP's first Executive Secretary.
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George W. Bush
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
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Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
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A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
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A grandfather clause (or grandfather policy) is a provision in which an old rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will apply to all future cases.
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Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office (1885–1889 and 1893–1897).
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Guinn v. United States
Guinn v. United States,, was a United States Supreme Court decision that dealt with provisions of state constitutions that set qualifications for voters.
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Harpers Ferry, West Virginia
Harpers Ferry is a historic town in Jefferson County, West Virginia, United States.
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Henry Moskowitz (activist)
Henry Moskowitz (September 27, 1880 – December 18, 1936) was a civil rights activist, and one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
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Henry Street Settlement
The Henry Street Settlement is a not-for-profit social service agency in the Lower East Side neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City that provides social services, arts programs and health care services to New Yorkers of all ages.
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HIV/AIDS in the United States
The AIDS epidemic, caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), found its way to the United States as early as 1960, but was first noticed after doctors discovered clusters of Kaposi's sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia in young gay men in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco in 1981.
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Howard Morley Sachar (February 10, 1928 – April 18, 2018) was an American historian.
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Howard University (HU or simply Howard) is a federally chartered, private, coeducational, nonsectarian, historically black university (HBCU) in Washington, D.C. It is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with higher research activity and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.
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HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
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Ida B. Wells
Ida Bell Wells-Barnett (July 16, 1862 – March 25, 1931), more commonly known as Ida B. Wells, was an African-American investigative journalist, educator, and an early leader in the Civil Rights Movement.
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Internal Revenue Code
The Internal Revenue Code (IRC), formally the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, is the domestic portion of federal statutory tax law in the United States, published in various volumes of the United States Statutes at Large, and separately as Title 26 of the United States Code (USC).
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Internal Revenue Service
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service of the United States federal government.
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International Labor Defense
The International Labor Defense (ILD) (1925–1946) was a legal advocacy organization established in 1925 in the United States as the American section of the Comintern's International Red Aid network.
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In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
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Jacob Billikopf, Ph.B., L.L.D., (June 1, 1882, Vilnius, Lithuania – December 31, 1950) was a nationally known figure in social work, Jewish philanthropy and labor arbitration.
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Jacob Henry Schiff (born Jakob Heinrich Schiff; January 10, 1847 – September 25, 1920) was a Jewish-American banker, businessman, and philanthropist.
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James Weldon Johnson
James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871June 26, 1938) was an American author, educator, lawyer, diplomat, songwriter, and civil rights activist.
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Jesse Louis Jackson Sr. (né Burns; born October 8, 1941) is an American civil rights activist, Baptist minister, and politician.
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Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
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Joseph Isadore Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is an American politician and attorney who was a United States Senator for Connecticut from 1989 to 2013.
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Joel Elias Spingarn
Joel Elias Spingarn (May 17, 1875 – July 26, 1939) was an American educator, literary critic, and civil rights activist.
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John Elmer Milholland
John Elmer Milholland (May 31, 1860 – June 29, 1925) was an American businessman.
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John J. Parker
John Johnston Parker (November 20, 1885 – March 17, 1958) was a U.S. judge who failed confirmation to the Supreme Court by one vote.
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Horace Julian Bond (January 14, 1940 – August 15, 2015) was an American social activist and leader in the Civil Rights Movement, politician, professor and writer.
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Julius Rosenwald (August 12, 1862 – January 6, 1932) was an American businessman and philanthropist.
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Kivie Kaplan (April 1, 1904 – May 5, 1975) was a Jewish-American businessman and philanthropist.
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Ku Klux Klan
The Ku Klux Klan, commonly called the KKK or simply the Klan, refers to three distinct secret movements at different points in time in the history of the United States.
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Kweisi Mfume (born Frizzell Gerald Gray; October 24, 1948) is an American politician and the former President/CEO of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), as well as a five-term Democratic Congressman from Maryland's 7th congressional district, serving in the 100th through 104th Congress.
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Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
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A legal case is a dispute between opposing parties resolved by a court, or by some equivalent legal process.
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Library of Congress
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
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Lillian D. Wald (March 10, 1867 – September 1, 1940) was an American nurse, humanitarian and author.
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Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson
Lillie May Carroll Jackson (May 25, 1889 – July 5, 1975), pioneer civil rights activist, organizer of the Baltimore branch of the NAACP.
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List of world expositions
List of world expositions is an annotated list of every world exposition sanctioned by the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE), including those recognised retrospectively as they took place (long) before BIE came into existence.
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Little Rock Nine
The Little Rock Nine was a group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957.
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Little Rock, Arkansas
Little Rock is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arkansas.
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Lloyd L. Gaines
Lloyd Lionel Gaines (1911, Water Valley, Mississippi – disappeared March 19, 1939, Chicago) was the plaintiff in Gaines v. Canada (1938), one of the most important court cases in the U.S. civil rights movement in the 1930s.
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Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
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Lochner v. New York
Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 (1905), was a landmark U.S. labor law case in the US Supreme Court, holding that limits to working time violated the Fourteenth Amendment.
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Lorraine C. Miller of Fort Worth, Texas was the 35th Clerk of the United States House of Representatives.
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Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group.
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Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
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March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, the March on Washington, or The Great March on Washington, was held in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963.
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Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
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Mary Church Terrell
Mary Church Terrell (September 23, 1863 – July 24, 1954) was one of the first African-American women to earn a college degree, and became known as a national activist for civil rights and suffrage.
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Mary White Ovington
Mary White Ovington (April 11, 1865 – July 15, 1951) was an American suffragist, journalist, and co-founder of the NAACP.
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Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
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Maya Wiley (born 1963 or 1964) is an American civil rights activist, and former board chair of the NYC Civilian Complaint Review Board (CCRB), an independent and impartial police oversight agency.
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Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
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Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
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Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
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Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
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The Missouri Compromise is the title generally attached to the legislation passed by the 16th United States Congress on May 9, 1820.
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Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada
Missouri ex rel.
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Montgomery bus boycott
The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
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Montgomery is the capital city of the U.S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Montgomery County.
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Moore v. Dempsey
Moore et al.
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Moorfield Storey (March 19, 1845 – October 24, 1929) was an American lawyer, anti-imperial activist, and civil rights leader based in Boston, Massachusetts.
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Morrow is a city in Clayton County, Georgia, United States.
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The term muckraker was used in the Progressive Era to characterize reform-minded American journalists who attacked established institutions and leaders as corrupt.
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Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.
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Murray v. Pearson
Murray v. Pearson was a Maryland Court of Appeals decision which found "the state has undertaken the function of education in the law, but has omitted students of one race from the only adequate provision made for it, and omitted them solely because of their color." On January 15, 1936, the court affirmed the lower court ruling which ordered the university to immediately integrate its student population, and therefore created a legal precedent making segregation in Maryland illegal.
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Myrlie Louise Evers–Williams (née Beasley; born March 17, 1933) is an American civil rights activist of the Civil Rights Movement and journalist who worked for over three decades to seek justice for the murder of her civil rights activist husband Medgar Evers in 1963.
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NAACP Image Awards
The NAACP Image Award is an annual awards ceremony presented by the American National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) to honor outstanding people of color in film, television, music, and literature.
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NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund
The NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc. (NAACP LDF, the Inc. Fund, or LDF) is a leading United States civil rights organization and law firm based in New York City.
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NAACP New Orleans Branch
The New Orleans Branch is the oldest continuously active branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People south of Washington D.C. It was formally chartered on July 15, 1915.
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NAACP Theatre Award – President's Award
The President's Award is presented to a corporation or an executive who has made a commitment to promote diversity and advancement of minorities in the community.
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NAACP Theatre Awards
The NAACP Theatre Awards are a NAACP member voted awards started in 1991 and presented annually by the Beverly Hills-Hollywood branch of the NAACP to honor outstanding people of color in theatre.
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NAACP v. Alabama
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People v. Alabama, (1958), was an important civil rights case brought before the United States Supreme Court.
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National Negro Committee
The National Negro Committee (formed: New York City, May 31 and June 1, 1909 - ceased: New York City, May 12, 1910) was created in response to the Springfield race riot of 1908 against the black community in Springfield, Illinois.
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Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
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New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
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New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
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The Niagara Movement was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter.
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The Niagara River is a river that flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario.
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North Carolina Amendment 1
North Carolina Amendment 1 (often referred to as simply Amendment 1) was a legislatively referred constitutional amendment in North Carolina that (until overruled in federal court) amended the North Carolina Constitution to prohibit the state from recognizing or performing same-sex marriages or civil unions.
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Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
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Oswald Garrison Villard
Oswald Garrison Villard (March 13, 1872 – October 1, 1949) was an American journalist and editor of the New York Evening Post. He was a civil rights activist, a founding member of the NAACP.
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The Pan-American Exposition was a World's Fair held in Buffalo, New York, United States, from May 1 through November 2, 1901.
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Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
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Person of color
The term "person of color" (plural: people of color, persons of color; sometimes abbreviated POC) is used primarily in the United States to describe any person who is not white.
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Phillips County, Arkansas
Phillips County is a county located in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Arkansas, in what is known as the Arkansas Delta along the Mississippi River.
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Plessy v. Ferguson
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896),.
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Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
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ProQuest LLC is an Ann Arbor, Michigan-based global information-content and technology company, founded in 1938 as University Microfilms by Eugene B. Power.
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Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation).
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Racial segregation in the United States
Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, includes the segregation or separation of access to facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.
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Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
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Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
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Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
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Roslyn McCallister Brock (born May 30, 1965) is an African-American civil rights leader, healthcare executive, and health activist.
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Roy Ottoway Wilkins (August 30, 1901 – September 8, 1981) was a prominent activist in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the 1930s to the 1970s.
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Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
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The Scottsboro Boys were nine African American teenagers, ages 13 to 20, accused in Alabama of raping two White American women on a train in 1931.
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Separate but equal
Separate but equal was a legal doctrine in United States constitutional law according to which racial segregation did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, adopted during the Reconstruction Era, which guaranteed "equal protection" under the law to all citizens.
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Sharecropping is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.
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Shirley Sherrod (born 1948) is a former Georgia State Director of Rural Development for the United States Department of Agriculture.
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Smith v. Allwright
Smith v. Allwright,, was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court with regard to voting rights and, by extension, racial desegregation.
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The Solid South or Southern bloc was the electoral voting bloc of the states of the Southern United States for issues that were regarded as particularly important to the interests of Democrats in the southern states.
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Southern Christian Leadership Conference
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an African-American civil rights organization.
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Southern United States
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
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The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for outstanding achievement by an African American.
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Springfield race riot of 1908
The Springfield race riot of 1908 was made up of a series of violent actions initiated against African Americans by a mob of about 5,000 white Americans and European immigrants, in Springfield, Illinois, between August 14–16, 1908.
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Springfield is the capital of the U.S. state of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County.
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State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
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Stephen Samuel Wise
Stephen Samuel Wise (1874–1949) was an early 20th-century American, Progressive Era, Reform rabbi, and Zionist leader.
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The Stonewall riots (also referred to as the Stonewall uprising or the Stonewall rebellion) were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBT) communityAt the time, the term "gay" was commonly used to refer to all LGBT people.
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Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, often pronounced) was one of the major Civil Rights Movement organizations of the 1960s.
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Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
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Tax exemption is a monetary exemption which reduces taxable income.
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Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
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The Birth of a Nation
The Birth of a Nation (originally called The Clansman) is a 1915 American silent epic drama film directed and co-produced by D. W. Griffith and starring Lillian Gish.
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The Crisis is the official magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
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The Journal of American History
The Journal of American History is the official academic journal of the Organization of American Historians.
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The New York Times
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
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The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
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Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908January 24, 1993) was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991.
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United States presidential election, 2000
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
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University of North Carolina
The University of North Carolina is a multi-campus public university system composed of all 16 of North Carolina's public universities, as well as the NC School of Science and Mathematics, the nation's first public residential high school for gifted students.
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University of Washington
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
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Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
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Voting Rights Act of 1965
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.
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W. E. B. Du Bois
William Edward Burghardt "W.
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W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868–1919
W.E.B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868–1919 was written by historian David Levering Lewis and published in 1994 by Henry Holt and Company.
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W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919–1963
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Walter Francis White
Walter Francis White (July 1, 1893 – March 21, 1955) was an African-American civil rights activist who led the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for almost a quarter of a century, 1931–1955, after starting with the organization as an investigator in 1918.
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The Washington Blade is a lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) newspaper in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.
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Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
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White primaries were primary elections held in the Southern United States in which only white voters were permitted to participate.
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William Barber II
William J. Barber II (born August 30, 1963) is a Protestant minister and political leader in North Carolina.
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William English Walling
William English Walling (1877–1936) (known as "English" to friends and family) was an American labor reformer and Socialist Republican born into a wealthy family in Louisville, Kentucky.
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William Gibson (NAACP)
William F. Gibson (September 7, 1933 – May 2, 2002), African American Registry.
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William Montague Cobb
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Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
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World War I
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
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World War II
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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Lee Alcorn, N double-A CP, N.A.A.C.P, N.A.A.C.P., NAAAA, NCAAP, Naacp, Naapc, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, National Association for the Advancement of Colored Persons, National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People, National Association for the Advancement of Colred People, National association for the advancement of colored people.