372 relations: Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, Adriatic Charter, Aegis Combat System, Afghanistan, Air chief marshal, Aircraft marshalling, Al-Qaeda, Albania, Alessandro Minuto-Rizzo, Alexander Vershbow, Algerian independence referendum, 1962, Ali Zeidan, Allied Air Forces Central Europe, Allied Command Europe Mobile Force, Allied Command Transformation, Allied Force Command Heidelberg, Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Anti-ballistic missile, Argentina, Arms embargo, Arms race, Army of Republika Srpska, Army Times, Arseniy Yatsenyuk, Atlantic Council, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic Treaty Association, Atlanticism, AUSCANNZUKUS, Australia, B61 nuclear bomb, Baltic Air Policing, Baltic states, Banja Luka incident, Barack Obama, Belgian Congo, Belgium, Berlin Blockade, Berlin Plus agreement, Berlin Wall, BGM-109G Ground Launched Cruise Missile, Bloomberg L.P., Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian War, Breakup of Yugoslavia, British Aerospace Sea Harrier, British Army, ..., British Army of the Rhine, Brookings Institution, Brussels, Bucharest, Bundestag, Cambridge University Press, Canadian Army Trophy, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Casteau, CBC News, CBS News, Central and Eastern Europe, Chairman of the NATO Military Committee, Charles de Gaulle, China, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, City of Brussels, Civilian casualties during Operation Allied Force, CNN, CNNMoney, Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan in 2006, Cold War, Collective security, Colombia, Comecon, Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean (France), Common Security and Defence Policy, Commonwealth of Independent States, Containment, Croatia, Cruise missile, Cuban Missile Crisis, Curtis Scaparrotti, Cyberwarfare, Czech Republic, Daniel Halper, Dassault Mirage 2000, Dayton Agreement, Dean Rusk, Defence minister, Democratic consolidation, Denis Mercier, Deputy Chairman of the NATO Military Committee, Dirk Stikker, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Division (military), Dmitry Medvedev, Dwight D. Eisenhower, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Economic sanctions, Eduard Shevardnadze, Endurance, English Channel, English language, Enlargement of NATO, Ernest Bevin, Estonia, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, Eurocorps, Euromaidan, European Union, European Union Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Exercise Grand Slam, Exercise Longstep, Exercise Mainbrace, Exercise Strikeback, Falklands War, Flag of NATO, FN FAL, FN Herstal, Force de dissuasion, Foreign minister, Foreign Policy and Security Research Center, Foreign relations of Israel, France, French Air Force, French Algeria, French language, Général, General (United States), General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, George F. Kennan, George Marshall, George Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, Georgia (country), German reunification, Goražde, Government Accountability Office, Greece, Gross domestic product, Guido Colonna di Paliano, Gulf Cooperation Council, Gulf of Aden, Halvard Lange, Hamid Karzai, Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Haren, Belgium, Harold Macmillan, Harry S. Truman, Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay, History of the Common Security and Defence Policy, Human Rights Watch, Hungary, I. German/Dutch Corps, Implementation Force, Individual Partnership Action Plan, Interdiction, Intergovernmental organization, International Crisis Group, International Security Assistance Force, Invasion of Kuwait, Iraq War, Iraqi Interim Government, Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Istanbul Cooperation Initiative, Italian Communist Party, Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, Jack F. Matlock Jr., Jane's Information Group, Javier Solana, Jens Stoltenberg, Joseph Luns, Journal of Transatlantic Studies, Kabul, Kandahar International Airport, Karl A. Lamers, Korean War, Kosovo Force, Kosovo Liberation Army, Kosovo War, Latin America, Levada Center, Libyan Civil War (2011), Lisbon, List of countries by military expenditures, List of diplomatic missions in Belgium, List of NATO operations, Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, Lyndon B. Johnson, Macedonia naming dispute, Manfred Wörner, Manlio Brosio, McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, Mediterranean Dialogue, Mediterranean Sea, Member states of NATO, Mercenary, Mikhail Gorbachev, Military alliance, Military exercise, Military terminology, Minister of Foreign Affairs (Norway), Mons, Montenegro, Muammar Gaddafi, Multi-National Force – Iraq, Multinational Corps Northeast, National Defense University, NATO, NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, NATO Double-Track Decision, NATO Enhanced Forward Presence, NATO intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina, NATO Medal, NATO missile defence system, NATO Parliamentary Assembly, NATO phonetic alphabet, NATO Quint, NATO Rapid Deployable Corps – Italy, NATO Response Force, NATO summit, NATO Tiger Association, NATO Training Mission – Iraq, New Zealand, Nicolas Sarkozy, No-fly zone, Norfolk, Virginia, North Atlantic Council, North Atlantic Treaty, Northern Italy, Norway, Nuclear sharing, Nuclear weapon, Opération Harmattan, Operation Active Endeavour, Operation Deep Water, Operation Deliberate Force, Operation Deny Flight, Operation Eagle Assist, Operation Essential Harvest, Operation Gladio, Operation Ocean Shield, Operation Sharp Guard, Operation Unified Protector, Overseas department, Partnership for Peace, Paul-Henri Spaak, Peace movement, Persian Gulf, Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, Piracy off the coast of Somalia, Poland, Political agenda, Political system, Porte Dauphine (Paris Métro), Qatar, Ranks and insignia of NATO, Republic of Macedonia, Resolute Support Mission, Reuters, Revolutions of 1989, Richard Holbrooke, Riga, Right of first refusal, Robert Gates, Robert Zoellick, Rocquencourt, Ronald Asmus, Rose Gottemoeller, Royal Air Force, Royal Danish Air Force, Royal Navy, RSD-10 Pioneer, Russia, Russia–NATO relations, Secretary General of NATO, September 11 attacks, Serbia and Montenegro, Sergio Balanzino, Simon & Schuster, Slobodan Milošević, Somalia, South Korea, Southeast European Times, Soviet Armed Forces, Soviet Union, Spanish NATO membership referendum, 1986, Special Relationship, Spiegel Online, Srebrenica massacre, Stabilisation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Standardization, Standardization Agreement, Standing NATO Maritime Group 1, Standing NATO Mine Countermeasures Group 1, Stanford University Press, Stay-behind, Steven M. Shepro, Strategic Air Command, Structure of NATO, Stuart Peach, Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic, Supreme Allied Commander Europe, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Syria, Syrian Civil War, Taliban, Taylor & Francis, The Daily Beast, The Economist, The National Interest, The New York Times, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Free Beacon, The Washington Post, Time (magazine), Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan, Treaty of Brussels, Treaty of Lisbon, Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Tropic of Cancer, Turkey, Turkish invasion of Cyprus, Ukraine, Ukraine–NATO relations, United Arab Emirates, United Nations Protection Force, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1199, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1546, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, United Nations Security Council Resolution 816, United Press International, United States, United States Air Force in France, United States Army, United States bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade, United States Department of State, University of Chicago Press, Viktor Yanukovych, Vladimir Putin, War in Donbass, Warsaw Pact, Washington, D.C., West Germany, Western Union (alliance), Westview Press, Willy Claes, World Food Programme, Yale University Press, Yugoslav Wars, Yugoslavia, 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état, 1949 anti-NATO riot in Iceland, 1999 Washington summit, 2002 Prague summit, 2004 Istanbul summit, 2006 Riga summit, 2008 Bucharest summit, 2009 Strasbourg–Kehl summit, 2011 military intervention in Libya, 2012 Chicago summit, 2012 Turkish F-4 Phantom shootdown, 2013 Libyan coup d'état attempt, 2014 Wales summit, 7.62×51mm NATO. 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The Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty is a post–Cold War adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), signed on November 19, 1999, during the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe's (OSCE) 1999 Istanbul summit.
The Adriatic Charter is an association formed by Albania, Croatia, Republic of Macedonia and United States of America for the purpose of aiding their attempts to join NATO.
The Aegis Combat System is an American integrated naval weapons system developed by the Missile and Surface Radar Division of RCA, and now produced by Lockheed Martin.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Air chief marshal (Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a four-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force, where it is the most senior peacetime air force rank.
Aircraft marshalling is visual signalling between ground personnel and pilots on an airport, aircraft carrier or helipad.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alessandro Minuto-Rizzo (born 10 September 1940) is an Italian diplomat who served as Deputy Secretary General of NATO from 2001 to 2007, and as acting Secretary General of NATO from 17 December 2003 to 1 January 2004, in between the tenures of George Robertson and Jaap de Hoop Scheffer.
Alexander Russell "Sandy" Vershbow (born July 3, 1952) is an American diplomat and former Deputy Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
An independence referendum was held in French Algeria on 1 July 1962.
Allied Air Forces Central Europe (AAFCE) was the NATO command tasked with air and air defense operations in NATOs Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) area of command.
The Allied Command Europe Mobile Force was a small NATO quick reaction force, headquartered at Heidelberg, Germany, active from 1960 to 2002.
Allied Command Transformation (ACT; Le Commandement allié Transformation) is a NATO military command, which was formed in 2003 after North Atlantic Treaty Organisation restructuring.
Allied Force Command Heidelberg (HQ FC HD) was a unit with the NATO Military Command Structure responsible for providing Deployable Joint Staff Elements (DJSE) in support of NATO operations worldwide.
The Allied Rapid Reaction Corps (ARRC) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation High Readiness Force (Land) Headquarters ready for deployment worldwide.
Anders Fogh Rasmussen (born 26 January 1953) is a Danish politician who was the 24th Prime Minister of Denmark from November 2001 to April 2009 and the 12th Secretary General of NATO from August 2009 to October 2014.
Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a surface-to-air missile designed to counter ballistic missiles (see missile defense).
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
An arms embargo is an embargo that applies solely to weaponry, and may also apply to "dual-use technology".
An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more states to have the best armed forces.
The Army of Republika Srpska (Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske; ВРС/VRS), commonly referred to in English as the Bosnian Serb Army (BSA), was the military of Republika Srpska (RS), the self-proclaimed Serb secessionist republic, a territory within the newly independent Bosnia and Herzegovina (formerly part of Yugoslavia), which it defied, active during the Bosnian War (1992–95).
Army Times (ISSN 0004–2595) is a newspaper published 26 times a year serving active, reserve, national guard and retired United States Army personnel and their families, providing news, information and analysis as well as community and lifestyle features, educational supplements, and resource guides.
Arseniy Petrovych Yatsenyuk (Арсеній Петрович Яценюк,; born 22 May 1974) is a Ukrainian politician, economist and lawyer who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Ukraine from 27 February 2014 to 14 April 2016.
The Atlantic Council is an American think tank in the field of international affairs.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic Treaty Association (ATA) is an umbrella organization which acts as a network facilitator in the Euro-Atlantic and beyond.
Atlanticism, also known as Transatlanticism, is the belief in or support for a close relationship between the United States, Canada and Europe regarding political, economic and defence issues, with the belief that it would maintain security and prosperity of the participating countries and protect perceived values that unite them.
AUSCANNZUKUS is an abbreviation for the naval Command, Control, Communications and Computers (C4) interoperability organization involving the Anglosphere nations of '''Aus'''tralia, '''Can'''ada, '''N'''ew '''Z'''ealand, the '''U'''nited '''K'''ingdom, and the '''U'''nited '''S'''tates.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The B61 nuclear bomb is the primary thermonuclear gravity bomb in the United States Enduring Stockpile following the end of the Cold War.
The Baltic air-policing mission is a NATO air defence Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) in order to guard the airspace over the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Banja Luka incident on 28 February 1994, was an incident in which six Republika Srpska Air Force J-21 Jastreb single-seat light attack jets were engaged, and four of them shot down, by United States Air Force F-16 fighters southwest of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The Belgian Congo (Congo Belge,; Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948–12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War.
The Berlin Plus agreement is the short title of a comprehensive package of agreements made between NATO and the EU on 16 December 2002.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
The Ground Launched Cruise Missile, or GLCM, (officially designated BGM-109G Gryphon) was a ground-launched cruise missile developed by the United States Air Force in the last decade of the Cold War and destroyed under the INF Treaty.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.
The British Aerospace Sea Harrier is a naval short take-off and vertical landing/vertical take-off and landing jet fighter, reconnaissance and attack aircraft; the second member of the Harrier Jump Jet family developed.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
There have been two formations named British Army of the Rhine (BAOR).
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Canadian Army Trophy (CAT) was a tank gunnery competition established to foster excellence, camaraderie and competition among the armoured forces of the NATO countries in Western Europe.
The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a foreign-policy think tank with centers in Washington D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, Brussels, and New Delhi.
Casteau is a village of Belgium in the French-speaking region.
CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.
The Chairman of the NATO Military Committee (CMC) is the head of the NATO Military Committee, which advises the North Atlantic Council (NAC) on military policy and strategy.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
The City of Brussels (French: Ville de Bruxelles or alternatively Bruxelles-Ville, Dutch: Stad Brussel or Brussel-Stad) is the largest municipality and historical centre of the Brussels-Capital Region, and the de jure capital of Belgium.
Many human rights groups criticised civilian casualties resulting from military actions of NATO forces in Operation Allied Force.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
CNNMoney.com is a financial news and information website, operated by CNN.
In January 2006, NATO's focus in southern Afghanistan was to form Provincial Reconstruction Teams with the British leading in Helmand Province and the Netherlands and Canada leading similar deployments in Orūzgān Province and Kandahar Province respectively.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement, political, regional, or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and therefore commits to a collective response to threats to, and breaches to peace.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
The French Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean, (Commandant En Chef pour la 'Mediterranée) ((C)ommandant (E)n (C)hef pour la (MED)iterranée) is commandant of the maritime arrondissement Mediterranean.
The Common Security and Defence Policy, CSDP, whose structures are sometimes referred to as the European Defence Union) is the EU's policy arrangements and related institutions in the fields of defence and crisis management. The implementation of the CSDP involves the deployment of military or civilian missions for peace-keeping, conflict prevention and strengthening international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Military missions are carried out by EU forces established with contributions from the member states' armed forces. The CSDP also entails collective self-defence amongst member states as well as a Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration. The Union's High Representative (HR/VP), currently Federica Mogherini, is responsible for proposing and implementing CSDP decisions. Such decisions are adopted by the Foreign Affairs Council (FAC), generally requiring unanimity. The CSDP structures, headed by the HR/VP, comprise relevant sections of the External Action Service (EEAS)—including the Military Staff (EUMS) with its operational headquarters (MPCC)—a number of FAC preparatory bodies—such as the Military Committee (EUMC)—as well as four agencies, including the Defence Agency (EDA).
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
Curtis Michael "Mike" Scaparrotti (born March 5, 1956) is a four-star general in the United States Army, and the current Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) of NATO Allied Command Operations.
Cyberwarfare is the use or targeting in a battlespace or warfare context of computers, online control systems and networks.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Daniel Halper is an American political writer.
The Dassault Mirage 2000 is a French multirole, single-engine fourth-generation jet fighter manufactured by Dassault Aviation.
The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton–Paris Agreement, (Dejtonski mirovni sporazum, Dejtonski mirovni sporazum, Daytonski sporazum) is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, United States, in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris, France, on 14 December 1995.
David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
The title Defence Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.
Democratic consolidation is the process by which a new democracy matures, in a way that means it is unlikely to revert to authoritarianism without an external shock.
Général d'armée aérienne Denis Mercier is a former Chief of Staff of the French Air Force.
The Deputy Chairman of the NATO Military Committee (DCMC) is the deputy head of the NATO Military Committee, which advises the North Atlantic Council (NAC) with best military policy and strategy.
Dirk Uipko Stikker, (5 February 1897 – 23 December 1979) was a Dutch banker, industrialist, politician, and diplomat.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
Eduard Ambrosiyevich Shevardnadze (ედუარდ ამბროსის ძე შევარდნაძე, Eduard Ambrosis dze Šewardnadze; 25 January 1928 – 7 July 2014) was a Georgian politician and diplomat.
Endurance (also related to sufferance, resilience, constitution, fortitude, and hardiness) is the ability of an organism to exert itself and remain active for a long period of time, as well as its ability to resist, withstand, recover from, and have immunity to trauma, wounds, or fatigue.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the process of including new member states in NATO.
Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 – 14 April 1951) was a British statesman, trade union leader, and Labour politician.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), a post-Cold War NATO institution, is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery.
The European Corps (Eurocorps) is an intergovernmental military corps of approximately 1,000 soldiers stationed in Strasbourg, Alsace, France.
Euromaidan (Євромайдан, Евромайдан,, literally "Euro Square") was a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine, which began on the night of 21 November 2013 with public protests in Maidan Nezalezhnosti ("Independence Square") in Kiev.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
European Union Force Althea (EUFOR Althea) is a military deployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina to oversee the military implementation of the Dayton Agreement.
Exercise Grand Slam was an early major naval exercise of the newly formed North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Exercise Longstep was a ten-day NATO naval exercise held in the Mediterranean Sea during November 1952 under the overall command of Admiral Robert B. Carney, USN, the Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCAFSOUTH).
Exercise Mainbrace was the first large-scale naval exercise undertaken by the newly established Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT), one of the two principal military commands of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Exercise Strikeback was a major naval exercise of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) that took place over a ten-day period in September 1957.
The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The flag of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) consists of a dark blue field charged with a white compass rose emblem, with four white lines radiating from the four cardinal directions.
The FN FAL (Fusil Automatique Léger, English: Light Automatic Rifle), is a battle rifle designed by Belgian small arms designers Dieudonné Saive and Ernest Vervier and manufactured by Fabrique Nationale d'Herstal (FN Herstal).
Fabrique Nationale Herstal (French for: National Factory Herstal), self-identified as FN Herstal and often referred to as Fabrique Nationale or simply FN, is a leading firearms manufacturer located in Herstal, Belgium, and is owned by the holding company Herstal Group which is owned by the regional government of Wallonia.
The Force de frappe (French for: strike force), or Force de dissuasion after 1961,Gunston, Bill.
A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.
Foreign Policy and Security Research center established in 2008 by Doctors of History and Ph.D. in history, law, foreign policy and other subjects, currently working in public institutions of Belarus: Belarusian National Technical University, Academy of Public Administration under the aegis of the President of the Republic of Belarus, Belarusian State University (Faculty of International Relations).
Israel joined the United Nations on 11 May 1949.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The French Air Force (Armée de l'Air Française), literally Aerial Army) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1934. The number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 241 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 133 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale. As of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force (CEMAA) is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CEMA).
French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Général is the French word for general.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, general (abbreviated as GEN in the Army or Gen in the Air Force and Marine Corps) is a four-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
George Frost Kennan (February 16, 1904 – March 17, 2005) was an American diplomat and historian.
George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.
George Islay MacNeill Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, (born 12 April 1946) is a British Labour Party politician who was the tenth Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation from 1999 to 2004; he succeeded Javier Solana in that position.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Goražde (Горажде) is a city and the administrative center of Bosnian-Podrinje Canton Goražde of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Don Guido Colonna, dei principi di Paliano, noble of Rome, patrician of Naples and Venice (16 April 1908 in Naples – 27 January 1982 in Milan) was an Italian aristocrat, diplomat and European Commissioner.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.
The Gulf of Aden, also known as the Gulf of Berbera, (خليج عدن,, Gacanka Berbera) is a gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west.
Halvard Manthey Lange (16 September 1902 – 19 May 1970) was a Norwegian politician and diplomat.
Hamid Karzai, (Pashto/حامد کرزی, born 24 December 1957) is an Afghan politician who was the leader of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014.
Hans-Dietrich Genscher (21 March 1927 – 31 March 2016) was a German statesman and a member of the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP), who served as the Minister of the Interior of West Germany from 1969 to 1974, and as the Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor of West Germany and then the reunified Germany from 1974 to 1992 (except for a two-week break in 1982), making him the longest-serving occupant of either post.
Haren (Dutch and French, sometimes written Haeren in French) is an old municipality of Brussels in Belgium, that was merged into the municipality of the City of Brussels in 1921.
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
General Hastings Lionel Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay, (21 June 1887 – 17 December 1965), nicknamed Pug, was a British Indian Army officer and diplomat, remembered primarily for his role as Winston Churchill's chief military assistant during the Second World War and his service as the first Secretary General of NATO from 1952 to 1957.
This article outlines the history of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the European Union (EU), a part of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
1(GE/NL)Corps is a multinational formation consisting of units from both the Royal Netherlands Army and German Army.
The Implementation Force (IFOR) was a NATO-led multinational peace enforcement force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour.
Individual Partnership Action Plans (IPAP) are plans developed between NATO and different countries which outline the objectives and the communication framework for dialogue and cooperation between both parties.
Interdiction is a military term for the act of delaying, disrupting, or destroying enemy forces or supplies en route to the battle area.
An intergovernmental organization or international governmental organisation (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations.
The International Crisis Group (ICG; also simply known as the Crisis Group) is a transnational non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1995 that carries out field research on violent conflict and advances policies to prevent, mitigate or resolve conflict.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
The Invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a 2-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring state of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of the country.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the drafting of the new constitution following the National Assembly election conducted on January 30, 2005.
The Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition (IMCTC), and also formerly referred to as the Islamic Military Alliance to Fight Terrorism (IMAFT), is an intergovernmental counter-terrorist alliance of countries in the Muslim world, united around military intervention against ISIL and other counter-terrorist activities.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
The Istanbul Cooperation Initiative (ICI) is an initiative launched during NATO's 2004 Istanbul summit.
The Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) was a communist political party in Italy.
Jakob Gijsbert "Jaap" de Hoop Scheffer (born 3 April 1948) is a retired Dutch politician and diplomat of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).
Jack Foust Matlock Jr. (born October 1, 1929) is a former American ambassador, career Foreign Service Officer, a teacher, a historian, and a linguist.
Jane's Information Group (often referred to as Jane's) is a British publishing company specialising in military, aerospace and transportation topics.
Francisco Javier Solana de Madariaga, KOGF, KCMG (born 14 July 1942), is a Spanish physicist and Socialist politician.
Jens Stoltenberg (born 16 March 1959) is a Norwegian politician.
Joseph Marie Antoine Hubert Luns (28 August 1911 – 17 July 2002) was a Dutch politician and diplomat of the defunct Catholic People's Party (KVP), now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).
The Journal of Transatlantic Studies (JTS) is a multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed academic journal that covers all aspects pertaining to transatlantic relations.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Kandahar International Airport (د کندهار نړيوال هوايي ډګر; referred to by ISAF as Kandahar Airfield, KAF) is located south-east of Kandahar City in Afghanistan.
Karl A. Lamers (born 12 February 1951 in Duisburg) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), currently serving as Deputy Chairman of the Defence Committee of the German Parliament.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international peacekeeping force which was responsible for establishing a secure environment in Kosovo.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Levada-Center is a Russian independent, non-governmental polling and sociological research organization.
The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.
This page lists diplomatic missions resident in the Kingdom of Belgium.
Although the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was present throughout the Cold War as the opposite to the Warsaw Pact, and conducted joint military exercises, no military operations took place.
The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole fighters.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
The Macedonia naming dispute is a political dispute over the use of the name "Macedonia" between the southeastern European countries of Greece and the Republic of Macedonia, formerly a region within Yugoslavia.
Manfred Hermann Wörner (24 September 1934 in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt – 13 August 1994 in Brussels) was a German politician and diplomat.
Manlio Giovanni Brosio (July 10, 1897 – March 14, 1980) was an Italian lawyer, diplomat, politician and the fourth Secretary General of NATO between 1964 and 1971.
The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II is a tandem two-seat, twin-engine, all-weather, long-range supersonic jet interceptor and fighter-bomber originally developed for the United States Navy by McDonnell Aircraft.
The Mediterranean Dialogue, first launched in 1994, is a forum of cooperation between NATO and seven countries of the Mediterranean.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is an international alliance that consists of 29 member states from North America and Europe.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
A military alliance is an international agreement concerning national security, when the contracting parties agree to mutual protection and support in case of a crisis that has not been identified in advance.
A military exercise or war game is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat.
Military terminology refers to the terms and language of military organizations and personnel as belonging to a discrete category, as distinguishable by their usage in military doctrine, as they serve to depoliticise, dehumanise, or otherwise abstract discussion about its operations from an actual description thereof.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs (norske utanriksministeren) is a councilor of state and chief of the Norway's Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Mons (Bergen; Mont; Mont) is a Walloon city and municipality, and the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.
Multinational Corps Northeast was formed on 18 September 1999 at Szczecin, Poland, which became its headquarters.
The National Defense University (NDU) is an institution of higher education funded by the United States Department of Defense, intended to facilitate high-level training, education, and the development of national security strategy.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) during the Kosovo War.
The NATO Double-Track Decision is the decision of NATO from December 12, 1979, to offer the Warsaw Pact a mutual limitation of medium-range ballistic missiles and intermediate-range ballistic missiles combined with the threat that in case of disagreement NATO would deploy more middle-range nuclear weapons in Western Europe, following the so-called "Euromissile Crisis".
NATO's Enhanced Forward Presence is an allied, forward deployed defense and deterrence posture in Eastern Europe to protect and reassure NATO's Eastern member states of their security.
The NATO intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina was a series of actions undertaken by NATO whose stated aim was to establish long-term peace during and after the Bosnian War.
The NATO Medal is an international military decoration which is awarded to various militaries of the world under the authority of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
The NATO missile defense system is a missile defense system being constructed by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in several member states and around the Mediterranean Sea.
Founded in 1955, the NATO Parliamentary Assembly (NATO PA) serves as the consultative interparliamentary organisation for the North Atlantic Alliance.
The NATO phonetic alphabet, officially denoted as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, and also commonly known as the ICAO phonetic alphabet, and in a variation also known officially as the ITU phonetic alphabet and figure code, is the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet.
The Quint is an informal decision-making group consisting of the United States and the Big Four of Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom).
The NATO Rapid Deployable Corps – Italy (NRDC-IT) is a multi-national corps headquarters of the Italian Army.
The NATO Response Force (NRF) is a high readiness force comprising land, air, sea and special forces units capable of being deployed quickly on operations wherever needed.
A NATO summit is a summit meeting that is regarded as a periodic opportunity for Heads of State and Heads of Government of NATO member countries to evaluate and provide strategic direction for Alliance activities.
The NATO Tiger Association or the Association of Tiger Squadrons was established in 1961.
The NATO Training Mission-Iraq (NTM-I) was established in 2004 at the request of the Iraqi Interim Government under the provisions of UN Security Council Resolution 1546.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
A no-fly zone or no-flight zone (NFZ), or air exclusion zone, is a territory or an area over which aircraft are not permitted to fly.
Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
The North Atlantic Council (NAC) is the principal political decision-making body of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), consisting of Permanent Representatives from its member countries.
The North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949, is the treaty establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nuclear sharing is a concept in NATO's policy of nuclear deterrence, which involves member countries without nuclear weapons of their own in the planning for the use of nuclear weapons by NATO.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Opération Harmattan is the codename for the French participation in the 2011 military intervention in Libya.
Operation Active Endeavour was a maritime operation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Operation Deep Water was a 1957 NATO naval exercise held in the Mediterranean Sea that simulated protecting the Dardanelles from a Soviet invasion.
Operation Deliberate Force was a sustained air campaign conducted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), in concert with the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) ground operations, to undermine the military capability of the Bosnian Serb Army (VRS), which had threatened and attacked UN-designated "safe areas" in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War with the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, precipitating the intervention.
Operation Deny Flight was a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) operation that began on 12 April 1993 as the enforcement of a United Nations (UN) no-fly zone over Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Operation Eagle Assist began following the September 11 attacks on October 9, 2001,, NATO On-line library.
Operation Essential Harvest (or Task Force Harvest) was a deployment mission in the Republic of Macedonia by NATO, officially launched on August 22, 2001 and effectively started on August 27.
Operation Gladio is the codename for a clandestine North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) "stay-behind" operation in Europe during the Cold War.
Operation Ocean Shield was NATO's contribution to Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA), an anti-piracy initiative in the Indian Ocean, Guardafui Channel, Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea.
Operation Sharp Guard was a multi-year joint naval blockade in the Adriatic Sea by NATO and the Western European Union on shipments to the former Yugoslavia.
Operation Unified Protector was a NATO operation in 2011 enforcing United Nations Security Council resolutions 1970 and 1973 concerning the Libyan Civil War and adopted on 26 February and 17 March 2011, respectively.
An overseas department (département d’outre-mer or DOM) is a department of France that is outside metropolitan France.
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.
Paul-Henri Charles Spaak (25 January 1899 – 31 July 1972) was an influential Belgian politician and statesman also considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union.
A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, and is often linked to the goal of achieving world peace.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, (born 6 June 1919) is a British Conservative politician and hereditary peer who served as Defence Secretary between 1970 and 1974, Foreign Secretary between 1979 and 1982, chairman of General Electric between 1983 and 1984, and Secretary General of NATO from 1984 to 1988.
Piracy off the coast of Somalia has been a threat to international shipping since the second phase of the Somali Civil War, around 2000, when foreign ships exploited the absence of an effective national coast guard by invading the fishing grounds and also dumping illegal waste that would further diminish the local catch.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A political agenda is a list of subjects or problems to which government officials as well as individuals outside the government are paying serious attention at any given time.
A political system is a system of politics and government.
Porte Dauphine (Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny) is a station of the Paris Métro.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Ranks and insignia of NATO are combined military insignia used by the member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Resolute Support Mission or Operation Resolute Support is a NATO-led train, advise and assist mission consisting of over 13,000 troops in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, which began on January 1, 2015.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Richard Charles Albert Holbrooke (April 24, 1941 – December 13, 2010) was an American diplomat, magazine editor, author, professor, Peace Corps official, and investment banker.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Right of first refusal (ROFR or RFR) is a contractual right that gives its holder the option to enter a business transaction with the owner of something, according to specified terms, before the owner is entitled to enter into that transaction with a third party.
Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is an American statesman, scholar, intelligence analyst, and university president who served as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense from 2006 to 2011.
Robert Bruce Zoellick (born July 25, 1953) is an American public official and lawyer who was the eleventh president of the World Bank, a position he held from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2012.
Rocquencourt is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France, about north-west of Versailles and west of center Paris.
Ronald Dietrich Asmus (June 29, 1957 – April 30, 2011) was a United States diplomat and political analyst.
Rose Eilene Gottemoeller (born March 24, 1953) is an American diplomat who is the current Deputy Secretary General of NATO, serving under Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Danish Air Force (lit) (RDAF) is the aerial warfare force of Denmark and one of the four branches of the Danish Defence.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The RSD-10 Pioneer (ракета средней дальности (РСД) «Пионер» tr.: Raketa Sredney Dalnosti (RSD) "Pioneer"; Medium-Range Missile "Pioneer") was an intermediate-range ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead, deployed by the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
NATO–Russian relations, relations between the NATO Military Alliance and the Russian Federation were established in 1991 within the framework of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council.
The Secretary General of NATO (Secrétaire général de l'OTAN) is an international diplomat who serves as the chief civil servant of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Serbia and Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora, Србија и Црна Гора; SCG, СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992.
Sergio Silvio Balanzino (Bologna, 20 June 1934) is an Italian diplomat.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Slobodan Milošević (Слободан Милошевић; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician and the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Southeast European Times was a United States European Command-sponsored news website dedicated to coverage of Southeast Europe that ended publication in March 2015.
The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A Spanish NATO membership referendum was held on Wednesday, 12 March 1986, to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which it had joined in 1982.
The Special Relationship is an unofficial term for the political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military, and historical relations between the United Kingdom and the United States.
Spiegel Online (SPON) is one of the most widely read German-language news websites.
The Srebrenica massacre, also known as the Srebrenica genocide (Masakr u Srebrenici; Genocid u Srebrenici), was the July 1995 genocide of more than 8,000Potocari Memorial Center Preliminary List of Missing Persons from Srebrenica '95 Muslim Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War.
The Stabilisation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (SFOR) was a NATO-led multinational peacekeeping force deployed to Bosnia and Herzegovina after the Bosnian war.
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
In NATO a STANdardization AGreement (STANAG) defines processes, procedures, terms, and conditions for common military or technical procedures or equipment between the member countries of the alliance.
Standing NATO Maritime Group One (SNMG1) is one of NATO's standing maritime Immediate Reaction Forces.
Standing NATO Mine Countermeasures Group 1 (SNMCMG1) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) standing mine countermeasures immediate reaction force.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
In a stay-behind operation, a country places secret operatives or organisations in its own territory, for use in the event that an enemy occupies that territory.
Steven M. Shepro is a Lieutenant General in the United States Air Force who currently serves as the 21st Deputy Chairman of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Military Committee.
Strategic Air Command (SAC) was both a Department of Defense Specified Command and a United States Air Force (USAF) Major Command (MAJCOM), responsible for Cold War command and control of two of the three components of the U.S. military's strategic nuclear strike forces, the so-called "nuclear triad," with SAC having control of land-based strategic bomber aircraft and intercontinental ballistic missiles or ICBMs (the third leg of the triad being submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) of the U.S. Navy).
The Structure of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation is complex and multi-faceted.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart William Peach, (born 22 February 1956) is a senior Royal Air Force officer.
The Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) was one of two supreme commanders of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), the other being the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR).
The Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) is the head of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE), also known as Allied Command Operations (ACO), of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), based in Casteau, Belgium.
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) is the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Allied Command Operations (ACO).
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
The Daily Beast is an American news and opinion website focused on politics and pop culture.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The National Interest (TNI) is an American bimonthly international affairs magazine published by the Center for the National Interest.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Philadelphia Inquirer is a morning daily newspaper that serves the Philadelphia metropolitan area of the United States.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Free Beacon is an American conservative political journalism website launched in 2012.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA), also known as the Afghan Transitional Authority, was the name of a temporary administration of Afghanistan put in place by the loya jirga of June 2002.
The Treaty of Brussels, also referred to as the Brussels Pact, was the founding treaty of the Western Union (WU) between 1948 and 1954, at which it point it was amended as the Modified Brussels Treaty (MTB) and served as the founding treaty of the Western European Union (WEU) until its termination in 2010.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry.
The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland), or the Two Plus Four Agreement (Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty), was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous Two), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: the French Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkish invasion of Cyprus (lit and Τουρκική εισβολή στην Κύπρο), code-named by Turkey as Operation Attila, (Atilla Harekâtı) was a Turkish military invasion of the island country of Cyprus.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Relations between Ukraine and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) started in 1994.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Nations Protection Force (French: Force de Protection des Nations Unies; UNPROFOR, also known by its French acronym FORPRONU), was the first United Nations peacekeeping force in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav Wars.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1199, adopted on 23 September 1998, after recalling Resolution 1160 (1998), the Council demanded that the Albanian and Yugoslav parties in Kosovo end hostilities and observe a ceasefire.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1244, adopted on 10 June 1999, after recalling resolutions 1160 (1998), 1199 (1998), 1203 (1998) and 1239 (1999), authorised an international civil and military presence in Kosovo (which was part of called "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia"): "Serbia - date of admission 1 November 2000, The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was admitted as a Member of the United Nations by General Assembly resolution A/RES/55/12 of 1 November 2000.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1546, adopted unanimously on 8 June 2004, after reaffirming previous resolutions on Iraq, the Council endorsed the formation of the Iraqi Interim Government, welcomed the end of the occupation and determined the status of the multinational force and its relationship with the Iraqi government.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, on the situation in Libya, is a measure that was adopted on 17 March 2011.
United Nations Security Council resolution 816, adopted on 31 March 1993, after reaffirming resolutions 781 (1992), 786 (1992) concerning a ban on military flights over Bosnia and Herzegovina and recognising the current situation in the region, the Council, acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, extended the ban to cover flights by all fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft over the country, and to use all measures necessary to ensure compliance with the ban.
United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
From 1951 to 1966 the United States Air Force deployed thousands of personnel and hundreds of combat aircraft to France to counter the buildup of the Soviet Armed Forces in Eastern Europe.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
On May 7, 1999, during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia (Operation Allied Force), five US JDAM guided bombs hit the People's Republic of China embassy in the Belgrade district of New Belgrade, killing three Chinese reporters and outraging the Chinese public.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич,; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who was elected as the fourth President of Ukraine on 7 February 2010.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Western Union (WU), also referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organisation (BTO), was the European military alliance established between France, the United Kingdom (UK) and the three Benelux countries upon the entry into force of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels.
Westview Press was an American publishing house.
Willem Werner Hubert "Willy" Claes (born 24 November 1938) is a former Belgian politician who served as the eighth Secretary General of NATO, from 1994 to 1995.
The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
The 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état (often simply the Czech coup) (Únor 1948, Február 1948, both meaning "February 1948") – in Marxist historiography known as "Victorious February" (Vítězný únor, Víťazný február) – was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, marking the onset of four decades of communist rule in the country.
The Icelandic NATO riot of 30 March 1949 was prompted by the decision of Alþingi, the Icelandic parliament, to join the newly formed NATO, thereby involving Iceland directly in the Cold War, opposing the Soviet Union and re-militarizing the country.
The 1999 Washington summit was the 16th NATO summit and was held in Washington, D.C. on April 24–25, 1999.
The 2002 Prague summit was a NATO summit held at the Prague Congress Center where the heads of state and government of the NATO member states met.
The 2004 Istanbul summit was held in Istanbul, Turkey from June 28 to June 29, 2004.
The 2006 Riga summit or the 19th NATO Summit was a NATO summit held in the Olympic Sports Centre, Riga, Latvia from 28 to 29 November 2006.
The 2008 Bucharest Summit or the 20th NATO Summit was a NATO summit organized in the Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest, Romania on 2 – 4 April 2008.
The 2009 Strasbourg–Kehl Summit was a NATO summit of heads of state and heads of government held in Strasbourg, France, and in Kehl and Baden-Baden, Germany, on 3–4 April 2009.
On 19 March 2011, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973.
The 2012 Chicago Summit was a meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), held in Chicago, Illinois, on May 20 and 21 of 2012.
On 22 June 2012, a Turkish F-4 Phantom reconnaissance jet was intercepted and shot down by the Syrian Army in international airspace, after having violated Syrian airspace.
The 2013 Libyan coup d'état attempt was a coup d'état attempt by a group of members of the General National Congress to take control of the country from Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zeidan.
The 2014 Wales Summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was a meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, held in Newport, Wales on 4 and 5 September 2014.
The 7.62×51mm NATO (official NATO nomenclature 7.62 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge developed in the 1950s as a standard for small arms among NATO countries.
Atlantic Alliance, Euro-Atlantic integration, French withdrawal from NATO command, N. A. T. O., N.A.T.O, N.A.T.O., NATO Interoperability Management Plan, NATO exercise, NATO state, NATO troops, NCTO, NSTO, Nato, Nato.int, Natoland, North Atlantic Alliance, North Atlantic Pact, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), North Atlantic pact, Organisation du Traite de l'Atlantique Nord, Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord, The NATO, The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Western Alliance, Western alliance.