238 relations: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Addiction, Agmatine, Agonist, Alanine, Alcoholic drink, Allosteric modulator, Alzheimer's disease, Amanita muscaria, Amantadine, Aminoglycoside, AMPA receptor, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Analgesic, Anesthesia, Anesthetic, Antagonist, Anti-glutamate receptor antibodies, Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, Antibiotic, Anticholinergic, Antiparkinson medication, Antiviral drug, Anxiolytic, AP-7 (drug), AP5, Apimostinel, Argiope (spider), Aspartic acid, Atomoxetine, Autoimmunity, Binding site, Brain damage, Calcium in biology, CAMK, Cell membrane, Cell signaling, Central nervous system, CGP-37849, Cholesterol, Clinical trial, Coincidence detection in neurobiology, Competition (companies), Conantokin, Conus geographus, Copper, Cyclin-dependent kinase 5, Cyclohexane, Cycloserine, DAB1, ..., Dehydroepiandrosterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, Delucemine, Dementia, Depolarization, Dexanabinol, Dextromethorphan, Dextropropoxyphene, Dextrorphan, Diethyl ether, Diphenidine, Dissociation (psychology), Dissociative, Dizocilpine, Domain (biology), Dopaminergic, Efficacy, Electrical resistance and conductance, Eliprodil, Endogeny (biology), Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Esketamine, Ethanol, Eupenicillium shearii, Euphoria, Europe, Excitatory postsynaptic potential, Excitotoxicity, Exogeny, Extracellular, Extracellular signal–regulated kinases, Extrasynaptic NMDA receptor, Gavestinel, Gene, General anaesthetic, Glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia, Glutamate receptor, Glutamic acid, Glutathione, Glycine, GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, GRIN2C, GRIN2D, Guaifenesin, HA-966, Hallucination, Hallucinogen, Hebbian theory, Heterotetramer, Hippocampus, Hodgkinsine, Homocysteic acid, Homoquinolinic acid, Huntington's disease, Huperzine A, Hypoglycemia, Hypotension, Ibogaine, Ibotenic acid, IC50, Ifenprodil, In vitro, In vivo, Ion, Ion channel, Ionotropic glutamate receptor, Kainate receptor, Kaitocephalin, Ketamine, Ketobemidone, Kynurenic acid, Lanicemine, Lead, Learning, Lethality, Licostinel, Ligand, Ligand (biochemistry), Ligand-gated ion channel, Lipoic acid, Long-term depression, Long-term potentiation, LY-235959, Magnesium in biology, Major depressive disorder, Major histocompatibility complex, Medicinal chemistry, Memantine, Memory, Methadone, Methamphetamine, Methoxetamine, Midafotel, Milacemide, Minocycline, Mood disorder, Mucokinetics, N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Nature Neuroscience, Neboglamine, Neramexane, Nerve, Neurodegeneration, Neurological disorder, Neuron, Neuroprotection, Neurotoxicity, Neurotransmitter, Nitromemantine, Nitrosylation, Nitrous oxide, NMDA receptor, NMDA receptor antagonist, Nuclear transport, Olney's lesions, Opioid, P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, Parkinson's disease, Patch clamp, Pathology, PEAQX, Perzinfotel, PH, Phencyclidine, Phenylalanine, Physiology, Polyamine, Potassium channel, Potassium in biology, Pregnenolone sulfate, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protein, Protein isoform, Protein kinase, Protein phosphatase, Protein subunit, Protein targeting, Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, Psychoactive drug, Psychotridine, Pyrroloquinoline quinone, Quinolinic acid, Rapastinel, Receptor antagonist, Recreational drug use, Reelin, Reversal potential, Rislenemdaz, Sarcosine, Schizophrenia, Science (journal), Second messenger system, Sedative, Selfotel, Serine, Serine racemase, Sodium, Spermidine, Spermine, Stimulant, Streptomyces, Stroke, Structure–activity relationship, Synapse, Synaptic plasticity, Teratoma, Tetrazolylglycine, The Journal of Neuroscience, Tiletamine, Tinnitus, Tramadol, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Transcription factor, Traumatic brain injury, Traxoprodil, Treatment-resistant depression, Tyrosine-protein kinase CSK, Uncompetitive antagonist, United States, X-ray crystallography, Xenon, 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, 4-Chlorokynurenine, 7-Chlorokynurenic acid. Expand index (188 more) » « Shrink index
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Agmatine, also known as (4-aminobutyl)guanidine, is an aminoguanidine that was discovered in 1910 by Albrecht Kossel.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.
Amantadine (trade name Symmetrel, by Endo Pharmaceuticals) is a medication that has U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for use both as an antiviral and an antiparkinsonian medication.
Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar); the term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains aminosugar substructures.
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
An antagonist is a character, group of characters, institution or concept that stands in or represents opposition against which the protagonist(s) must contend.
Anti-glutamate receptor antibodies are autoantibodies detected in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples of a variety of disorders such as encephalitis, epilepsy and ataxia.
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, also known as NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis, is an acute form of brain inflammation.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
An antiparkinson medication is a type of drug which is intended to treat and relieve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
AP-7 is a selective NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist that competitively inhibits the glutamate binding site and thus activation of NMDAR.
AP5 or APV ((2R)-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid; (2R)-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate) is a selective NMDA receptor antagonist that competitively inhibits the ligand (glutamate) binding site of NMDA receptors.
Apimostinel (former developmental code name NRX-1074) is an antidepressant, acting as a selective partial agonist of an allosteric site of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor complex, which is under investigation by Naurex and Allergan for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD).
The genus Argiope includes rather large spiders that often have a strikingly coloured abdomen.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Atomoxetine, sold under the brand name Strattera among others, is a norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor which is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
CAMK, also written as CaMK, is an abbreviation for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase class of enzymes.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
CGP-37849 is a competitive antagonist at the NMDA receptor.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Coincidence detection in the context of neurobiology is a process by which a neuron or a neural circuit can encode information by detecting the occurrence of temporally close but spatially distributed input signals.
Company competition, or competitiveness, pertains to the ability and performance of a firm, sub-sector or country to sell and supply goods and services in a given market, in relation to the ability and performance of other firms, sub-sectors or countries in the same market.
Conantokins are a small family of helical peptides that are derived from the venom of predatory marine snails of the genus Conus.
Conus geographus, popularly called the geography cone or the geographer cone, is a species of predatory cone snail.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cell division protein kinase 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5 gene.
Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12 (the alkyl is abbreviated Cy).
Cycloserine, sold under the brand name Seromycin, is an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis.
The Disabled-1 (Dab1) gene encodes a key regulator of Reelin signaling.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.
Delucemine (NPS-1506) is a drug which acts as an NMDA antagonist and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and has neuroprotective effects.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
Dexanabinol (HU-211 or ETS2101) is a synthetic cannabinoid derivative in development by e-Therapeutics plc.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category, patented in 1955 and manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company.
Dextrorphan (DXO) is a psychoactive drug of the morphinan class which acts as an antitussive or cough suppressant and dissociative hallucinogen.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Diphenidine (1,2-DEP, DPD, DND) is a dissociative anesthetic that has been sold as a designer drug.
In psychology, dissociation is any of a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experiences.
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.
Dizocilpine (INN), also known as MK-801, is a noncompetitive antagonist of the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate receptor, discovered by a team at Merck in 1982.
In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.
Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
Eliprodil (codenamed SL-82.0715) is a NMDA antagonist drug candidate that failed a Phase III clinical trial for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in 1996, sponsored by Synthélabo Recherche.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Esketamine, also known as (S)-ketamine or S(+)-ketamine and sold under the brand names Ketanest and Ketanest S among others, is a general anesthetic and a dissociative hallucinogen.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Eupenicillium shearii is a fungus in the genus Penicillium.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.
Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.
In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
In molecular biology, extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells.
Extrasynaptic NMDA receptors are glutamate-gated neurotransmitter receptors that are localized to non-synaptic sites on the neuronal cell surface.
Gavestinel (GV-150,526) was an investigational drug developed by GlaxoSmithKline for acute intracerebral hemorrhage, which in 2001 failed to show an effect in what was at the time, the largest clinical trial in stroke that had been conducted.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences) are often defined as compounds that induce a reversible loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals.
The glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia models the subset of pathologic mechanisms linked to glutamatergic signaling.
Glutamate receptors are synaptic and non synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal and glial cells.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Glutamate receptor subunit zeta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIN1 gene.
Glutamate receptor subunit epsilon-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIN2A gene.
Glutamate receptor subunit epsilon-2, also known as N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NMDAR2B or NR2B), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIN2B gene.
Glutamate receptor subunit epsilon-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIN2C gene.
Glutamate receptor subunit epsilon-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIN2D gene.
Guaifenesin, also known as guaiphenesin or glyceryl guaiacolate, is an expectorant medication sold over the counter and usually taken by mouth to assist the bringing up (expectoration) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections.
HA-966 or (±) 3-Amino-1-hydroxy-pyrrolidin-2-one is a molecule used in scientific research as a glycine receptor and NMDA receptor antagonist / low efficacy partial agonist.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
In neuroscience, Hebbian theory is a theory that proposes an explanation for the adaptation of neurons in the brain during the learning process.
A heterotetramer is protein containing four non-covalently bound subunits, wherein the subunits are not all identical.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hodgkinsine is an alkaloid found in plants of the genus Psychotria, particularly Psychotria colorata, although it is also found in Psychotria lyciiflora and probably other species in this family, as well as in the related species Calycodendron milnei.
Homocysteic acid is a sulfur-containing glutamic acid analog and a potent NMDA receptor agonist.
Homoquinolinic acid (HQA) is a potent excitotoxin which is a conformationally-restricted analogue of ''N''-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and a partial agonist of the main/glutamate site of the NMDA receptor, with some selectivity for NR2B subunit-containing receptors.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Huperzine A is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alkaloid compound found in the firmoss Huperzia serrata and in varying quantities in other Huperzia species, including H. elmeri, H. carinat, and H. aqualupian.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in plants in the Apocynaceae family such as Tabernanthe iboga, Voacanga africana and Tabernaemontana undulata.
Ibotenic acid or (S)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)acetic acid, also referred to as ibotenate, is a chemical compound and psychoactive drug which occurs naturally in Amanita muscaria and related species of mushrooms typically found in the temperate and boreal regions of the northern hemisphere.
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function.
Ifenprodil is an inhibitor of the NMDA receptor, specifically of GluN1 (glycine-binding NMDA receptor subunit 1) and GluN2B (glutamate-binding NMDA receptor subunit 2) subunits.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate.
Kainate receptors, or kainic acid receptors (KARs), are ionotropic receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter glutamate.
Kaitocephalin is a non-selective ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, meaning it blocks the action of the neurotransmitter glutamate.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Ketobemidone, sold under the brand name Ketogan among others, is a powerful opioid painkiller.
Kynurenic acid (KYNA or KYN) is a product of the normal metabolism of amino acid L-tryptophan.
Lanicemine (AZD6765) is a low-trapping NMDA receptor antagonist that was under development by AstraZeneca for the management of severe and treatment-resistant depression.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Lethality (also called deadliness or perniciousness) is how capable something is of causing death.
Licostinel (INN) (code name ACEA-1021) is a competitive, silent antagonist of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor (Kb.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
Lipoic acid (LA), also known as α-lipoic acid and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and thioctic acid is an organosulfur compound derived from caprylic acid (octanoic acid).
Long-term depression (LTD), in neurophysiology, is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
LY-235959 is a competitive antagonist at the NMDA receptor.
Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
Memantine is used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. It acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA receptors. It was first synthesized by Eli Lilly and Company in 1968 as a potential agent to treat diabetes; the NMDA activity was discovered in the 1980s.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methoxetamine, abbreviated as MXE, is a dissociative hallucinogen that has been sold as a designer drug.
Midafotel (CPPene; SDZ EAA 494) is a potent, competitive antagonist at the NMDA receptor.
Milacemide (INN) is an MAO-B inhibitor and glycine prodrug.
Minocycline is a broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic, and has a broader spectrum than the other members of the group.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Mucokinetics are a class of drugs which aid in the clearance of mucus from the airways, lungs, bronchi, and trachea.
N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor mimicking the action of glutamate, the neurotransmitter which normally acts at that receptor.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
Nature Neuroscience is a monthly scientific journal published by Nature Publishing Group.
Neboglamine (developmental code names CR-2249, XY-2401), formerly known as nebostinel, is a positive allosteric modulator of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor which is under investigation for Rottapharm for the treatment of schizophrenia and cocaine dependence.
Neramexane is a drug related to memantine, which acts as an NMDA antagonist and has neuroprotective effects.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nitromemantine (developmental code name YQW-36) is a derivative of memantine developed in 2006 for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Nitrosylation is the covalent incorporation of a nitric oxide moiety into another (usually organic) molecule.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).
The entry and exit of large molecules from the cell nucleus is tightly controlled by the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs).
Olney's lesions, also known as NMDA receptor antagonist neurotoxicity (NAN), are a potential form of brain damage due to drugs that have been studied experimentally and have produced neuronal damage, yet are administered by doctors to humans in the settings of pharmacotherapy and of anesthesia.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are a class of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are responsive to stress stimuli, such as cytokines, ultraviolet irradiation, heat shock, and osmotic shock, and are involved in cell differentiation, apoptosis and autophagy.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology used to study ionic currents in individual isolated living cells, tissue sections, or patches of cell membrane.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
PEAQX is a competitive antagonist at the NMDA receptor.
Perzinfotel (EAA-090) is a drug which acts as a potent NMDA antagonist.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
A polyamine is an organic compound having more than two amino groups.
Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.
Potassium is an essential mineral micronutrient and is the main intracellular ion for all types of cells.
Pregnenolone sulfate (PS, PREGS) is an endogenous excitatory neurosteroid that is synthesized from pregnenolone.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation).
A protein phosphatase is a phosphatase enzyme that removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of its substrate protein.
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.
Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it.
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src or simply c-Src, is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the SRC gene.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychotridine is an alkaloid found in some species of the genus Psychotria, namely Psychotria colorata, but also Psychotria forsteriana, Psychotria lyciiflora, Psychotria oleoides, and Psychotria beccarioides.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is redox cofactor.
Quinolinic acid (abbreviated QUIN or QA), also known as pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, is a dicarboxylic acid with a pyridine backbone.
Rapastinel (former developmental code names GLYX-13, BV-102) is a novel antidepressant that is under development by Allergan (previously Naurex) as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Reelin (RELN) is a large secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein that helps regulate processes of neuronal migration and positioning in the developing brain by controlling cell-cell interactions.
In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other.
Rislenemdaz (developmental code names CERC-301, MK-0657) is an orally-active, selective NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) antagonist which is under development by Cerecor in the United States as an adjunctive therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD).
Sarcosine, also known as N-methylglycine, is an intermediate and byproduct in glycine synthesis and degradation.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Selfotel (CGS-19755) is a drug which acts as a competitive NMDA antagonist, directly competing with glutamate for binding to the receptor.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Serine racemase is an enzyme which generates D-serine from L-serine.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Spermidine is a polyamine compound found in ribosomes and living tissues, and having various metabolic functions within organisms.
Spermine is a polyamine involved in cellular metabolism found in all eukaryotic cells.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Streptomyces is the largest genus of Actinobacteria and the type genus of the family Streptomycetaceae.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
commented out as it doesn't appear to be immediately relevant & it is in the wrong place if it is relevant-->The structure–activity relationship (SAR) is the relationship between the chemical or 3D structure of a molecule and its biological activity.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.
A teratoma is a tumor made up of several different types of tissue, such as hair, muscle, or bone.
Tetrazolylglycine (Tet-Gly, LY-285,265) is a potent and selective NMDA receptor agonist, stimulating the NMDA receptor with higher potency than either glutamate or NMDA.
The Journal of Neuroscience is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Society for Neuroscience.
Tiletamine is a dissociative anesthetic and pharmacologically classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist.
Tinnitus is the hearing of sound when no external sound is present.
Tramadol, sold under the brand name Ultram among others, is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current to flow in a small region of the brain via electromagnetic induction.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Traxoprodil (developmental code name CP-101606) is a drug developed by Pfizer which acts as an NMDA antagonist, selective for the NR2B subunit.
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) or treatment-refractory depression is a term used in clinical psychiatry to describe cases of major depressive disorder (MDD) that do not respond adequately to appropriate courses of at least two antidepressants.
Tyrosine-protein kinase CSK also known as C-terminal Src kinase is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the CSK gene.
Uncompetitive antagonists differ from non-competitive antagonists in that they require receptor activation by an agonist before they can bind to a separate allosteric binding site.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a disubstituted cyclic α-amino acid in which a three-membered cyclopropane ring is fused to the Cα atom of the amino acid.
L-4-Chlorokynurenine (4-Cl-KYN; developmental code name AV-101) is an orally active small molecule prodrug of 7-chlorokynurenic acid, a NMDA receptor antagonist.
7-Chlorokynurenic acid (7-CKA) is a tool compound that acts as a potent and selective noncompetitive antagonist of the glycine site of the NMDA receptor.
Discovery and development of memantine and related compounds, Glycine site, Glycine-site, N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, NMDA Receptor, NMDA channel, NMDA glutamate receptor, NMDA receptors, NMDA-receptor, NMDAR, NR1, NR2, NR2A, NR2C, NR2D, NR3A, NR3B, NR3C, Nmda channel, Nmda receptor, Nmethyl-D-aspartate, Nr2b, PCP receptor, PCP site, PCP site 1, Phencyclidine receptor, Phencyclidine site, Receptors, n-methyl-d-aspartate.