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Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.
Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Ayuka or Ayuki Khan (1669–1724) was a Kalmyk leader under whose rule the Kalmyk Khanate reached its zenith in terms of economic, military, and politic power.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.
In etymology, back-formation is the process of creating a new lexeme by removing actual or supposed affixes.
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Berthold Laufer (October 11, 1874 – September 13, 1934) was an anthropologist and historical geographer with an expertise in East Asian languages.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA) is the official language of Myanmar.
Buryat or Buriat (Buryat Cyrillic: буряад хэлэн, buryaad xelen) is a variety of Mongolic spoken by the Buryats that is classified either as a language or as a major dialect group of Mongolian.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Cathay is the Anglicized rendering of "Catai" and an alternative name for China in English.
The Central Tibetan Administration, also known as CTA (literally Exile Tibetan People's Organisation) is an organisation based in India.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.
A Chinatown is an ethnic enclave of Chinese or Han people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, or Taiwan, most often in an urban setting.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
"Chinese Taipei" is the name for Taiwan designated in the Nagoya Resolution whereby the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) recognize each other when it comes to the activities of the International Olympic Committee.
Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.
Classical Mongolian is an extinct Mongolic language formerly used in Mongolia, China, and Russia.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
Cosmas Indicopleustes (Greek Κοσμᾶς Ἰνδικοπλεύστης, literally "Cosmas who sailed to India"; also known as Cosmas the Monk) was a Greek merchant and later hermit from Alexandria of Egypt.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The Daur or Daghur language is a Mongolic language primarily spoken by members of the Daur ethnic group.
The Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture (Zaiwa) is located in western Yunnan province, People's Republic of China, and is one of the eight autonomous prefectures of the province, bordering Baoshan to the east and Burma's Kachin State to the west.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
The Dongyi or Eastern Yi was a collective term, referring to ancient peoples who lived in eastern China during the prehistory of ancient China and in lands located in the Shandong peninsula and some other eastern parts of ancient China.
Duarte Barbosa (c. 1480, Lisbon, Portugal1 May 1521, Philippines) was a Portuguese writer and officer from Portuguese India (between 1500 and 1516).
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.
The Four Seas were four bodies of water that metaphorically made up the boundaries of ancient China.
The Free area of the Republic of China is a term used by the government of the Republic of China (ROC) to refer to the territories under its actual control.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Gaya was a Korean confederacy of territorial polities in the Nakdong River basin of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Greater China or the Greater China Region is a term used to refer to Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
Ham (Greek Χαμ, Kham; Arabic: حام, Ḥām), according to the Table of Nations in the Book of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
The He zun is an ancient Chinese ritual bronze vessel of the zun shape.
Sir Henry Yule KCSI (1 May 1820 – 30 December 1889) was a Scottish Orientalist.
Hermann Georg Jacobi (11 February 1850 – 19 October 1937) was an eminent German Indologist.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China as a constitutional republic put an end to 4,000 years of Imperial rule.
The Hlai languages are a primary branch of the Kra–Dai language family spoken in the mountains of central and south-central Hainan in China, not to be confused with the colloquial name for the Leizhou branch of Min Chinese.
Hmong (RPA: Hmoob) or Mong (RPA: Moob), known as First Vernacular Chuanqiandian Miao in China, is a dialect continuum of the West Hmongic branch of the Hmongic languages spoken by the Hmong of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos.
Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Huaxia is a historical concept representing the Chinese nation and civilization.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
Interlingua (ISO 639 language codes ia, ina) is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
Joseph W. Esherick (Chinese name:, born 1942) is an emeritus professor of modern Chinese history at University of California, San Diego.
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
The Kalmyks (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Xaľmgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Halimag) are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.
Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
(Okinawan pronunciation) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Khitan or Kitan (in large script or in small, Khitai;, Qìdānyǔ), also known as Liao, is a now-extinct language once spoken by the Khitan people (4th to 13th century).
The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
refers to the reluctance to use words that are considered politically incorrect in the Japanese language.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
The languages of China are the languages that are spoken in China.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Liang Qichao (Cantonese: Lèuhng Kái-chīu; 23 February 1873 – 19 January 1929), courtesy name Zhuoru, art name Rengong, was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher, and reformist who lived during the late Qing dynasty and the early Republic of China.
Liangshan (Yi: ꆃꎭ Niep Sha, pronounced), officially the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, is an autonomous prefecture occupying much of the southern extremity of Sichuan province, People's Republic of China; its seat is Xichang.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
The Lifan Yuan (Manchu: Tulergi golo be dasara jurgan; Mongolian: Гадаад Монголын төрийг засах явдлын яам, γadaγadu mongγul un törü-yi jasaqu yabudal-un yamun) was an agency in the government of the Qing dynasty which supervised the Qing Empire's frontier Inner Asia regions such as its Mongolian dependencies and oversaw the appointments of Ambans in Tibet.
This list covers English language country names with their etymologies.
Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).
This list contains tribes or other groups of people named in the Bible of minor notability, about whom either nothing or very little is known, aside from any family connections.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
The Manusmṛti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also spelled as Manusmriti, is an ancient legal text among the many of Hinduism.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Marcian of Heraclea (Μαρκιανός Ηρακλειώτης; Marcianus Heracleensis; fl. c. 4th century AD) was a Late Antiquity minor Greek geographer from Heraclea Pontica.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.
Martino Martini (20 September 1614 – 6 June 1661) was an Italian Jesuit missionary, cartographer and historian, mainly working on ancient Imperial China.
The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
Miss Universe is an annual international beauty pageant that is run by the American based Miss Universe Organization.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The name in Indian languages is Bharata after the emperor Bharata.
The word Japan is an exonym, and is used (in one form or another) by a large number of languages.
There are various names of Korea in use today, derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties.
The Qing dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria (modern Northeast China) in the 17th century and became known by various names.
Việt Nam is a variation of Nam Việt (Southern Việt), a name that can be traced back to the Triệu dynasty (Nanyue Kingdom of Chinese in 2nd century BC).
The Man, commonly called the Nanman or Southern Man, were the ancient indigenous peoples who lived in inland South and Southwest China, mainly the Yangtze River valley.
Narrative of the Chinese Embassy to the Khan of the Tourgouth Tartars, in the years 1712, 13, 14, and 15 is a record of the travel to Kalmykia, written by Tulišen, a Manchu official who lived in the Qing dynasty.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 to 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party).
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions are not precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities of the Chinese people.
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.
The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Nuosu or Nosu (pronunciation: Nuosuhxop), also known as Northern Yi, Liangshan Yi, and Sichuan Yi, is the prestige language of the Yi people; it has been chosen by the Chinese government as the standard Yi language (in Mandarin: Yí yǔ, 彝語/彝语) and, as such, is the only one taught in schools, both in its oral and written forms.
Central Okinawan, or simply the Okinawan language (沖縄口/ウチナーグチ Uchinaaguchi), is a Northern Ryukyuan language spoken primarily in the southern half of the island of Okinawa, as well as in the surrounding islands of Kerama, Kumejima, Tonaki, Aguni, and a number of smaller peripheral islands.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Patrick Olivelle is an Indologist.
Paul Eugène Pelliot (28 May 187826 October 1945) was a French Sinologist and Orientalist best known for his explorations of Central Asia and his discovery of many important Chinese texts among the Dunhuang manuscripts.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Panicum miliaceum, with many common names including proso millet, broomcorn millet, common millet, broomtail millet, hog millet, Kashfi millet red millet, and white millet, is a grass species used as a crop.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The Qara Khitai (alternatively spelled Kara Khitai; Хар Хятан; 1124–1218), also known as the Kara Khitan Khanate or Western Liao, officially the Great Liao, was a sinicized Khitan empire in Central Asia.
Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Qing dynasty in Inner Asia was the expansion of the Qing dynasty's realm in Inner Asia in the 17th and the 18th century AD, including both Inner and Outer Mongolia, Manchuria, Tibet, Qinghai and Xinjiang.
Qocho (Mongolian Uihur "id."), also known as Idiqut, ("holy wealth"; "glory") was a Tocharian-Uyghur kingdom created in 843.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
The Records of the Three Kingdoms is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty (c. 184–220 AD) and the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD).
Richard Eden (c. 1520–1576) was an English alchemist and translator.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Ryukyu Kingdom (Okinawan: Ruuchuu-kuku; 琉球王国 Ryūkyū Ōkoku; Middle Chinese: Ljuw-gjuw kwok; historical English name: Lewchew, Luchu, and Loochoo) was an independent kingdom that ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 15th to the 19th century.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
Semu is the name of a caste established by the Yuan dynasty.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Serica was one of the easternmost countries of Asia known to the Ancient Greek and Roman geographers.
is a largely archaic Japanese name for China.
The State of Shu was an ancient state in what is now Sichuan Province.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture and societal norms.
The land of Sin (סִין), also known as Sinim (from: סִינִים, i.e. the inhabitants of the land of Sin), is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.
Sino-Platonic Papers is a scholarly monographic series published by the University of Pennsylvania.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from 304 CE to 439 CE when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived sovereign states, most of which were founded by the "Five Barbarians" who had settled in northern China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty in the early 4th century.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
A sobriquet or soubriquet is a nickname, sometimes assumed, but often given by another.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government, which enjoys the highest degree of autonomy, and no or less interference by either Central Government or the Communist Party of China.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.
Standard Zhuang (autonym) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages, which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (born 9 September 1949) (pronounced) is an Indonesian politician and retired Army general officer who was the President of Indonesia from 2004 to 2014.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Sylheti (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ Silôṭi) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, primarily spoken in the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and in the Barak Valley of the Indian state of Assam.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Taiwan independence movement is a political movement to pursue formal independence of Taiwan, Goals for independence have arisen from international law in relation to the 1952 Treaty of San Francisco.
The Taiwan Strait, or Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait separating the island of Taiwan from mainland China.
Taiwanese indigenous peoples or formerly Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gaoshan people are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number nearly 530,000 or 2.3% of the island's population, or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese Plain Indigenous Peoples officially in the future.
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
Terra incognita or terra ignota (Latin "unknown land"; incognita is stressed on its second syllable in Latin, but with variation in pronunciation in English) is a term used in cartography for regions that have not been mapped or documented.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).
Tianxia is a Chinese term for an ancient Chinese cultural concept that denoted either the entire geographical world or the metaphysical realm of mortals, and later became associated with political sovereignty.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
The Treaty of Nanking or Nanjing was a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–42) between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China on 29 August 1842.
The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 (Нерчинский договор, Nerčinskij dogovor; Manchu:,Möllendorff: nibcoo-i bade bithe;, Xiao'erjing: نِبُچُ تِيَوْيُؤ) was the first treaty between Russia and China.
The Treaty of Tientsin, now also known as the Treaty of Tianjin, is a collective name for several documents signed at Tianjin (then romanized as Tientsin) in June 1858.
Tulišen (also spelled Tulishen or Tulixen, Manchu:,; 1667–1741) was a Manchu official and diplomat during the early Qing dynasty.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Wei Yuan (April23, 1794March26, 1857), born Wei Yuanda, courtesy names Moshen (默深) and Hanshi (漢士), was a Chinese scholar from Shaoyang, Hunan.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
The Western Zhou (西周; c. 1046 – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
Wu refers to a region in China whose core area is around Lake Tai in Jiangnan (the south of the Yangtze River).
The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.
The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Yanbian (Chosŏn'gŭl: 연변, Yeonbyeon) is an autonomous prefecture in northeastern Jilin Province, China.
Yelang, initially known as Zangke, was a conglomeration of non-Chinese agricultural tribes first described in the 3rd century BC that inhabited in what is now western Guizhou province, China.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
Yu the Great (c. 2200 – 2100 BC) was a legendary ruler in ancient China famed for his introduction of flood control, inaugurating dynastic rule in China by establishing the Xia Dynasty, and for his upright moral character.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Zaiwa (autonym:; Tsaiwa, Tsaiva, 载瓦) is a Burmish language spoken in parts of China and Burma.
Zhonghua minzu, translated as "Chinese nation" or "Chinese races", is a key political term that is entwined with modern Chinese history of nation-building and race.
Zhongyuan, Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu, Chungtu or Zhongzhou, Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.
Zhou were historical political divisions of China.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Central Kingdom, Central kingdom, Chin (China), China etymology, China in world languages, China name, China names, Chinese etymology, Chunghwa Inmin Konghwaguk, Chunghwa Yinmin Konghwaguk, Manzi (geography), Middle Kingdom (China), Name of China, Name of China in various languages, Name of the People's Republic of China, Name of the Republic of China, Names for China, Names of china, Names of the People's Republic of China, Names of the Republic of China, Shenzhou (China), Sinae, Sinica, Sinica (disambiguation), Sino-, Terms for China, Tianchao Daguo, Tianchao Daguo/User:Arilang1234/Draft, Toponymy of China, 四海, 神州.