183 relations: Acne, Agonist, Anabolic steroid, Anabolism, Androgen, Androgen receptor, Androstenedione, Anemia, Antigonadotropin, Aplastic anemia, Aromatase, Athlete, Biological target, Biosynthesis, Biotransformation, Birch reduction, Birth control, Bisphosphonate, Bodybuilding, Bolandiol, Bolandione, Bolenol, Bone density, Breast cancer, Burn, C. J. Hunter, Cachexia, Chemical synthesis, Chronic kidney disease, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Circulatory system, Clinical trial, Clinical urine tests, Competition, Controlled substance, Decanoic acid, Demethylation, Derivative (chemistry), Designer drug, Desogestrel, Dienedione, Dienogest, Dienolone, Dieter Baumann, Dihydrotestosterone, Dimethandrolone, Dimethyltrienolone, Doping in sport, Endogeny (biology), Enzyme, ..., Erectile dysfunction, Ester, Estradiol, Estrane, Estrogen (medication), Ethisterone, Ethyldienolone, Ethylestrenol, Etonogestrel, Etynodiol diacetate, Eye drop, Gestodene, Gonane, Grand jury, Gynecomastia, Hair follicle, Hepatotoxicity, Hirsutism, HIV/AIDS, Hoarse voice, In vitro, In vivo, International Olympic Committee, Intramuscular injection, John Wiley & Sons, Kidney, Levonorgestrel, Libido, Ligand (biochemistry), Linford Christie, List of androgen esters, Liver, Luteinizing hormone, Lynestrenol, Lysine, Male contraceptive, Mammal, Marion Jones, Mark Richardson (sprinter), Mass spectrometry, Medicine, Merlene Ottey, Metabolic intermediate, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methoxydienone, Methyldienolone, Methylhydroxynandrolone, Metribolone, Mibolerone, Mineral acid, Nandrolone cyclohexylpropionate, Nandrolone cyclotate, Nandrolone cypionate, Nandrolone decanoate, Nandrolone hexyloxyphenylpropionate, Nandrolone laurate, Nandrolone phenylpropionate, Nandrolone sulfate, Nandrolone undecanoate, Natural product, Negative feedback, Neoplasm, Nor-, Norboletone, Norclostebol, Norelgestromin, Norethandrolone, Norethisterone, Norethisterone acetate, Norethisterone enanthate, Noretynodrel, Norgestimate, Norgestrel, Normethandrone, Ophthalmic drug administration, Oral administration, Organic compound, Organon, Osteoporosis, Oxabolone, Oxalic acid, Performance-enhancing substance, Pharmacodynamics, Phenylpropanoic acid, Potency (pharmacology), Powerlifting, Pregnancy, Prodrug, Professional sports, Progesterone, Progesterone receptor, Progestin, Progestogen, Propetandrol, Prostate, Pyridine, Red blood cell, Redox, Scalp, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Shot put, Side effect, Skin, Sport of athletics, Steroid, Structural analog, Symptom, Testosterone, Testosterone (medication), Tetrahydrogestrinone, The Daily Telegraph, Tissue (biology), Trademark distinctiveness, Trenbolone, Trestolone, UK Sport, Urine, Virilization, Voice change, 11β-Methyl-19-nortestosterone, 17α-Alkylated anabolic steroid, 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 19-Nor-5-androstenediol, 19-Nor-5-androstenedione, 19-Norandrosterone, 19-Noretiocholanolone, 19-Norprogesterone, 1998 Winter Olympics, 5α-Dihydronandrolone, 5α-Dihydronorethandrolone, 5α-Reductase, 7α-Methyl-19-norandrostenedione. Expand index (133 more) » « Shrink index
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
An antigonadotropin is a drug which suppresses the activity and/or downstream effects of one or both of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
Aplastic anaemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
The Birch reduction is an organic reaction which is particularly useful in synthetic organic chemistry.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone density, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases.
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.
Bolandiol (INN), also known as 19-nor-4-androstenediol, estr-4-en-3β,17β-diol, or 3β-dihydronandrolone, is an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) that was never marketed.
Bolandione, also known as 19-norandrostenedione, as well as 19-norandrost-4-en-3,17-dione or estr-4-ene-3,17-dione, is a precursor of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).
Bolenol, also known as 17α-ethyl-19-norandrost-5-en-17β-ol (ethylnorandrostenol), is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated derivative of 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone) that was never marketed.
Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
Cottrell James Hunter III (born December 14, 1968) is an American former shot putter and coach.
Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.
Decanoic acid (capric acid) is a saturated fatty acid.
Demethylation is the chemical process resulting in the removal of a methyl group (CH3) from a molecule.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance that has been designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug, while avoiding classification as illegal and/or detection in standard drug tests.
Desogestrel, sold under the brand names Cerazette and Mircette among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills for women.
Dienedione, also known as estra-4,9-diene-3,17-dione, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) of the 19-nortestosterone group that was never introduced for medical use.
Dienogest, sold under the brand names Natazia and Qlaira among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in the treatment of endometriosis.
Dienolone (developmental code name RU-3118; online product names Trenazone, Dienazone), or nordienolone, also known as 19-nor-δ9(10)-testosterone, δ9(10)-nandrolone, or estra-4,9(10)-dien-17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) of the 19-nortestosterone group that was never marketed.
Dieter Baumann (born 9 February 1965) is a former German athlete and winner of 5000 m at the 1992 Summer Olympics.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.
Dimethandrolone (DMA), also known by its developmental code name CDB-1321, is an experimental androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) and progestogen medication which is under investigation for potential clinical use.
Dimethyltrienolone (developmental code name RU-2420) is a synthetic, orally active, and extremely potent anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and 17α-alkylated 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone) derivative which was never marketed for medical use.
In competitive sports, doping is the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrane is a C18 steroid derivative, with a gonane core.
An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Ethisterone, also known as ethinyltestosterone, pregneninolone, and anhydrohydroxyprogesterone and formerly sold under the brand names Proluton C and Pranone among others, is a progestin medication which was used in the treatment of gynecological disorders but is now no longer available.
Ethyldienolone, also known as 17α-methyl-19-nor-δ9-testosterone, as well as 17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-17β-ol-3-one, is synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated derivative of 19-nortestosterone.
Ethylestrenol, also known as ethyloestrenol or ethylnandrol and sold under the brand names Maxibolin and Orabolin among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which has been used in the past for a variety of indications such as to promote weight gain and to treat anemia and osteoporosis but has been discontinued for use in humans.
Etonogestrel is a progestin medication which is used as a means of birth control for women.
Etynodiol diacetate, or ethynodiol diacetate, sold under the brand names Demulen and Femulen among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills.
Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as an ocular route to administer.
Gestodene, sold under the brand names Femodene and Minulet among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills for women.
Gonane (C17), also known as perhydrocyclopentaphenanthrene, is a tetracyclic hydrocarbon ring structure and the fundamental steroid nucleus.
A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
The hair follicle is a dynamic organ found in mammalian skin.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A hoarse voice, also known as hoarseness or dysphonia, is when the voice involuntarily sounds breathy, raspy, or strained, or is softer in volume or lower in pitch.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Levonorgestrel is a hormonal medication which is used in a number of birth control methods.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Linford Cicero Christie (born 2 April 1960) is a Jamaican-born British former sprinter.
This is a list of androgen esters, including esters (as well as ethers) of natural androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS) like nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
Lynestrenol, sold under the brand names Exluton and Ministat among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male physiology.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Marion Lois Jones (born October 12, 1975), also known as Marion Jones-Thompson, is an American former world champion track and field athlete and a former professional basketball player for Tulsa Shock in the WNBA.
Mark Ashton Richardson (born 26 July 1972 in Slough) is a British former athlete who competed mainly in the 400 metres.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Merlene Joyce Ottey OD (born 10 May 1960) is a Jamaican former track and field sprinter.
Metabolic intermediates are molecules which are the precursors or metabolites of biologically significant molecules.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methoxydienone, also known as methoxygonadiene, as well as 3-methoxy-17-dehydro-18-methyl-19-nor-δ2,5(10)-testosterone or 13β-ethyl-3-methoxygona-2,5(10)-dien-17-one, is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and progestogen of the 19-nortestosterone group related to levonorgestrel which was never marketed.
Methyldienolone (developmental code name RU-3467), also known as 17α-methyl-19-nor-δ9-testosterone, as well as 17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated derivative of 19-nortestosterone.
Methylhydroxynandrolone (MOHN, MHN), also known as 4-hydroxy-17α-methyl-19-nortestosterone, as well as 4,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methylestr-4-en-3-one, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated derivative of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) which was never marketed.
Metribolone (developmental code name R1881), also known as methyltrienolone, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) derivative which was never marketed for medical use but has been widely used in scientific research as a hot ligand in androgen receptor (AR) ligand binding assays (LBAs) and as a photoaffinity label for the AR.
Mibolerone, also known as dimethylnortestosterone (DMNT) and sold under the brand names Cheque Drops and Matenon, is a synthetic, orally active, and extremely potent anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) derivative which was marketed by Upjohn for use as a veterinary drug.
A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is an acid derived from one or more inorganic compounds.
Nandrolone cyclohexylpropionate (brand names Andol, Fherbolico, Megabolin, Megabolin Retar, Pluropon, Proteron-Depot, Sanabolicum), or nandrolone cyclohexanepropionate, also known as 19-nortestosterone 17β-(3-cyclohexyl)propionate (NTHCP), is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a nandrolone ester that is or has been marketed in Spain, Austria, and Israel.
Nandrolone cyclotate (developmental code name RS-3268R), or nandrolone ciclotate, also known as 19-nortestosterone 17β-ciclotate, is a synthetic and injected anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) of the nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) group which was never marketed.
Nandrolone cypionate (brand names Anabo, Depo-Nortestonate, Dynabol, Nortestrionate, Pluropon, Sterocrinolo), or nandrolone cipionate, also known as 19-nortestosterone 17β-cyclopentanepropionate, is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a nandrolone ester.
Nandrolone decanoate, sold under the brand name Deca-Durabolin among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used primarily in the treatment of anemias and wasting syndromes, as well as osteoporosis in menopausal women.
Nandrolone hexyloxyphenylpropionate (brand names Anador, Anadur, Anadurine), also known as 19-nortestosterone 17β-(3-(4-hexyloxy)phenyl)propionate, is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a nandrolone ester that is marketed in France, Denmark, Austria, Luxembourg, and Turkey.
Nandrolone laurate (brand names Clinibolin, Fortadex, Laurabolin), or nandrolone dodecanoate, also known as 19-nortestosterone 17β-laurate, is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a nandrolone ester.
Nandrolone phenylpropionate (NPP), or nandrolone phenpropionate, sold under the brand name Durabolin among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which has been used primarily in the treatment of breast cancer and osteoporosis in women.
Nandrolone undecanoate (brand names Dynabolon, Dynabolin, Psychobolan), or nandrolone undecylate, also known as 19-nortestosterone 17β-undecanoate, is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and nandrolone ester that was developed in the 1960s and was previously marketed in France, Germany, Italy, and Monaco but has since been discontinued and is now no longer known to be available.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
In chemical nomenclature, nor- is a prefix to name a structural analog that can be derived from a parent compound by the removal of one carbon atom along with the accompanying hydrogen atoms.
Norboletone (former proposed brand name Genabol), or norbolethone, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) which was never marketed.
Norclostebol (brand name Lentabol; former developmental code names SKF-6611, CP-73) is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) that was derived from nandrolone.
Norelgestromin, or norelgestromine, sold under the brand names Evra and Ortho Evra among others, is a progestin medication which is used as a method of birth control for women.
Norethandrolone, sold under the brand names Nilevar and Pronabol among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which has been used to promote muscle growth and to treat severe burns, physical trauma, and aplastic anemia but has mostly been discontinued.
Norethisterone, also known as norethindrone and sold under the brand names Aygestin and Primolut N among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Norethisterone acetate (NETA), also known as norethindrone acetate and sold under the brand name Primolut-Nor among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Norethisterone enanthate (NETE), also known as norethindrone enanthate, is a form of progestogen-only injectable birth control.
Noretynodrel, or norethynodrel, sold under the brand name Enovid among others, is a progestin medication which was previously used in birth control pills and in the treatment of gynecological disorders but is now no longer marketed. It was available both alone and in combination with an estrogen. The medication is taken by mouth. Noretynodrel is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone. It is a relatively weak progestogen. The medication has weak estrogenic activity, no or only very weak androgenic activity, and no other important hormonal activity. It is a prodrug of various active metabolites in the body, such as norethisterone among others. Noretynodrel was introduced for medical use in 1957. It was specifically approved at this time in combination with mestranol for the treatment of gynecological and menstrual disorders. Subsequently, in 1960, this formulation was approved for use as a birth control pill. It was the first birth control pill to be introduced, and was followed by birth control pills containing norethisterone and other progestins shortly thereafter. Due to its nature as a relatively weak progestogen, noretynodrel is no longer used in medicine. As such, it is no longer marketed.
Norgestimate, sold under the brand names Ortho Tri-Cyclen and Previfem among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills for women and in menopausal hormone therapy.
Norgestrel, sold under the brand name Ovral among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in menopausal hormone therapy.
Normethandrone, also known as methylestrenolone or methylnortestosterone and sold under the brand name Metalutin among others, is a progestin and androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used in combination with an estrogen in the treatment of amenorrhea and menopausal symptoms in women.
Ophthalmic drug administration is the administration of a drug through the eyes, most typically as an eye drop formulation.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
The Organon (Greek: Ὄργανον, meaning "instrument, tool, organ") is the standard collection of Aristotle's six works on logic.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Oxabolone is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) of the nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) group which was never marketed.
Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4.
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Phenylpropanoic acid or hydrocinnamic acid is a carboxylic acid with the formula C9H10O2 belonging to the class of phenylpropanoids.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
Powerlifting is a strength sport that consists of three attempts at maximal weight on three lifts: squat, bench press, and deadlift.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Propetandrol (brand name Solevar; former developmental code name SC-7294), or propethandrol, also known as 17α-ethyl-19-nortestosterone 3β-propionate or 17α-ethyl-19-nor-4-androstenediol 3β-propionate, as well as 17α-ethylestr-4-en-3β,17β-diol 3β-propionate, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and progestogen and a 17α-alkylated derivative of 19-nortestosterone.
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face at the front, and by the neck at the sides and back.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
The shot put (pronounced) is a track and field event involving "throwing"/"putting" (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy spherical object—the shot—as far as possible.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
Testosterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG), known by the nickname The Clear, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) which was never marketed for medical use.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Trademark distinctiveness is an important concept in the law governing trademarks and service marks.
Trenbolone is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) of the nandrolone group which itself was never marketed.
Trestolone, also known as 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT), is an experimental androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) and progestogen medication which has been under development for potential use as a form of hormonal birth control for men and in androgen replacement therapy for low testosterone levels in men but has never been marketed for medical use.
UK Sport is the UK Government's organisation for directing the development of elite-level sport within the United Kingdom.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body.
A voice change or voice mutation, sometimes referred to as a voice break, commonly refers to the deepening of the voice of people as they reach puberty.
11β-Methyl-19-nortestosterone (11β-MNT) is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a derivative of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) which was developed by the Contraceptive Development Branch (CDB) of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and has not been marketed at this time.
A 17α-alkylated anabolic steroid is a synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) that features an alkyl group, specifically a methyl or ethyl group, at the C17α position.
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD, HSD17B), also 17-ketosteroid reductases (17-KSR), are a group of alcohol oxidoreductases which catalyze the reduction of 17-ketosteroids and the dehydrogenation of 17β-hydroxysteroids in steroidogenesis and steroid metabolism.
19-Nor-5-androstenediol, also known as estr-5-ene-3β,17β-diol, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a derivative of 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone) that was never introduced for medical use.
19-Nor-5-androstenedione, also known as estr-5-ene-3,17-dione, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a derivative of 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone) that was never introduced for medical use.
19-Norandrosterone, also known as 5α-estran-3α-ol-17-one, is a metabolite of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) and bolandione (19-norandrostenedione) that is formed by 5α-reductase.
19-Noretiocholanolone, also known as 5β-estran-3α-ol-17-one, is a metabolite of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) and bolandione (19-norandrostenedione) that is formed by 5α-reductase.
19-Norprogesterone, also known as 19-norpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, is a steroidal progestin and close analogue of the sex hormone progesterone, lacking only the C19 methyl group of that molecule.
The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially the, and commonly known as Nagano 1998, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 7 to 22 February 1998 in Nagano, Japan.
5α-Dihydronandrolone (5α-DHN), or simply dihydronandrolone (DHN), also known as 5α-dihydro-19-nortestosterone or as 5α-estran-17β-ol-3-one, is a naturally occurring anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 5α-reduced derivative of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).
5α-Dihydronorethandrolone (5α-DHNED), also known as 17α-ethyl-4,5α-dihydro-19-nortestosterone or as 17α-ethyl-5α-estran-17β-ol-3-one, is an androgen/anabolic steroid and a metabolite of norethandrolone (as well as of the prodrug ethylestrenol) formed by 5α-reductase.
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.
7α-Methyl-19-norandrostenedione (MENT dione), or 7α-methyl-19-norandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione, also known as trestione, as well as 7α-methylestr-4-ene-3,17-dione, is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a derivative of 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone).
19-Norandrostenolone, 19-Nortestosterone, 19-norandrostenolone, 19-nortestosterone, ATC code A14AB01, ATC code S01XA11, ATCvet code QA14AB01, ATCvet code QS01XA11, Deca Durabolin, Deca-Durabolin, Decadurabolin, Durabol, Durabolin, Estrenolone, Fenobolin, Iebolen, Nandralone, Nandrobolic, Nandrolon, Nandrolone Decanoate, Nandrolone Metabolite, Nandrolone metabolite, Nanodrolone, Nerobil, Nerobiolil, Nerobolil, Nor testosterone, Nor-19-testosterone, Nor-testosterone, Norandrostenolone, Nortestonate, Nortestosterone, Nortestosterone decanoate, Nortestrionate, Oestrenolone, Phenobolin, Retabolil, SG 4341, SG-4341, SG4341, Strabolene, Superanabolon.