564 relations: A Little Tour in France, A11 autoroute, A83 autoroute, Aéroport du Grand Ouest, Abbaretz, Abdellatif Kechiche, Aeronautics, Africa, Airbus, Alan II, Duke of Brittany, Algiers, Ancien Régime, Ancient history, André Breton, André Pieyre de Mandiargues, Angers, Angers-Nantes Opéra, Animal husbandry, Anish Kapoor, Anjou, Anne of Brittany, Anti-capitalism, Aristide Briand, Aristocracy, Armorican Massif, Arthur I, Duke of Brittany, Asia, Asturias, Atheism, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic slave trade, Audencia Business School, Augustus, École centrale de Nantes, École de design Nantes Atlantique, École des mines de Nantes, École Polytechnique de l'Université de Nantes, Édith Piaf, Éric Tabarly, Établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel, Île de Nantes, Baptists, Barbara (singer), Baroque, Basketball, Basse-Goulaine, Battle of France, Battle of Nantes, Beirut (band), Berlin, ..., Beurre blanc, Bicycle-sharing system, Bilbao, Biopharmaceutical, Black Venus (2010 film), BN Biscuit, Bob Dylan, Bocage, Bordeaux, Bouguenais, Bourgeoisie, Bourgneuf-en-Retz, Bouygues Telecom, Breton language, Bretons, Brioche, British Isles, Brittany, Brittany (administrative region), Bronze Age, Buckwheat, Business incubator, C2C (group), Cadomian Orogeny, Caen, Camellia, Cameroon, Canada, Canning, Cantons of Nantes, Capgemini, Cardiff, Caribbean, Carolingian Empire, Carquefou, Carrot, Catholic League (French), Celts, Championnat de France de Futsal, Chancery (medieval office), Charlemagne, Charles Monselet, Charles VIII of France, Chartres, Château des ducs de Bretagne, Châteaubriant, Chérie FM, Chief (heraldry), Cholet, Christianity, Christine and the Queens, Christmas, Claire Bretécher, Classical antiquity, Classical music, Claude Cahun, Claude Monet, Clay, Clergy, Clisson, Cluj-Napoca, Communes of France, Communes of the Loire-Atlantique department, Continental System, Coronet, Cotton mill, Counter-Reformation, County of Nantes, Coupe de France, Court (royal), Croix de Guerre 1939–1945 (France), Dan Graham, Daniel Buren, Day Off (film), Deindustrialization, Denys de La Patellière, Department (country subdivision), Departments of France, Dialect continuum, Digital art, Disc jockey, Donatian and Rogatian, Drownings at Nantes, Dschang, Duchy of Brittany, Durban, Early Middle Ages, Ecodistrict, Edict of Nantes, Eel, Energy transition, England, English language, Epitech, Erdre, Ermine (heraldry), Estuaire (biennale), EuroBasket 1983, Eurofins Scientific, European Commission, European Green Capital Award, Evangelicalism, Faubourg, FC Nantes, Fermented milk products, Feudalism, Financial centre, Financial Times, FIP (radio station), First French Empire, Flamboyant, Foothills, Forge, Fouée, François Bégaudeau, François de Charette, François Delarozière, François Maspero, François Morellet, France, France 3, France Bleu, France Télévisions, Francis I of France, Francis II of France, Francis II, Duke of Brittany, Franco-Prussian War, Franks, Frédéric Chopin, French colonial empire, French First Republic, French Forces of the Interior, French New Wave, French Revolution, French Wars of Religion, Fun Radio (France), Futsal, Gallo language, Gastronomy, Gaul, Gaulish language, Gauls, Gâteau nantais, General officer, Geography (Ptolemy), Georges Brassens, Georges Clemenceau, Georges de La Tour, Georgian architecture, German language, Germanic Wars, Germany, Globalization and World Cities Research Network, God's Thunder, Gothic architecture, Gothic Revival architecture, Government of France, Grace (prayer), Grand'Anse (department), Grandes écoles, Granite, Greece, Green politics, Greenhouse gas, Guadeloupe, Guillotine, Guinea, Gustave Flaubert, Guy Béart, Haiti, Hamburg, Handball, Happening, Hôtel particulier, HBC Nantes, Henry IV of France, Henry James, Hermine Nantes Basket, Horsebus, House of Plantagenet, IKEA, Industrial Age, Industrial Revolution, Industrialisation, Information technology, Institut catholique d'arts et métiers, Intercités, Ireland, Italian language, Italian Renaissance, Italy, J. 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A Little Tour in France is a book of travel writing by American writer Henry James.
The A 11 autoroute is a motorway which connects Paris with Nantes via Le Mans and Angers.
The A83 autoroute is a motorway in France.
The Grand Ouest Airport, or Aéroport du Grand Ouest Project was a project for a new airport, to be situated to the north-west of the French city of Nantes in the commune of Notre-Dame-des-Landes.
Abbaretz (Abarrez in Breton) is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in the Pays de la Loire region of western France.
Abdellatif Kechiche (عبد اللطيف كشيش, born 7 December 1960) is a Tunisian-French actor, film director and screenwriter.
Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation into the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
Alan II (died 952), nicknamed Wrybeard or Twistedbeard, Alan Varvek in Breton, was Count of Vannes, Poher, and Nantes, and Duke of Brittany from 938 to his death.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
André Breton (18 February 1896 – 28 September 1966) was a French writer, poet, and anti-fascist.
André Pieyre de Mandiargues (14 March 1909 – 13 December 1991) was a French writer born in Paris.
Angers is a city in western France, about southwest of Paris.
The Angers-Nantes Opéra was created in January 2003 through the fusion of the opera companies of Angers and of Nantes, in order to give fresh impetus to the provision of opera throughout western France.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Sir Anish Mikhail Kapoor, (born 12 March 1954) is a British sculptor.
Anjou (Andegavia) is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River.
Anne of Brittany (25/26 January 1477 – 9 January 1514) was Duchess of Brittany from 1488 until her death, and queen consort of France from 1491 to 1498 and from 1499 to her death.
Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism.
Aristide Briand (28 March 18627 March 1932) was a French statesman who served eleven terms as Prime Minister of France during the French Third Republic and was a co-laureate of the 1926 Nobel Peace Prize.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
The Armorican Massif (Massif armoricain) is a geologic massif that covers a large area in the northwest of France, including Brittany, the western part of Normandy and the Pays de la Loire.
Arthur I (Arzhur Iañ; Arthur Ier de Bretagne) (29 March 1187 – probably 1203) was 4th Earl of Richmond and Duke of Brittany between 1196 and 1203.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Audencia Business School is a business school in France and in Europe, accredited by the Association of MBAs (AMBA), European Quality Improvement System (EQUIS), and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB).
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
École Centrale de Nantes, or Centrale Nantes, is a Grande Ecole d'Ingénieurs - a French engineering school - established in 1919 under the name of Institut Polytechnique de l'Ouest.
L’École de design Nantes Atlantique is a private institution for technical education dedicated to the teaching of design.
The École des Mines de Nantes, or École nationale supérieure des mines de Nantes (Mines Nantes) is a French high-level engineering school (grande école), part of the Institut Mines-Télécom.
École polytechnique de l'Université de Nantes (also known as Polytech Nantes) is a French Grande École which provides curricula and run research programmes in a variety of scientific and technological fields.
Édith Piaf (19 December 1915 – 10 October 1963; nee Édith Giovanna Gassion) was a French singer, songwriter, cabaret performer and film actress noted as France's national chanteuse and one of the country's most widely known international stars.
Éric Marcel Guy Tabarly (24 July 1931 – 12 June 1998) was a French Navy officer and yachtsman.
In French law, établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel (EPSCP; English: public scientific, cultural or professional establishment) is a formal category of more than one hundred and thirty public higher education institutes in the fields of sciences, culture and professional education.
The île de Nantes (Island of Nantes) is an island located in the centre of the city of Nantes, France, surrounded by two branches of the Loire River - the "bras de la Madeleine" (branch of the Madeleine) at the north and the "bras de Pirmil" (branch of Pirmil) at the south.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Monique Andrée Serf (June 9, 1930 – November 24, 1997), whose stage name was Barbara, was a French singer.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
Basse-Goulaine is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Nantes was a battle between Royalist and Republican French forces at Nantes on 29 June 1793 during the War in the Vendée.
Beirut is an American band which was originally the solo musical project of Santa Fe native Zach Condon.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Beurre blanc—literally translated from French as "white butter"—is a hot emulsified butter sauce made with a reduction of vinegar and/or white wine (normally Muscadet) and grey shallots into which cold, whole butter is blended off the heat to prevent separation.
A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle system, or bike-share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free.
Bilbao (Bilbo) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
Black Venus (Vénus noire) is a 2010 French drama film directed by Abdellatif Kechiche.
The BN Biscuit (or Biscuiterie Nantaise) is a French brand of biscuit, consisting of a filling, such as chocolate, sandwiched between two biscuits.
Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, and painter who has been an influential figure in popular music and culture for more than five decades.
Bocage is a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Bouguenais is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France near Nantes.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Bourgneuf-en-Retz is a former commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Bouygues Telecom is a French mobile phone, Internet service provider and IPTV company, part of the Bouygues group.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
Brioche is a pastry of French origin that is similar to a highly enriched bread, and whose high egg and butter content (400 grams for each kilogram of flour) give it a rich and tender crumb.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Brittany (Breizh, Bretagne) is one of the 18 regions of France.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), also known as common buckwheat, Japanese buckwheat and silverhull buckwheat, is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop.
A business incubator is a company that helps new and startup companies to develop by providing services such as management training or office space.
C2C (also known as Coups2Cross) is a French musical group formed in 1998 in the city of Nantes.
The Cadomian Orogeny was a tectonic event or series of events in the late Neoproterozoic, about 650–550 Ma, which probably included the formation of mountains.
Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.
Camellia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Theaceae.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container.
The cantons of Nantes are administrative divisions of the Loire-Atlantique department, in western France.
Capgemini SE is a French multinational professional services and business consulting corporation headquartered in Paris, France.
Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital of, and largest city in, Wales, and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
Carquefou is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique, department in the region Pays de la Loire, in western France.
The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.
The Catholic League of France (Ligue catholique), sometimes referred to by contemporary (and modern) Catholics as the Holy League (La Sainte Ligue), was a major participant in the French Wars of Religion.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Championnat de France de Futsal "Division 1" or "D1" is the premier futsal league in France, organized by Fédération Française de Football.
Chancery is a general term for a medieval writing office, responsible for the production of official documents.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Monselet (30 April 1825, Nantes - 19 May 1888, Paris) was a French journalist, novelist, poet and playwright, nicknamed "the king of the gastronomes" by his contemporaries.
Charles VIII, called the Affable, l'Affable (30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498.
Chartres is a commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir department in France.
The Château des ducs de Bretagne (Castle of the Dukes of Brittany) is a large castle located in the city of Nantes in the Loire-Atlantique département of France; it served as the centre of the historical province of Brittany until its separation in 1941.
Châteaubriant (Kastell-Briant; Gallo: Châtiaoberiant) is a town in western France, about southwest of Paris, and one of the three sous-préfectures of the Loire-Atlantique department.
Chérie FM is a French radio station created in 1987 and belongs to the NRJ Group.
In heraldic blazon, a chief is a charge on a coat of arms that takes the form of a band running horizontally across the top edge of the shield.
Cholet (locally, probably from Latin cauletum, "cabbage") is a commune of western France in the Maine-et-Loire department.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Héloïse Letissier (born 1 June 1988), known by her stage names Christine and the Queens and, since 2018, Chris, is a French singer, songwriter and producer.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
Claire Bretécher (born April 7, 1940) is a French cartoonist, known particularly for her portrayals of women and gender issues.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Claude Cahun (25 October 1894 – 8 December 1954), born Lucy Renee Mathilde Schwob, was a Jewish-French photographer, sculptor and writer.
Oscar-Claude Monet (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein air landscape painting.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.
Clisson, is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique département in Pays de la Loire in western France.
Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg; Kolozsvár,; Medieval Latin: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; and קלויזנבורג, Kloiznburg), commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania, and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country.
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.
The following is a list of the 208 communes of the Loire-Atlantique department of France.
The Continental System or Continental Blockade (known in French as Blocus continental) was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars.
In English, a coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring.
A cotton mill is a factory housing powered spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution when the early mills were important in the development of the factory system.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
The Counts of Nantes were originally the Frankish rulers of the Nantais under the Carolingians and eventually a capital city of the Duchy of Brittany.
The Coupe Charles Simon, commonly known as the Coupe de France, is the premier knockout cup competition in French football organized by the French Football Federation.
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.
The Croix de guerre 1939–1945 (War Cross 1939–1945) is a French military decoration, a version of the Croix de guerre created on September 26, 1939, to honour people who fought with the Allies against the Axis forces at any time during World War II.
Daniel "Dan" Graham (born March 31, 1942) is an American artist, writer, and curator.
Daniel Buren (born 25 March 1938) is a French conceptual artist.
Day Off (Title in Mercredi, folle journée !) is a 2001 French drama film directed by Pascal Thomas.
Deindustrialization or deindustrialisation is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.
Denys de La Patellière (8 March 1921 in Nantes, France–21 July 2013) was a French film director and scriptwriter.
A department is an administrative or political subdivision in many countries.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
Digital art is an artistic work or practice that uses digital technology as an essential part of the creative or presentation process.
A disc jockey, often abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience.
Donatian and Rogatian were two brothers, martyred in Nantes during the reign of Roman Emperor Maximian, around 288-290, for refusing to deny their faith.
The Drownings at Nantes (Noyades de Nantes) were a series of mass executions by drowning during the Reign of Terror in Nantes, France, that occurred between November 1793 and February 1794.
Dschang is a city located in the West (Ouest) Province of Cameroon, with an estimated population of 87,000 (est) in 2001, growing dramatically from 21,705 recorded in 1981.
The Duchy of Brittany (Breton: Dugelezh Breizh, French: Duché de Bretagne) was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547.
Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third most populous in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
An ecodistrict or eco-district is a neologism associating the terms "district" and "eco" as an abbreviation of ecological.
The Edict of Nantes (French: édit de Nantes), signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time.
An eel is any ray-finned fish belonging to the order Anguilliformes, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and about 800 species.
Energy transition is generally defined as a long-term structural change in energy systems.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Paris Graduate School of Digital Innovation (École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies, or Epitech), formerly European Institute of Information Technology in English is a private institution of higher education in general computer science that was founded in 1999 and has been accredited by the French government.
The Erdre is a long river in western France, right tributary to the Loire.
Ermine in heraldry is a "fur", a type of tincture, consisting of a white background with a pattern of black shapes representing the winter coat of the stoat (a species of weasel with white fur and a black-tipped tail).
Estuaire is a contemporary art exhibition that took place between Nantes and Saint-Nazaire (along the Loire estuary), France.
The 1983 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1983, was the 23rd FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe.
Eurofins is an international group of laboratories headquartered in Brussels, providing testing and support services to the pharmaceutical, food, environmental, agriscience and consumer products industries, L'Usine nouvelle n° 2965, 26.05.2005 and to governments.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Green Capital Award is an award for a European city based on its environmental record.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Faubourg is an ancient French term approximating "suburb" (now generally termed banlieue).
Football Club de Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt), commonly referred to as FC Nantes or simply Nantes, is a French association football club based in Nantes, Pays de la Loire.
Fermented milk products, also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A financial centre is a location that is home to a cluster of nationally or internationally significant financial services providers such as banks, investment managers, or stock exchanges.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
FIP (originally France Inter Paris) is a French radio network, founded in 1971.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Flamboyant (from French flamboyant, "flaming") is the name given to a florid style of late Gothic architecture in vogue in France from about 1350, until it was superseded by Renaissance architecture during the early 16th century.
Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increase in elevation at the base of a mountain range, higher hill range or an upland area.
A forge is a type of hearth used for heating metals, or the workplace (smithy) where such a hearth is located.
Fouée, also known as fouace is a round, airy bread from the western France (Touraine and Anjou region of the Loire Valley, Poitou, Charente).
François Bégaudeau (born 27 April 1971) is a French writer, journalist, and actor.
François Athanase de Charette de la Contrie (2 May 1763 – 26 March 1796) was a French Royalist soldier and politician.
François Delarozière (born 1963) is the art director of La Machine, a French company which is a collaboration between artists, designers, fabricators and technicians and which specialises in producing giant performing machines, often creatures.
François Maspero (19 January 1932, Paris – 11 April 2015, Paris) was a French author and journalist, best known as a publisher of leftist books in the 1970s.
François Morellet (30 April 1926 – 10 May 2016) was a French contemporary painter, sculptor, and light artist.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
France 3 is the second largest French public television channel and part of the France Télévisions group, which also includes France 2, France 4, France 5, and France Ô. It is made up of a network of regional television services providing daily news programming and around ten hours of entertainment and cultural programming produced for and about the regions each week.
France Bleu is a network of local and regional radio stations in France, and a part of the national public broadcasting group Radio France.
France Télévisions (stylized as France.tv) is the French public national television broadcaster.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
Francis II (François II) (19 January 1544 – 5 December 1560) was a King of France of the House of Valois-Angoulême from 1559 to 1560.
Francis II of Brittany (in Breton Frañsez II, in French François II) (23 June 1433 – 9 September 1488) was Duke of Brittany from 1458 to his death.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The French Forces of the Interior (Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur) refers to French resistance fighters in the later stages of World War II.
New Wave (La Nouvelle Vague) is often referred to as one of the most influential movements in the history of cinema.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.
Fun Radio is a French network of FM radio stations created on 2 October 1985 and offering dancefloor-based music operating on 250 different frequencies in France.
Futsal is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors.
Gallo is a regional language of France.
Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food and culture, the art of preparing and serving rich or delicate and appetizing food, the cooking styles of particular regions, and the science of good eating.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Gâteau nantais is a cake originating in the city of Nantes in France.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
Georges Brassens (22 October 1921 – 29 October 1981) was a French singer-songwriter and poet.
Georges Benjamin Clemenceau (28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French politician, physician, and journalist who was Prime Minister of France during the First World War.
Georges de La Tour (March 13, 1593 – January 30, 1652) was a French Baroque painter, who spent most of his working life in the Duchy of Lorraine, which was temporarily absorbed into France between 1641 and 1648.
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
"Germanic Wars" is a name given to a series of wars between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BC and 596 AD.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.
God's Thunder or Le Tonnerre de Dieu is a 1965 French, Italian and West German produced comedy film, directed by Denys de La Patellière.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.
A grace is a short prayer or thankful phrase said before or after eating.
Grand'Anse (Grandans, Big Cove) is one of the ten departments of Haiti.
The Grandes Écoles (literally in French "Great Schools") of France are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Green politics (also known as ecopolitics) is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
A guillotine is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Gustave Flaubert (12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was a French novelist.
Guy Béhart-Hasson (16 July 1930 – 16 September 2015), known as Guy Béart, was a French singer and songwriter.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
A happening is a performance, event, or situation meant to be considered art, usually as performance art.
An hôtel particulier ("hôtel" being rendered in Middle English as "inn"—as only used now in Inns of Court—and "particulier" meaning "personal" or "private") is a townhouse of a grand sort, comparable to the British townhouse.
Handball Club Nantes, is a team from Nantes, France, that plays in the LNH Division 1.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
Henry James, OM (–) was an American author regarded as a key transitional figure between literary realism and literary modernism, and is considered by many to be among the greatest novelists in the English language.
Hermine Nantes Basket is a professional basketball team based in Nantes, France.
A horse-bus or horse-drawn omnibus was a large, enclosed and sprung horse-drawn vehicle used for passenger transport before the introduction of motor vehicles.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
IKEA is a Swedish-founded multinational group, that designs and sells, kitchen appliances and home accessories.
The Industrial Age is a period of history that encompasses the changes in economic and social organization that began around 1760 in Great Britain and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines such as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Located in six cities in France, Institut catholique d'arts et métiers is a Graduate Engineering school created in 1898.
Intercités (before September 2009: Corail Intercités) is a brand name used by France’s national railway company, SNCF, to denote non high speed services on the 'classic' network in France.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 177519 December 1851), known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist, known for his expressive colourisation, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.
A jack is a national (originally naval) flag flown from a short jackstaff at the bow of a vessel, while the ensign is flown on the stern.
Jacksonville is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Florida and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States.
Jacobitism (Seumasachas, Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
Jacques Cassard (30 September 1679 in Nantes – 1740 in Ham) was a French naval officer and privateer.
Jacques Cathelineau, Generalissimo of the Catholic and Royal Army (5 January 1759 – 14 July 1793) was a French Vendéan insurrection leader during the French Revolution.
Jacques Demy (5 June 1931 – 27 October 1990) was a French director, lyricist, and screenwriter.
Jacques Vaché Jacques Vaché (7 September 1895 – 6 January 1919) was a friend of André Breton, the founder of surrealism.
Jan Brueghel the Elder (also Breughel;; 1568 – 13 January 1625) was a Flemish painter and draughtsman.
The Jardin des plantes de Nantes (73,280 m²) is a municipal botanical garden located on Rue Stanislas Baudry, Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, Pays de la Loire, France.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jean Nouvel (born 12 August 1945) is a French architect.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter.
Jean-Baptiste Carrier (1756 – 16 December 1794) was a French Revolutionary.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.
Jean-Loup Hubert (born 4 October 1949) is a French director and screenwriter.
Jean-Luc Godard (born 3 December 1930) is a French-Swiss film director, screenwriter and film critic.
Jean-Marc Ayrault (born 25 January 1950) is a French politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 16 May 2012 to 31 March 2014.
Jean-Paul Rappeneau (born 8 April 1932) is a French film director and screenwriter.
Jeanne Cherhal (born 28 February 1978) is a French singer-songwriter.
Johanna Rolland (born May 11, 1979) is a French politician.
John V "the Wise" (Yann V ar Fur; Jean V le Sage), known traditionally in some older English sources as John VI (24 December 1389 – 29 August 1442), was duke of Brittany, count of Montfort, and titular earl of Richmond, from 1399 to his death.
Joseph Fouché, 1st Duc d'Otrante, 1st Comte Fouché (21 May 1759 – 25 December 1820) was a French statesman and Minister of Police under First Consul Bonaparte, who later became Emperor Napoleon.
Jules Vallès (10 June 1832 – 14 February 1885) was a French journalist and author.
Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.
The Musée Jules Verne is a museum dedicated to the French writer Jules Verne.
Marquis Jules Félix Philippe Albert de Dion de Wandonne (9 March 1856 – 19 August 1946) was a pioneer of the automobile industry in France.
Julien Gracq (27 July 1910 – 22 December 2007; born Louis Poirier in Saint-Florent-le-Vieil, in the French département of Maine-et-Loire) was a French writer.
Karlsruhe (formerly Carlsruhe) is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near the French-German border.
Keep Your Right Up (Soigne ta droite / Une place sur la terre) is a 1987 film, written, directed by, and starring French Swiss filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard.
Kindia is the fourth largest city in Guinea, lying about 85 miles north east of the nation's capital Conakry.
L'Express is a French weekly news magazine headquartered in Paris.
La Folle Journée is a French annual classical music festival held in Nantes.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
La Turballe is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
The land and water hemispheres of Earth, sometimes capitalised as the Land Hemisphere and Water Hemisphere, are the hemispheres of Earth containing the largest possible total areas of land and ocean, respectively.
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.
The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Le Croisic (Breton: Ar Groazig), is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.
Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.
The lieu unique is the national center for contemporary arts and music venue in Nantes, France.
Le Mans is a city in France, on the Sarthe River.
Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.
Le Zénith is the name given to a series of indoor arenas in France.
The leek is a vegetable, a cultivar of Allium ampeloprasum, the broadleaf wild leek.
Lefèvre Utile, better known worldwide by the initials LU, is a manufacturer brand of French biscuits, emblematic of the city of Nantes.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Les Invalides, commonly known as Hôtel national des Invalides (The National Residence of the Invalids), or also as Hôtel des Invalides, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose.
The LGV Atlantique is a high-speed railway line running from Paris (Gare Montparnasse) to Western France.
Liberty is a loose term in English for the goddess or personification of the concept of liberty, and is represented by the Roman Goddess Libertas, by Marianne, the national symbol of France, and by many others.
Ligue 1, also called Ligue 1 Conforama for sponsorship reasons with Conforama, is a French professional league for men's association football clubs.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
Below is a list of communes in France (Overseas departments included) with a population over 20,000 at the 2013 census.
This is a list of the women who have been queens consort or empresses consort of the French monarchy.
This is a list of rulers of the Duchy of Brittany.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Loïck Peyron, born 1 December 1959 in Nantes, is a French yachtsman, younger brother of the yachtsman Bruno Peyron.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
The Loire Valley (Vallée de la Loire), spanning, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, in both the administrative regions Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire.
Loire-Atlantique (formerly Loire-Inférieure) is a department on the west coast of France named after the Loire River and the Atlantic Ocean.
Lola is a 1961 romantic drama film, the debut film directed by Jacques Demy as a tribute to director Max Ophüls, described by Demy as a "musical without music".
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Lower Brittany (Breizh-Izel; Basse-Bretagne) denotes the parts of Brittany west of Ploërmel, where the Breton language has been traditionally spoken, and where the culture associated with this language is most prolific.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
The Machines of the Isle of Nantes (Les Machines de l'île) is an artistic, touristic and cultural project based in Nantes, France.
Hugo Pierre Leclercq (born 30 May 1994), better known by his stage name Madeon, is a French DJ, record producer, singer, songwriter and musician from Nantes, France.
Magnolia grandiflora, commonly known as the southern magnolia or bull bay, is a tree of the family Magnoliaceae native to the southeastern United States, from coastal North Carolina to central Florida, and west to East Texas.
Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France (not to be confused with La Maine, the river).
Maine-et-Loire is a department of the Loire Valley in west-central France, in the Pays de la Loire region.
The Marches of Neustria were two marches created in 861 by the Carolingian king of West Francia Charles the Bald that were ruled by officials appointed by the crown, known as wardens, prefects or margraves (or "marquis" in French).
A marionette is a puppet controlled from above using wires or strings depending on regional variations.
A market garden is the relatively small-scale production of fruits, vegetables and flowers as cash crops, frequently sold directly to consumers and restaurants.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Mathurin Crucy (2 February 1749, Nantes - 7 November 1826, Chantenay, near Nantes) was a French architect and urban planner, who conceived a major Neo-Classical architectural programme for Nantes which deeply marked the town.
The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle, is a body of literature and legendary material associated with the history of France, in particular involving Charlemagne and his associates.
The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France.
In France, a mayor (maire in French) is chairperson of the municipal council, which organizes the work and deliberates on municipal matters.
Météo-France is the French national meteorological service.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Mekarski system was a compressed-air propulsion system for trams invented by Louis Mékarski or Louis Mékarsky (the correct spelling is uncertain) in the 1870s.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche), or simply "Ministry of National Education", as the title has changed no small number of times in the course of the Fifth Republic is the French government cabinet member charged with running France's public educational system and with the supervision of agreements and authorizations for private teaching organizations.
Minor basilica (Basilica minor, Basilicæ minores in plural) is a title given to some Roman Catholic church buildings.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
The House of Montfort was a French noble family, which reigned in the Duchy of Brittany from 1365 to 1514.
* Monument historique is a designation given to some national heritage sites in France.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mulhouse (Alsatian: Milhüsa or Milhüse,;; i.e. mill house) is a city and commune in eastern France, close to the Swiss and German borders.
Mullo is a Celtic god.
A mural crown (corona muralis) is a crown or headpiece representing city walls or towers.
The Fine Arts Museum of Nantes, along with 14 other provincial museums, was created, by consular decree on 14 Fructidor in year IX (31 August 1801).
The Musée Dobrée is a museum in Nantes, in the quartier Graslin in the immediate outskirts of the city centre and very close to the city's Natural History Museum.
Muscadet is a French white wine.
Nadja (1928), the second book published by André Breton, is one of the iconic works of the French surrealist movement.
The Namnetes were a tribe of ancient Gaul, living in the area of the modern city of Nantes near the river Liger (modern Loire).
Iōánna Moúschouri (Ιωάννα Μούσχουρη;; born October 13, 1934), known professionally as Nana Mouskouri (Νάνα Μούσχουρη), is a Greek singer.
Nantes Atlantique Airport (Aéroport Nantes Atlantique, formerly known as Aéroport Château Bougon) is an international airport serving Nantes, France.
Nantes Cathedral, or the Cathedral of St.
Nantes Loire Atlantique Handball is the name of a French handball club from Nantes.
The Nantes Metropolis (Nantes Métropole) is the métropole, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Nantes.
The Nantes tramway (Tramway de Nantes) is a tramway system operating in the city of Nantes in Pays de la Loire, France.
The Nantes-Atlantic National College of Veterinary Medicine, Food Science and Engineering also known as Oniris or Oniris Nantes, is a French educational institution.
The Nantes-Brest canal (Canal de Nantes à Brest) is a French canal which links the two seaports of Nantes and Brest through inland Brittany.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Convention (Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly.
Natura 2000 is a network of nature protection areas in the territory of the European Union.
The Natural History Museum of Nantes is a French natural history museum located in the city of Nantes.
Navibus is a group of water bus routes in the French city of Nantes, operated as part of the Tan urban transit network that also includes buses and trams.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nephrops norvegicus, known variously as the Norway lobster, Dublin Bay prawn, langoustine (compare langostino) or scampi, is a slim, orange-pink lobster which grows up to long, and is "the most important commercial crustacean in Europe".
Neptune (Neptūnus) was the god of freshwater and the sea in Roman religion.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspapers, magazines and radio and television broadcasters.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
is the capital and the most populous city of Niigata Prefecture located in the Chūbu region of Japan.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
Nominoe or Nomenoe (Nominoë; Nevenoe; 7 March 851) was the first Duke of Brittany from 846 to his death.
The northern pike (Esox lucius), known simply as a pike in Britain, Ireland, most of Canada, and most parts of the United States (once called luce when fully grown; also called jackfish or simply "northern" in the U.S. Upper Midwest and in Manitoba), is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox (the pikes).
Notre-Dame-des-Landes is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France, around 20 km north-west of Nantes.
NRJ (NRJ is an acronym read as énergie in French, pronounced) is a private French radio station created by Jean-Paul Baudecroux and Max Guazzini in June 1981 and belongs to the NRJ Group.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Public Office for the Breton Language (Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg; Office Public de la langue bretonne) was established on 15 October 2010 as a public institution, with state and regional cooperation and funding, to promote and develop teaching and use of the Breton language in daily life.
Olivier Eugène Prosper Charles Messiaen (December 10, 1908 – April 27, 1992) was a French composer, organist, and ornithologist, one of the major composers of the 20th century.
The Orchestre national des Pays de la Loire (ONPL) is a French symphony orchestra based in Angers and Nantes.
The Order of Liberation ("Ordre de la Libération") is a French Order which was awarded to heroes of the Liberation of France during World War II.
The Order of the Ladies of the Cord (French: L’Ordre des Dames chevalières de la Cordelière" or "Ordre de la Cordelière"), was a ladies order founded by the French queen Anne of Brittany in 1498.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
Orlando is a city in the U.S. state of Florida and the county seat of Orange County.
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
Orvault is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Ouest-France (French for "West-France") is a daily French newspaper known for its emphasis on both local and national news.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
The Palais de la Bourse is a building on place du Commerce in Nantes, France, begun at the end of the 18th century and completed in the 19th century.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France having developed since the Triassic on a basement formed by the Variscan orogeny.
The Parisii were Celtic Iron Age people who lived on the banks of the river Seine (in Latin, Sequana) in Gaul from the middle of the 3rd century BCE until the Roman era.
Pascal Thomas (born 2 April 1945) is a French screenwriter and film director.
The Passage Pommeraye is a small shopping mall in central Nantes, France, named after its property developer, Louis Pommeraye.
Paul-Yves Nizan (7 February 1905 – 23 May 1940) was a French philosopher and writer.
Paul Louis Rossi (born 1933 Nantes, Brittany is a French critic and poet.
Pays de la Loire (Broioù al Liger, meaning Loire Country) is one of the 18 regions of France.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
The "Petit Beurre", or "Véritable Petit Beurre", also known under the initials "VPB", is a kind of shortbread from Nantes, that is best known in France.
Philippe Emmanuel de Lorraine, Duke of Mercœur (9 September 1558, Nomeny, Meurthe-et-Moselle – 19 February 1602, Nürnberg), the eldest surviving son of Nicholas, Duke of Mercœur and Jeanne de Savoie-Nemours, was a French soldier and prominent member of the Catholic League.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
The Pictones were a tribe inhabiting a region along the Bay of Biscay in what is now western France, along the south bank of the Loire.
Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais (24 January 1732 – 18 May 1799) was a French polymath.
Pierre Jacques Étienne Cambronne, later Pierre, 1st Viscount Cambronne (26 December 1770 – 29 January 1842), was a General of the French Empire.
Pierre Marie René Ernest Waldeck-Rousseau (2 December 1846 – 10 August 1904) was a French Republican politician.
Piriac-sur-Mer is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Placebo are an alternative rock band, formed in London, England in 1994 by singer-guitarist Brian Molko and guitarist-bassist Stefan Olsdal.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
Poitou, in Poitevin: Poetou, was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, providing crop diversity in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture.
Pornic (Pornizh in Breton, Port-Nitz in Gallo) is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique département, in South-Eastern Brittany, in western France.
Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.
A prefecture (préfecture) in France may refer to.
Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department (French: département) system superseded provinces.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local.
Public housing in France (French: logement social, also called Habitations à loyer modéré, or HLM) is a central, local or social program designed to provide subsidized assistance for low-income and poor people.
Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Quartering in is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Quimper (Breton: Kemper, Latin: Civitas Aquilonia or Corisopitum) is a commune and capital of the Finistère department of Brittany in northwestern France.
Radio France is a French public service radio broadcaster.
The radish (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre-Roman times.
A radome (which is a portmanteau of radar and dome) is a structural, weatherproof enclosure that protects a radar antenna.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
Renan Luce (born 5 March 1980, Paris) is a French singer and songwriter.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Rennes (Roazhon,; Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.
Rezé (Reudied, Gallo: Rezae) is a commune (municipality) and former bishopric in the Loire-Atlantique department in the Britanny region of western France.
Robert Badinter (born 30 March 1928 in Paris) is a French lawyer and politician known for having championed the abolition of the death penalty in France in 1981.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
Roland (Frankish: *Hrōþiland; Latin: Hruodlandus, Rotholandus; died 15 August 778) was a Frankish military leader under Charlemagne who became one of the principal figures in the literary cycle known as the Matter of France.
Roman amphitheatres are amphitheatres – large, circular or oval open-air venues with raised seating – built by the ancient Romans.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
Roman theatres derive from and are part of the overall evolution of earlier Greek theatres.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Romanesque Revival (or Neo-Romanesque) is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
Royal de Luxe is a French mechanical marionette street theatre company.
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses or honeys, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Saarbrücken (Sarrebruck, Rhine Franconian: Saarbrigge) is the capital and largest city of the state of Saarland, Germany.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
Saint-Gilles-Croix-de-Vie is a commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France.
Saint-Herblain is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Saint-Julien-de-Concelles is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Saint-Nazaire (Gallo: Saint-Nazère/Saint-Nazaer) is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France, in traditional Brittany.
Saint-Sébastien-sur-Loire is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Sainte-Luce-sur-Loire is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
A saltern is an area or installation for making salt.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.
"Sardine" and "pilchard" are common names used to refer to various small, oily fish in the herring family Clupeidae.
The Sèvre Nantaise is a river in western France, a left-bank tributary to the Loire.
Schist (pronounced) is a medium-grade metamorphic rock with medium to large, flat, sheet-like grains in a preferred orientation (nearby grains are roughly parallel).
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Scopitone is a type of jukebox featuring a 16 mm film component.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
A sea shanty, chantey, or chanty is a type of work song that was once commonly sung to accompany labor on board large merchant sailing vessels.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Sedimentary basins are regions of Earth of long-term subsidence creating accommodation space for infilling by sediments.
Semitan is the company responsible for the comprehensive public transport network of Nantes Métropole, the urban community of the French city of Nantes.
Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments.
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
Siltation or siltification is the pollution of water by particulate terrestrial clastic material, with a particle size dominated by silt or clay.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The Société nationale des chemins de fer français (SNCF, "French National Railway Company") is France's national state-owned railway company.
Calvin Cordozar Broadus Jr. (born October 20, 1971), known professionally as Snoop Dogg, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, record producer, television personality and actor.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Stade de la Beaujoire - Louis Fonteneau, or "Stade de la Beaujoire", is a stadium in Nantes, France.
Marie-Henri Beyle (23 January 1783 – 23 March 1842), better known by his pen name Stendhal, was a 19th-century French writer.
The Storming of the Bastille (Prise de la Bastille) occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Street theatre is a form of theatrical performance and presentation in outdoor public spaces without a specific paying audience.
Suncheon (Suncheon-si) is a city in South Jeolla Province, South Korea.
Supertramp (known as Daddy in 1969–1970) are an English rock band formed in London in 1969.
SUPINFO International University, formerly called "École Supérieure d'Informatique", is a private institution of higher education in Computer Science that was created in 1965 and has been recognized by the French state since 10 January 1972.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
In phonology, syncope (from συγκοπή||cutting up) is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
Tate Britain (known from 1897 to 1932 as the National Gallery of British Art and from 1932 to 2000 as the Tate Gallery) is an art museum on Millbank in the City of Westminster in London.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Technopole refers to a center of high-tech manufacturing and information-based quaternary industry.
In architecture and city planning, a terraced or terrace house (UK) or townhouse (US) exhibits a style of medium-density housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, where a row of identical or mirror-image houses share side walls.
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
The TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator.
The Théâtre Graslin is a theatre and opera house in the city of Nantes in France.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Marriage of Figaro (La Folle Journée, ou Le Mariage de Figaro ("The Mad Day, or The Marriage of Figaro")) is a comedy in five acts, written in 1778 by Pierre Beaumarchais.
The Married Couple of the Year Two (Les Mariés de l'an Deux) is a 1971 French comedy film directed by Jean-Paul Rappeneau.
The Shape of a City (La Forme d'une ville) is a 1985 book by the French writer Julien Gracq.
The Umbrellas of Cherbourg (Les Parapluies de Cherbourg) is a 1964 French-West German musical-romantic drama film directed by Jacques Demy, starring Catherine Deneuve and Nino Castelnuovo.
In ancient Rome, thermae (from Greek θερμός thermos, "hot") and balneae (from Greek βαλανεῖον balaneion) were facilities for bathing.
The Festival of the Three Continents (Festival des 3 Continents) is an annual film festival held since 1979 in Nantes, France, and is devoted to the cinemas of Asia, and Africa and Latin America.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
A tidal river is a river whose flow and level are influenced by tides.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tintoretto (born Jacopo Comin, late September or early October, 1518 – May 31, 1594) was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Venetian school.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
The railway from Tours to Saint-Nazaire is an important French 282-kilometre long railway line.
A tram-train is a light-rail public transport system where trams run through from an urban tramway network to main-line railway lines which are shared with conventional trains.
Transport express régional (usually shortened to TER) is the brand name used by the SNCF, the French national railway company, to denote rail service run by the regional councils of France, specifically their organised transport authorities.
A treasury is either.
Tri Yann is a Breton band from Nantes who play folk rock music drawing on traditional Breton folk ballads.
Triangular trade or triangle trade is a historical term indicating trade among three ports or regions.
Tuffeau stone — in French, simply tuffeau or tufeau — is a local limestone of the Loire Valley of France.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
A Turkish bath (hamam, translit) is a type of public bathing associated with the culture of the Ottoman Empire and more widely the Islamic world.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
The 1984 UEFA European Football Championship final tournament was held in France from 12 to 27 June 1984.
Une chambre en ville (also known as A Room in Town) is a 1982 French film directed by Jacques Demy, with music by Michel Colombier, and starring Dominique Sanda, Danielle Darrieux, and Michel Piccoli.
The union of Brittany and France was a critical step in the formation of modern-day France.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Protestant Church of France is the main and largest Protestant church in France, created in 2013 through the unification of the Reformed Church of France and the Evangelical Lutheran Church of France.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Nantes (Université de Nantes) is a French university, located in the city of Nantes.
Upper Brittany (Haute-Bretagne; Breizh-Uhel; Gallo: Haùtt-Bertaèyn) is the eastern part of Brittany France, which is predominantly of a Romance culture and is associated with the Gallo language.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.
Utopiales is an annual international science fiction festival held in Nantes, France, probably the largest European event for the field.
Valerianella locusta is a small annual plant that is eaten as a leaf vegetable.
Vannes is a commune in the Morbihan department in Brittany in north-western France.
The Vendée is a department in the Pays-de-la-Loire region in west-central France, on the Atlantic Ocean.
The Veneti were a seafaring Celtic people who lived in the Brittany peninsula (France), which in Roman times formed part of an area called Armorica.
Vertou is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Virgin Radio is a French network of FM radio stations dedicated to Rock and Pop music, operating on 250 different frequencies across France.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
The War in the Vendée (1793; Guerre de Vendée) was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution.
The War of the Breton Succession was a conflict between the Counts of Blois and the Montforts of Brittany for control of the Duchy of Brittany.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (Vasily Vasilyevich Kandinsky) (– 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter and art theorist.
A water taxi or a water bus, also known as a sightseeing boat, is a watercraft used to provide public or private transport, usually, but not always, in an urban environment.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
West France is a constituency of the European Parliament.
A west wind is a wind that blows from the west, in an eastward direction.
The wing box of an airplane is the structural component from which the wings extend.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The zander (Sander lucioperca) is a species of fish from freshwater and brackish habitats in western Eurasia.
The 1973–75 recession or 1970s recession was a period of economic stagnation in much of the Western world during the 1970s, putting an end to the overall Post–World War II economic expansion.
The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
20 minutes (pronounced vingt minutes) is a free, daily newspaper aimed at commuters in France.
The 2007 Rugby World Cup was the sixth Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union competition inaugurated in 1987.
The 2017 IHF World Men's Handball Championship was the 25th event hosted by the International Handball Federation.