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Napoleon abdicated on 22 June in favour of his son Napoleon II.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
The Act of Mediation was issued by Napoleon Bonaparte on 19 February 1803 establishing the Swiss Confederation.
The Acte de déchéance de l'Empereur ("Emperor's Demise Act") is a legislative decision taken by the Sénat conservateur on 2 April 1814, recognising the downfall of Napoléon I of France.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Ajaccio is a French commune, prefecture of the department of Corse-du-Sud, and head office of the Collectivité territoriale de Corse (capital city of Corsica).
Alan M Strauss-Schom is an American-born historian and biographer, born in Sterling, Illinois, in 1937.
Albine de Montholon (December 19, 1779 - March 25, 1848) was a French noblewoman, and the wife of Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon.
Alessandria (Piedmontese: Lissandria) is a city and comune in Piedmont, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Alessandria.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandre Florian Joseph, Count Colonna-Walewski (Aleksander Florian Józef Colonna-Walewski; 4 May 181027 September 1868), was a Polish and French politician and diplomat.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alfred W. Adler(7 February 1870 – 28 May 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.
Alfred Graf von Schlieffen, generally called Count Schlieffen (28 February 1833 – 4 January 1913) was a German field marshal and strategist who served as chief of the Imperial German General Staff from 1891 to 1906.
André de Latour, comte de Lorde (1869–1942) was a French playwright, the main author of the Grand Guignol plays from 1901 to 1926.
André Masséna, 1st Duc de Rivoli, 1st Prince d'Essling (born Andrea Massena; 16 May 1758 – 4 April 1817) was a French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Andrew Roberts (born 13 January 1963) is a British historian and journalist.
During the Napoleonic Wars, the Anglo-Russian War (2 September 1807– 18 July 1812) was the phase of hostilities between the United Kingdom and Russia after the latter signed the Treaty of Tilsit that ended its war with France.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
Anointing of the Sick is a sacrament of the Catholic Church that is administered to a Catholic "who, having reached the age of reason, begins to be in danger due to sickness or old age", except in the case of those who "persevere obstinately in manifest grave sin".
In Christianity, antichrist is a term found solely in the First Epistle of John and Second Epistle of John, and often lowercased in Bible translations, in accordance with its introductory appearance: "Children, it is the last hour! As you heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come".
Antoine Christophe Saliceti (baptised in the name of Antonio Cristoforo Saliceti: Antoniu Cristufaru Saliceti in Corsican; 26 August 175723 December 1809) was a French politician and diplomat of the Revolution and First Empire.
Antoine-Henri, Baron Jomini (6 March 177924 March 1869) was a Swiss officer who served as a general in the French and later in the Russian service, and one of the most celebrated writers on the Napoleonic art of war.
Archduke Charles of Austria, Duke of Teschen (German: Erzherzog Carl Ludwig Johann Joseph Laurentius von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen; 5 September 177130 April 1847) was an Austrian field-marshal, the third son of Emperor Leopold II and his wife, Maria Luisa of Spain.
Arenenberg is an estate with a small chateau, Schloss Arenenberg, in the municipality of Salenstein at the shore of Lake Constance in Thurgau, Switzerland that is famous as the final domicile of Hortense de Beauharnais.
Arish or el Arīsh (العريش, Hrinokorura) is the capital and largest city (with 164,830 inhabitants) of the Egyptian governorate of North Sinai, as well as the largest city on the entire Sinai Peninsula, lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, northeast of Cairo.
The Armistice of Znaim was a ceasefire agreed between Archduke Charles and Napoleon I on 12 July 1809 following the Battle of Znaim, effectively ending hostilities between Austria and France in the War of the Fifth Coalition.
The Army of Italy (Armée d'Italie) was a field army of the French Army stationed on the Italian border and used for operations in Italy itself.
The Army of the West (armée de l'Ouest) was one of the French Revolutionary Armies that was sent to fight in the War in the Vendée in western France.
Arsenic poisoning is a medical condition that occurs due to elevated levels of arsenic in the body.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island, 7°56' south of the Equator in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Historian Philip Dwyer claims Napoleon faced between 20 and 30 assassination plots during his reign over France.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Augustin Bon Joseph de Robespierre (21 January 1763 – 28 July 1794) was the younger brother of French Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
Autun is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department, France.
Auxonne is a French commune in the Côte-d'Or department in the Burgundy region of eastern France.
The École Militaire ("military school") is a vast complex of buildings housing various military training facilities in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, southeast of the Champ de Mars.
Baden is a historical German territory.
The Bank of France known in French as the Banque de France, headquartered in Paris, is the central bank of France; it is linked to the European Central Bank (ECB).
The Bar Confederation (Konfederacja barska; 1768–1772) was an association of Polish nobles (szlachta) formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against Russian influence and against King Stanisław II Augustus with Polish reformers, who were attempting to limit the power of the Commonwealth's wealthy magnates.
Barry Edward O'Meara (1786–1836) was an Irish surgeon and founding member of the Reform Club, who accompanied Napoleon to Saint Helena and became his physician, having been surgeon on board the Bellerophon when the emperor surrendered himself.
The Battle of Abukir (or Aboukir or Abu Qir) was a battle in which Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Seid Mustafa Pasha's Ottoman army on July 25, 1799, during the French campaign in Egypt.
The Battle of Arcole or Battle of Arcola (15–17 November 1796) was a battle fought between French and Austrian forces southeast of Verona during the War of the First Coalition, a part of the French Revolutionary Wars.
In the Battle of Aspern-Essling (21–22 May 1809), Napoleon attempted a forced crossing of the Danube near Vienna, but the French and their allies were driven back by the Austrians under Archduke Charles.
The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Bailén was fought in 1808 by the Spanish Army of Andalusia, led by Generals Francisco Castaños and Theodor von Reding, and the Imperial French Army's II corps d'observation de la Gironde under General Pierre Dupont de l'Étang.
The Battle of Bassano was fought on 8 September 1796, during the French Revolutionary Wars, in the territory of the Republic of Venice, between a French army under Napoleon Bonaparte and Austrian forces led by Count Dagobert von Wurmser.
The Battle of Berezina (or Beresina) took place from 26 to 29 November 1812, between the French army of Napoleon, retreating after his invasion of Russia and crossing the Berezina (near Borisov, Belarus), and the Russian armies under Mikhail Kutuzov, Peter Wittgenstein and Admiral Pavel Chichagov.
The Battle of Borodino (la Moskova) was a battle fought on 7 September 1812 in the Napoleonic Wars during the French invasion of Russia.
The Battle of Cannae was a major battle of the Second Punic War that took place on 2 August 216 BC in Apulia, in southeast Italy.
In the Battle of Cape Finisterre (22 July 1805) off Galicia, Spain, the British fleet under Admiral Robert Calder fought an indecisive naval battle against the combined Franco-Spanish fleet which was returning from the West Indies.
The Battle of Castiglione saw the French Army of Italy under General Napoleon Bonaparte attack an army of Habsburg Austria led by Feldmarschall Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser on 5 August 1796.
The Battle of Corunna (or A Coruña, La Corunna, La Coruña, Elviña or La Corogne) took place on 16 January 1809, when a French corps under Marshal of the Empire Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult attacked a British army under Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore.
The Battle of Dresden (26–27 August 1813) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Eckmühl (also known as "Eggmühl") fought on 21 April – 22 April 1809, was the turning point of the 1809 Campaign, also known as the War of the Fifth Coalition.
The Battle of Eylau or Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, 7 and 8 February 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive battle between Napoleon's Grande Armée and the Imperial Russian Army under the command of Levin August, Count von Bennigsen near the town of Preussisch Eylau in East Prussia.
The Battle of Friedland (June 14, 1807) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars between the armies of the French Empire commanded by Napoleon I and the armies of the Russian Empire led by Count von Bennigsen.
The Battle of Hanau was fought on (30 – 31 October 1813) between Karl Philipp von Wrede’s Austro-Bavarian corps and Napoleon's retreating French during the War of the Sixth Coalition.
The Battle of Heilsberg took place on 10 June 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Hohenlinden was fought on 3 December 1800, during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name: Auerstädt) were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the River Saale in today's Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia.
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Битва народов, Bitva narodov; Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig; Bataille des Nations, Slaget vid Leipzig) was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony.
The Battle of Marengo was fought on 14 June 1800 between French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte and Austrian forces near the city of Alessandria, in Piedmont, Italy.
The Battle of Montereau (18 February 1814) was fought during the War of the Sixth Coalition between an Imperial French army led by Emperor Napoleon and a corps of Austrians and Württembergers commanded by Crown Prince Frederick William of Württemberg.
The Battle of Rivoli (14–15 January 1797) was a key victory in the French campaign in Italy against Austria.
The Battle of Saorgio was fought from 24 to 28 April 1794 between a French First Republic army commanded by Pierre Jadart Dumerbion and the armies of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont and the Habsburg Monarchy led by Joseph Nikolaus De Vins.
The Battle of Shubra Khit (also known as the Battle of Chobrakit) was a battle that took place during Napoleon's campaign in Egypt on July 13, 1798.
The Battle of Smolensk was the first major battle of the French invasion of Russia.
The Battle of Somosierra took place on November 30, 1808, during the Peninsular War, when a French army under Napoleon I forced a passage through the Sierra de Guadarrama shielding Madrid.
In the Battle of Tarvis (21–23 March 1797) three divisions of a First French Republic army commanded by Napoleon Bonaparte attacked several columns of the retreating Habsburg Austrian army led by Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen.
The Battle of the Nile (also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay; Bataille d'Aboukir) was a major naval battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the Navy of the French Republic at Aboukir Bay on the Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta of Egypt from 1 to 3 August 1798.
The Battle of the Pyramids, also known as the Battle of Embabeh, was a major engagement fought on July 21, 1798 during the French Invasion of Egypt.
The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1815).
The Battle of Ulm on 16–19 October 1805 was a series of skirmishes, at the end of the Ulm Campaign, which allowed Napoleon I to trap an entire Austrian army under the command of Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich with minimal losses and to force its surrender near Ulm in the Electorate of Bavaria.
The Battle of Wagram (5–6 July 1809) was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Beaucaire is a French commune in the Gard department in the Occitanie region of southern France.
The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Era") was a period of Western history.
Benjamin "Ben" Weider, (February 1, 1923 – October 17, 2008) was the co-founder of the International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness (IFBB) along with brother Joe Weider.
The Berezina or Biarezina (Бярэ́зіна) is a river in Belarus and a tributary of the Dnieper River.
The Berlin Decree was issued in Berlin by Napoleon on November 21, 1806, following the French success against Prussia at the Battle of Jena.
The bicorne or bicorn (two-cornered/horned or twihorn) is a historical form of hat widely adopted in the 1790s as an item of uniform by European and American military and naval officers.
Bogeyman (usually spelled boogeyman in the U.S.; also spelled bogieman or boogie man; see American and British English spelling differences) is a common allusion to a mythical creature in many cultures used by adults to frighten children into good behaviour.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bonaparte Crossing the Alps (also called Napoleon Crossing the Alps, despite the existence of another, more well-known painting with that name) is an 1848–1850 oil-on-canvas portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte, by French artist Paul Delaroche.
Booknotes is an American television series on the C-SPAN network hosted by Brian Lamb, which originally aired from 1989 to 2004.
The Bormida (Bormia in Piedmontese language) is a river of north-west Italy.
Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne (Latin: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Boulonne-su-Mér, Bonen), is a coastal city in Northern France.
The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany.
Brienne-le-Château is a commune in the Aube department in north-central France.
A brig is a sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts.
Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) is a senior rank in the armed forces.
Brutus is a cognomen of the Roman gens Junia, a prominent family of the Roman Republic.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Calomel is a mercury chloride mineral with formula (Hg2)2+Cl2 (see mercury(I) chloride).
The 1814 campaign in north-east France was Napoleon's final campaign of the War of the Sixth Coalition.
By 1799, the French Revolutionary Wars had resumed after a period of relative peace in 1798.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
Carinthia (Koroška), also Slovene Carinthia or Slovenian Carinthia (Slovenska Koroška), is a traditional region in northern Slovenia.
Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (1 June 1780 – 16 November 1831)Bassford, Christopher (2002).
Nob. Carlo Maria Buonaparte or Carlo Maria di Buonaparte (27 March 1746 – 24 February 1785) was an Italian lawyer and diplomat who is best known as the father of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Carniola (Slovene, Kranjska; Krain; Carniola; Krajna) was a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia.
Maria Annunziata Carolina Murat (French: Marie Annonciade Caroline Murat; née Bonaparte; 25 March 1782 – 18 May 1839), better known as Caroline Bonaparte, was the seventh surviving child and third surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino, and a younger sister of Napoleon I of France.
A Carthaginian peace is the imposition of a very brutal "peace" achieved by completely crushing the enemy.
Catarrh, or catarrhal inflammation, is inflammation of the mucous membranes in one of the airways or cavities of the body, usually with reference to the throat and paranasal sinuses.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
The Avenue des Champs-Élysées is an avenue in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, long and wide, running between the Place de la Concorde and the Place Charles de Gaulle, where the Arc de Triomphe is located.
Charles IV (Spanish: Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno José Januario Serafín Diego; 11 November 1748 – 20 January 1819) was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808.
Charles, Count Léon (1806–1881) was an illegitimate son of Emperor Napoleon I of France and Louise Catherine Eléonore Denuelle de la Plaigne (1787–1868).
Charles Victoire Emmanuel Leclerc (17 March 1772 – 2 November 1802) was a French Army general who served under Napoleon Bonaparte during the French Revolution.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat.
Charles Scribner's Sons, or simply Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Kurt Vonnegut, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Stephen King, Robert A. Heinlein, Thomas Wolfe, George Santayana, John Clellon Holmes, Don DeLillo, and Edith Wharton.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Charles-François Lebrun, 1st duc de Plaisance (19 March 1739 – 16 June 1824), was a French statesman who served as Third Consul of the French Republic and was later created Arch-Treasurer and Prince of the Empire by Napoleon I.
The Chasseurs à Cheval de la Garde Impériale (in English: Horse Chasseurs of the Imperial Guard) constituted a light cavalry regiment in the Consular, then Imperial Guard during the French Consulate and First French Empire respectively.
Château de Malmaison is a French château near the western bank of the Seine about west of the centre of Paris in Rueil-Malmaison.
A civil code is a systematic collection of laws designed to deal with the core areas of private law such as for dealing with business and negligence lawsuits and practices.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
A civil marriage is a marriage performed, recorded and recognised by a government official.
Claude Ribbe (born 13 October 1954) is a French writer, activist and filmmaker of Caribbean origin.
Clisson et Eugénie is a romantic novella, written by Napoleon.
The Co-Princes of Andorra or Co-Monarchs of Andorra are jointly the head of state (Cap de l'Estat) of the Principality of Andorra, a landlocked microstate lying in the Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain.
The Committee of Public Safety (Comité de salut public)—created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793—formed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793–94), a stage of the French Revolution.
The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, signed on 15 July 1801 in Paris.
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
The Congress of Erfurt was the meeting between Napoleon, Emperor of the French, and Alexander I, Emperor of All Russia, from 27 September to 14 October 1808 intended to reaffirm the alliance concluded the previous year with the Treaties of Tilsit which followed the end of the War of the Fourth Coalition.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
In France, the Council of State (Conseil d'État) is a body of the French national government that acts both as legal adviser of the executive branch and as the supreme court for administrative justice.
The Conspiration des poignards (Daggers Conspiracy) or Complot de l'Opéra (Opera Plot) was an alleged assassination attempt against Napoleon Bonaparte.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Constitution of the Year VIII (Constitution de l'an VIII or Constitution du 22 frimaire an VIII) was a national constitution of France, adopted on December 24, 1799 (during the Year VIII of the French Revolutionary Calendar), which established the form of government known as the Consulate.
The Continental System or Continental Blockade (known in French as Blocus continental) was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars.
The coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French took place on Sunday December 2, 1804 (11 Frimaire, Year XIII according to the French Republican Calendar) at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
Corps (plural corps; via French, from the Latin corpus "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organisation.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is a Romance language within the Italo-Dalmatian subfamily.
Corsican nationalism is a nationalist movement in Corsica, France, active since the 1960s, that advocates more autonomy for the island, if not outright independence.
The Council of Five Hundred (Conseil des Cinq-Cents), or simply the Five Hundred, was the lower house of the legislature of France under the Constitution of the Year III.
A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France and in the view of most historians ended the French Revolution.
The Coup of 18 Fructidor, Year V, was a seizure of power by members of the French Directory on 4 September 1797 when their opponents, the Royalists, were gaining strength.
Cuirassiers were cavalry equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe.
Culottes are an item of clothing worn on the lower half of the body.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
David Geoffrey Chandler (15 January 1934 – 10 October 2004) was a British historian whose study focused on the Napoleonic era.
Eugénie Bernardine Désirée Clary (8 November 1777 – 17 December 1860), in Swedish officially Eugenia Bernhardina Desideria, was Queen of Sweden and Norway as the consort of King Charles XIV John (a former French General and founder of the House of Bernadotte), mother of Oscar I, and one-time fiancée of Napoleon Bonaparte.
A death mask is an image, typically in wax or plaster cast made of a person's face following death, often by taking a cast or impression directly from the corpse.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
Denis Vasilyevich Davydov (a; –) was a Russian soldier-poet of the Napoleonic Wars who invented a specific genre – hussar poetry noted for its hedonism and bravado – and spectacularly designed his own life to illustrate such poetry.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
The Description de l'Égypte (Description of Egypt) was a series of publications, appearing first in 1809 and continuing until the final volume appeared in 1829, which aimed to comprehensively catalog all known aspects of ancient and modern Egypt as well as its natural history.
A disposition is a quality of character, a habit, a preparation, a state of readiness, or a tendency to act in a specified way that may be learned.
The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire occurred de facto on 6 August 1806, when Emperor Francis II abdicated his title and released all imperial states and officials from their oaths and obligations to the empire.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Donauwörth) is a town and the capital of the Donau-Ries district in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany. It is said to have been founded by two fishermen where the rivers Danube (Donau) and Wörnitz meet. The city is part of the scenic route called "Romantische Straße" (Romantic Road) The city is situated between Munich and Nuremberg, 46 km north of Augsburg.
Dragoons originally were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility but dismounted to fight on foot.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Ebro in English (also in Spanish, Aragonese and Basque: 'Ebre') is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula.
Eckmühl (formerly known in English as Eggmuhl, in Bavaria officially as Eggmühl) is a village of Germany, in Bavaria, on the Große Laaber, 20 km S.E. of Regensburg.
Edmond Eugène Alexis Rostand (1 April 1868 – 2 December 1918) was a French poet and dramatist.
General Sir Edward Nicolls (1779 – 5 February 1865) was an Anglo-Irish officer of the Royal Marines.
The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.
Eléonore Denuelle (13 September 1787 – 30 January 1868) was a mistress of Emperor Napoleon I of France and the mother of his son Charles, Count Léon.
Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.
The Electorate of Bavaria (Kurfürstentum Bayern) was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria.
Maria Anna (Marie Anne) Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi Levoy (3 January 1777 – 7 August 1820), Princesse Française, was an Italian ruler, Princess of Lucca and Piombino (1805-1814), Princess of Lucca (1805-1814), Grand Duchess of Tuscany (1809-1814) and Countess of Compignano by appointment of her brother Napoleon Bonaparte.
Mary Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer (July 26, 1822 – January 4, 1904) was an English-American writer, both of original works and translations.
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (3 May 1748 – 20 June 1836), most commonly known as the Abbé Sieyès, was a French Roman Catholic abbé, clergyman and political writer.
Emmanuel-Augustin-Dieudonné-Joseph, comte de Las Cases (21 June 1766 – 15 May 1842) was a French atlas-maker and author, famed for an admiring book about Napoleon, Le Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène ("The Memorial of Saint Helena").
Emperor of the French (French: Empereur des Français) was the title used by the House of Bonaparte starting when Napoleon Bonaparte was given the title of Emperor on 18 May 1804 by the French Senate and was crowned emperor of the French on 2 December 1804 at the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, in Paris, with the Crown of Napoleon.
Joséphine de Beauharnais (born Marie-Josèphe-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the first wife of Napoleon I, and thus the first Empress of the French as Joséphine.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Enrico De Nicola, (9 November 1877 – 1 October 1959) was an Italian jurist, journalist, politician, and provisional Head of State of republican Italy from 1946 to 1948.
Equality before the law, also known as: equality under the law, equality in the eyes of the law, or legal equality, is the principle that each independent being must be treated equally by the law (principle of isonomy) and that all are subject to the same laws of justice (due process).
Eugène Rose de Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg (3 September 1781 – 21 February 1824) was the first child and only son of Alexandre de Beauharnais and Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie, first wife of Napoleon I. He was born in Paris, France, and became the stepson and adopted child (but not the heir to the imperial throne) of Napoleon I. His biological father was executed during the revolutionary Reign of Terror.
The Expédition de Sardaigne (Expedition to Sardinia) was a short military campaign fought in 1793 in the Mediterranean Sea in the first year of the War of the First Coalition, during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Faesch, also spelled Fesch, is a prominent Swiss, French, Belgian, Corsican and Italian noble family, originally a patrician family of Basel.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
The following image is a family tree of every king, monarch, confederation president and emperor of Germany, from Charlemagne in 800 over Louis the German in 843 through to Wilhelm II in 1918.
Fath-Ali Shah Qajar (فتحعلى شاه قاجار; var. Fathalishah, Fathali Shah, Fath Ali Shah; 25 September 1772 – 23 October 1834) was the second Shah (Qajar emperor) of Iran.
Ferdinand VII (Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.
Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim, O.S.I. (9 November 1744 – 12 May 1805) was the 71st Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller, formally the Order of St.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The Finnish War (Finska kriget, Финляндская война, Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from February 1808 to September 1809.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colors.
Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France.
Dr François Carlo Antommarchi (5 July 1780 in Morsiglia, Corsica – 4 March 1838 in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba) was Napoleon's physician from 1818 to his death in 1821.
François Clary (24 February 1725 – 20 January 1794) was a wealthy French merchant and is an ancestor of many European monarchs by two of his daughters.
François Pascal Simon, Baron Gérard (4 May 1770 – 11 January 1837 Some sources say he was born on 4 May 1770, however his tombstone (Montparnasse Cemetery, 1st division) reads: "Ici reposent – François Pascal Simon baron Gérard, né à Rome le 12 mars 1770, mort à Paris le 11 janvier 1837 – Jacques Alexandre Gérard, né à Paris le 13 avril 1780, mort à Paris le 28 octobre 1832 – Marguerite Françoise Matteï, de F. Gérard, née à Rome le 7 avril 1775, morte à Auteuil le 1er décembre 1848 – Sophie Catherine Sylvoz, Gérard, née à Chambéry le 8 1792, morte à Paris le 16 mars 1867 – La famille à leur mémoire chère."), was a French painter born in Rome, where his father occupied a post in the house of the French ambassador.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francisco Antonio de la Dueña y Cisneros (referred to in Catalan as Francesc Antoni de la Dueña y Cisneros) (1753–1821), was a Spanish clergyman.
Francis II (Franz; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.
The Frankfurt proposals or Frankfurt memorandum was a Coalition peace initiative designed by Austrian minister Metternich.
Rear-Admiral Sir Frederick Lewis Maitland (7 September 1777 – 30 November 1839) was an officer in the Royal Navy during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Frederick William III (Friedrich Wilhelm III) (3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840.
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
Inconstant was a ''Sylphe''-class brig, one of 32, launched in 1811 for the French Navy.
The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Ottoman territories of Egypt and Syria, proclaimed to defend French trade interests, weaken Britain's access to British India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region.
A referendum ratifying the constitution of the French consulate was held in February 1800.
A referendum ratifying the new constitution of the Consulate, which made Napoleon Bonaparte First Consul for life, was held on 10 May 1802.
A referendum concerning the establishment of the French Empire was held in France in November 1804.
The Consulate (French: Le Consulat) was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in May 1804.
The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
The French Republican Calendar (calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary Calendar (calendrier révolutionnaire français), was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Count Fyodor Vasilyevich Rostopchin (Фёдор Васи́льевич Ростопчи́н) (&ndash) was a Russian statesman, who served as governor of Moscow during the French invasion of Russia.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt (16 December 1742 – 12 September 1819), Graf (count), later elevated to Fürst (sovereign prince) von Wahlstatt, was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall (field marshal).
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
Georges Ernest Jean-Marie Boulanger (29 April 1837 – 30 September 1891), nicknamed Général Revanche, was a French general and politician.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
German nationalism is the nationalist idea that Germans are a nation, promotes the unity of Germans and German-speakers into a nation state, and emphasizes and takes pride in the national identity of Germans.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, typically as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Nobile Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte or Giuseppe Maria di Buonaparte (31 May 1713, Ajaccio – 13 December 1763, Ajaccio) was an Italian politician.
Golfe-Juan (Lo Gorg Joan, Lo Golfe Joan) is a seaside resort on France's Côte d'Azur.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
Konstantin Pavlovich (Константи́н Па́влович; 8 May 1779 27 June 1831 was a grand duke of Russia and the second son of Emperor Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. He was the Tsesarevich of Russia throughout the reign of his elder brother Alexander I, but had secretly renounced his claim to the throne in 1823. For 25 days after the death of Alexander I, from 19 November (O.S.)/1 December 1825 to 14 December (O.S.)/26 December 1825 he was known as His Imperial Majesty Konstantin I Emperor and Sovereign of Russia, although he never reigned and never acceded to the throne. His younger brother Nicholas became Tsar in 1825. The succession controversy became the pretext of the Decembrist revolt. Konstantin was known to eschew court etiquette and to take frequent stands against the wishes of his brother Alexander I, for which he is remembered fondly in Russia, but in his capacity as the governor of Poland he is remembered as a strong ruler.
The Grand Sanhedrin was a Jewish high court convened in Europe by Napoleon I to give legal sanction to the principles expressed by the Assembly of Notables in answer to the twelve questions submitted to it by the government.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
In artillery, grapeshot is a type of shot that is not one solid element, but a mass of small metal balls or slugs packed tightly into a canvas bag.
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère.
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
This is a History of Sweden from 1772 through 1809, more known as the Gustavian era of Kings Gustav III and Gustav IV, as well as the reign of King Charles XIII of Sweden.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Hagen Schulze (31 July 1943 – 4 September 2014) was a German historian who held a position at the Free University of Berlin.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
The hand-in-waistcoat (also referred to as hand-inside-vest, hand-in-jacket, hand-held-in, or hidden hand) is a gesture commonly found in portraiture during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
E-M215, also known as E1b1b and formerly E3b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Hélène Napoleone Bonaparte (18 June 1816 – 16 January 1907) was the reputed daughter of Napoleon by his mistress, Albine de Montholon, wife of Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon, and mother of Charles-François-Frédéric, marquis de Montholon-Sémonville.
In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803) represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland, which until then had consisted of self-governing cantons united by a loose military alliance (and ruling over subject territories such as Vaud).
Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.
The first use of horses in warfare occurred over 5,000 years ago.
The Horses of Saint Mark (Cavalli di San Marco), also known as the Triumphal Quadriga, is a set of Roman bronze statues of four horses, originally part of a monument depicting a quadriga (a four-horse carriage used for chariot racing).
Hortense Eugénie Cécile Bonaparte (née de Beauharnais) (10 April 1783 – 5 October 1837), Queen consort of Holland, was the stepdaughter of Emperor Napoléon I, being the daughter of his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais.
In justice and law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or, in modern times, electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to a residence.
The House of Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) was an imperial and royal European dynasty founded in 1804 by Italian noble Carlo Buonaparte and his son Napoleon I, a French military leader of Italian heritage who had risen to notability out of the French Revolution and who in 1804 transformed the First French Republic into the First French Empire, five years after his ''coup d'état'' of November 1799.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Sir Hudson Lowe (28 July 176910 January 1844) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and colonial administrator who is best known for his time as Governor of St Helena, where he was the "gaoler" of the Emperor Napoléon.
The Hundred Days (les Cent-Jours) marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 (a period of 110 days).
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The III Corps of the Grande Armée was the designation of a few military units during the Napoleonic Wars.
Imperial and Royal Majesty (His/Her Imperial and Royal Majesty, abbreviated as HI&RM) was the style used by King-Emperors and their consorts as heads of imperial dynasties that were simultaneously royal.
The Imperial Guard (French: Garde Impériale) was originally a small group of elite soldiers of the French Army under the direct command of Napoleon I, but grew considerably over time.
An inferiority complex is the lack of self-worth, a doubt and uncertainty about oneself, and feelings of not measuring up to standards.
The Inn (Aenus; En) is a river in Switzerland, Austria and Germany.
The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek, Katharevousa: Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi; Isole Ionie) are a group of islands in Greece.
The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Corona Ferrea; Corona Ferrea Langobardiae) is both a reliquary and one of the oldest royal insignias of Christendom.
The Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802) were a series of conflicts fought principally in Northern Italy between the French Revolutionary Army and a Coalition of Austria, Russia, Piedmont-Sardinia, and a number of other Italian states.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana) was a short-lived (1802–1805) republic located in Northern Italy.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The IV Corps of the Grande Armée was a military unit during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.
Jacques-Antoine-Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert (12 November 1743 – 6 May 1790) was a French general and military writer.
Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era.
Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo, or in Arabic Yaffa (יפו,; يَافَا, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel.
Jérôme-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Girolamo Buonaparte; 15 November 1784 – 24 June 1860) was the youngest brother of Napoleon I and reigned as Jerome I (formally Hieronymus Napoleon in German), King of Westphalia, between 1807 and 1813.
Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, duc de Parme (18 October 17538 March 1824), was a French nobleman, lawyer and statesman during the French Revolution and the First Empire.
Jean Victor Marie Moreau (14 February 1763 – 2 September 1813) was a French general who helped Napoleon Bonaparte to power, but later became a rival and was banished to the United States.
Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duke of Abrantès (24 September 1771 – 29 July 1813) was a French general during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Jean-Baptiste Kléber (9 March 1753 – 14 June 1800) was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Marshal General Jean-de-Dieu Soult, 1st Duke of Dalmatia, (29 March 1769 – 26 November 1851) was a French general and statesman, named Marshal of the Empire in 1804 and often called Marshal Soult.
Jewish emancipation was the external (and internal) process in various nations in Europe of eliminating Jewish disabilities, e.g. Jewish quotas, to which Jewish people were then subject, and the recognition of Jews as entitled to equality and citizenship rights on a communal, not merely individual, basis.
Joachim-Napoléon Murat (born Joachim Murat; Gioacchino Napoleone Murat; Joachim-Napoleon Murat; 25 March 1767 – 13 October 1815) was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon.
John Lynch (11 January 1927 – 4 April 2018) was Professor of Latin American History at the University of London.
Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore,, (13 November 1761 – 16 January 1809) was a British soldier and General, also known as Moore of Corunna.
John VI (Portuguese: João VI; –), nicknamed "the Clement", was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from 1816 to 1825.
Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe Buonaparte (7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844) was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808, as Giuseppe I), and later King of Spain (1808–1813, as José I).
Joseph Fesch, Prince of France (3 January 1763 – 13 May 1839) was a French cardinal and diplomat, Prince of France and a member of the Imperial House of the First French Empire, Peer of France, Roman Prince, and the uncle of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Joseph Fouché, 1st Duc d'Otrante, 1st Comte Fouché (21 May 1759 – 25 December 1820) was a French statesman and Minister of Police under First Consul Bonaparte, who later became Emperor Napoleon.
Marie Julie Clary (26 December 1771 – 7 April 1845), was Queen consort of Spain and the Indies, Naples and Sicily as the spouse of Joseph Bonaparte, who was King of Naples and Sicily from January 1806 to June 1808, and later King of Spain and the Spanish West Indies from 25 June 1808 to June 1813.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich (25 August 1752 – 22 December 1828) was an Austrian soldier.
King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
King of the Romans (Rex Romanorum; König der Römer) was a title used by Syagrius, then by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Holland (Koninkrijk Holland, Royaume de Hollande) was set up by Napoléon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia; Royaume d'Italie) was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
Napoleonic Spain was the part of Spain loyal to Joseph I during the Peninsular War (1808–1813) after the country was partially occupied by French forces.
The Kingdom of Westphalia was a kingdom in Germany, with a population of 2.6 million, that existed from 1807 to 1813.
Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859) was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who was one of the most important of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
La Maddalena (Gallurese: Madalena or La Madalena, Sa Madalena) is a town and comune located on the island with the same name, in northern Sardinia, part of the province of Sassari (SS), Italy.
The French Law of 20 May 1802 was passed that day (30 floréal year X), revoking the Law of 4 February 1794 (16 pluviôse) which had abolished slavery in all the French colonies.
Le souper de Beaucaire was a political pamphlet written by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1793.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
Leoben is a Styrian city in central Austria, located on the Mur river.
Les cinq codes (the five codes) was a set of legal codes established under Napoléon I between 1804 and 1810.
Les Invalides, commonly known as Hôtel national des Invalides (The National Residence of the Invalids), or also as Hôtel des Invalides, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose.
Nob. Maria Letizia Buonaparte née Ramolino (Marie-Lætitia Ramolino, Madame Mère de l'Empereur) (24 August 1750 – 2 February 1836) was an Italian noblewoman, mother of Napoleon I of France.
Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over the German territories of central Europe from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 (by which a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom was created), until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.
Marshal of France (Maréchal de France, plural Maréchaux de France) is a French military distinction, rather than a military rank, that is awarded to generals for exceptional achievements.
Longwood House was the final residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, during his exile on the island of Saint Helena, from 10 December 1815 until his death on 5 May 1821.
Longwood is a settlement and a district of the British island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic.
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.
Louis Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne (July 9, 1769 – February 7, 1834) was a French diplomat, born in Sens.
Louis Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien (duc d'Enghien pronounced) (Louis Antoine Henri; 2 August 1772 – 21 March 1804) was a relative of the Bourbon monarchs of France.
Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (born Luigi Buonaparte; 2 September 1778 – 25 July 1846) was a younger brother of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French.
Louis Charles Antoine Desaix (17 August 176814 June 1800) was a French general and military leader.
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
Louis Tullius Joachim Visconti (February 11, 1791, Rome – December 29, 1853) was an Italian-born French architect and designer.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
Louis-Nicolas d'Avout (10 May 17701 June 1823), better known as Davout, 1st Duke of Auerstaedt, 1st Prince of Eckmühl, was a French general who was Marshal of the Empire during the Napoleonic era.
Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie; 10 March 1776 – 19 July 1810) was Queen of Prussia as the wife of King Frederick William III.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Lucien Bonaparte, Prince Français, 1st Prince of Canino and Musignano (born Luciano Buonaparte; 21 May 1775 – 29 June 1840), the third surviving son of Carlo Bonaparte and his wife Letizia Ramolino, was a French statesman, who served as the final President of the Council of Five Hundred at the end of the French Revolution.
Lunéville (German, obsolete) is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in France.
Claire Élisabeth Jeanne Gravier de Vergennes de Rémusat (5 January 1780 – 16 December 1821) was a French woman of letters.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
La Maison Bonaparte (Corsican and Italian: Casa Buonaparte) is the ancestral home of the Bonaparte family.
The Malet coup of 1812 was an attempted coup d'état in Paris, France, aimed at removing Napoleon I, then campaigning in Russia, from power.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.
Manumission, or affranchisement, is the act of an owner freeing his or her slaves.
Marie Antoinette (born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution.
Marie Louise (Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia; Italian: Maria Luigia Leopoldina Francesca Teresa Giuseppa Lucia; 12 December 1791 – 17 December 1847) was an Austrian archduchess who reigned as Duchess of Parma from 1814 until her death.
Maria Countess Walewska (née Łączyńska; 7 December 1786 – 11 December 1817) was a Polish noblewoman and a mistress of Emperor Napoleon I. In her later years she married count Philippe Antoine d'Ornano, an influential Napoleonic officer.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Marshal of the Empire (Maréchal d'Empire) was a civil dignity during the First French Empire.
Martin Levi van Creveld (מרטין ון קרפלד; born 5 March 1946) is an Israeli military historian and theorist.
Martyn Lyons (born 1946) is emeritus professor of history and European studies at the University of New South Wales, Australia.
Auguste-Maurice Barrès (19 August 1862 – 4 December 1923) was a French novelist, journalist and politician.
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
In France, a mayor (maire in French) is chairperson of the municipal council, which organizes the work and deliberates on municipal matters.
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.
Mesures usuelles (customary measurements) were a system of measurement introduced by Napoleon I in 1812 to act as compromise between the metric system and traditional measurements.
Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.
Michael Friedrich Benedikt Baron von Melas (12 May 1729 – 31 May 1806) was a Transylvanian-born field marshal of Saxon descent for the Austrian Empire during the Napoleonic Wars.
Marshal of the Empire Michel Ney, 1st Duke of Elchingen, 1st Prince of the Moskva (10 January 1769 – 7 December 1815), popularly known as Marshal Ney, was a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Milan Cathedral (Duomo di Milano; Lombard: Domm de Milan) is the cathedral church of Milan, Lombardy, Italy.
A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps.
The military career of Napoleon Bonaparte spanned over 20 years.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
The Montenotte Campaign began on 10 April 1796 with an action at Voltri and ended with the Armistice of Cherasco on 28 April.
Montereau-Fault-Yonne, or simply Montereau, is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
The Napoléon is the colloquial term for a former French gold coin.
Revolutionary France enacted laws that first emancipated Jews in France, establishing them as equal citizens to other Frenchmen.
"Napoleon complex" is a theorised complex occurring in people of short stature.
Napoleon Crossing the Alps (also known as Napoleon at the Saint-Bernard Pass or Bonaparte Crossing the Alps) is the title given to the five versions of an oil on canvas equestrian portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte painted by the French artist Jacques-Louis David between 1801 and 1805.
Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte (20 March 181122 July 1832), Prince Imperial, King of Rome, known in the Austrian court as Franz from 1814 onward, Duke of Reichstadt from 1818, was the son of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
Napoleon's planned invasion of the United Kingdom at the start of the War of the Third Coalition, although never carried out, was a major influence on British naval strategy and the fortification of the coast of southeast England.
In geometry, Napoleon's theorem states that if equilateral triangles are constructed on the sides of any triangle, either all outward or all inward, the centres of those equilateral triangles themselves form an equilateral triangle.
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France and Europe.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The casualties of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815), direct and indirect, break down as follows: Note that the following deaths listed include both killed in action as well as deaths from other causes; Deaths from diseases such as those from wounds; of starvation; exposure; drowning; friendly fire; and atrocities; Medical treatments were changed drastically at this time.
Napoleonland was the nickname given by news media to a French theme park, "Napoleon's Bivouac", proposed by French politician Yves Jégo in 2012.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Convention (Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly.
The National Post is a conservative Canadian English-language newspaper.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
The Nobility of Italy (Nobiltà italiana) comprises individuals and their families of the Italian peninsula, and the islands linked with it, recognized by sovereigns, such as the Holy Roman Emperor, the Holy See, the Kings of Italy, and certain other Italian kings and sovereigns, as members of a class of persons officially enjoying hereditary privileges which distinguished them from other persons and families.
Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.
A novella is a text of written, fictional, narrative prose normally longer than a short story but shorter than a novel, somewhere between 7,500 and 40,000 words.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
In the field of military theory, the operational level of war (also called the operational art, as derived from оперативное искусство, or the operational warfare) represents the level of command that connects the details of tactics with the goals of strategy.
A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights typically founded during or in inspiration of the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades (circa 1099-1291), paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry.
The Order of the Iron Crown (Ordine della Corona Ferrea) was an order of merit that was established on June 5, 1805, by Napoleon Bonaparte under his title of King Napoleon I of Italy.
The Organic Articles (French: "Les Articles Organiques") was a law administering public worship in France.
Orgeat syrup is a sweet syrup made from almonds, sugar, and rose water or orange flower water.
Ormea is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about south of Turin and about southeast of Cuneo.
In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law.
The panacea, named after the Greek goddess of universal remedy Panacea, is any supposed remedy that is claimed to cure all diseases and prolong life indefinitely.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Parole is a temporary release of a prisoner who agrees to certain conditions before the completion of the maximum sentence period, originating from the French parole ("voice, spoken words").
Filippo Antonio Pasquale di Paoli FRS (Pascal Paoli; 6 April 1725 – 5 February 1807) was a Corsican patriot and leader, the president of the Executive Council of the General Diet of the People of Corsica.
Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras (30 June 1755 – 29 January 1829), commonly known as Paul Barras, was a French politician of the French Revolution, and the main executive leader of the Directory regime of 1795–1799.
Paul Delaroche (Paris, 17 July 1797 – 4 November 1856) was a French painter who achieved his greater successes painting history.
Pauline Bonaparte (20 October 1780 – 9 June 1825) was an Italian noblewoman, the first sovereign Duchess of Guastalla in Italy, an imperial French Princess and the Princess consort of Sulmona and Rossano.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Charles Pierre François Augereau, 1st Duc de Castiglione (21 October 1757 – 12 June 1816) was a soldier and general and Marshal of France.
Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de Villeneuve (31 December 1763 – 22 April 1806) was a French naval officer during the Napoleonic Wars.
Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.
Pieter Catharinus Arie Geyl (15 December 1887, Dordrecht – 31 December 1966, Utrecht) was a Dutch historian, well known for his studies in early modern Dutch history and in historiography.
The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
A pitched battle or set piece battle is a battle in which both sides choose the fighting location and time.
The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris, France.
The Plot of the rue Saint-Nicaise, also known as the Machine infernale plot, was an assassination attempt on the life of the First Consul of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, in Paris on 24 December 1800.
The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Pius VII (14 August 1742 – 20 August 1823), born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 14 March 1800 to his death in 1823.
Porphyry is a textural term for an igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals such as feldspar or quartz dispersed in a fine-grained silicate rich, generally aphanitic matrix or groundmass.
Potassium tartrate, dipotassium tartrate or argol has formula K2C4H4O6.
The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state of Italy and in that role represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution.
Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system.
Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine was a title and a function in the Confederation treaty of 1806.
The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department (French: département) system superseded provinces.
A proxy wedding or proxy marriage is a wedding in which one or both of the individuals being united are not physically present, usually being represented instead by other persons.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
Realism was an artistic movement that began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The periods of Restoration and Regeneration in Swiss history last from 1814 to 1847.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Rochefort is a commune in southwestern France, a port on the Charente estuary.
Pierre Roger Ducos (25 July 174716 March 1816), better known as Roger Ducos, was a French political figure during the Revolution and First Empire, a member of the National Convention, and of the Directory.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele, found in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V.
The Route Napoléon is the route taken by Napoléon in 1815 on his return from Elba.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian nobility (дворянство. dvoryanstvo) arose in the 14th century.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
Russian Winter, General Winter, General Frost, or General Snow refers to the winter climate of Russia as a contributing factor to the military failures of several invasions of Russia.
The Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire was one of the Russo-Turkish Wars.
The Saale, also known as the Saxon Saale (Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany and a left-bank tributary of the Elbe.
Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
The Saint-Domingue expedition was a French military expedition sent by Napoleon Bonaparte, then First Consul, under his brother-in-law Charles Victor Emmanuel Leclerc in an attempt to regain French control of the Caribbean colony of Saint-Domingue on the island of Hispaniola, and curtail the measures of independence taken by the former slave Toussaint Louverture.
Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.
Saorge (Saorgio, Saorj, Savurgiu) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France.
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
The Sénat conservateur ("Conservative Senate") was an advisory body established in France during the Consulate following the French Revolution.
Scheele's Green, also called Schloss Green, is chemically a cupric hydrogen arsenite (also called copper arsenite or acidic copper arsenite),.
The Schlieffen Plan (Schlieffen-Plan) was the name given after World War I to the thinking behind the German invasion of France and Belgium on 4 August 1914.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Self-propelled artillery (also called mobile artillery or locomotive artillery) is artillery equipped with its own propulsion system to move towards its target.
Selim III (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثالث Selīm-i sālis) (24 December 1761 – 28 July 1808) was the reform-minded Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Sibylle Aimée Marie-Antoinette Gabrielle de Riquetti de Mirabeau, Comtesse de Martel de Janville (16 August 1849 – 28 June 1932) was a French writer who wrote under the pseudonym Gyp.
The Siege of Acre of 1799 was an unsuccessful French siege of the Ottoman-defended, walled city of Acre (now Akko in modern Israel) and was the turning point of Napoleon's invasion of Egypt and Syria.
During the Siege of Genoa (6 April – 4 June 1800) the Austrians besieged and captured Genoa.
The Siege of Jaffa was fought from 3 to 7 March 1799 between France and the Ottoman Empire.
During the Siege of Mantua, which lasted from 4 July 1796 to 2 February 1797 with a short break, French forces under the overall command of Napoleon Bonaparte besieged and blockaded a large Austrian garrison at Mantua for many months until it surrendered.
The Six Days Campaign (10–15 February 1814) was a final series of victories by the forces of Napoleon I of France as the Sixth Coalition closed in on Paris.
Sovetsk (Сове́тск), before 1946 known as Tilsit (Tilžė; Tylża) in East Prussia, is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the south bank of the Neman River.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, after the French invasion of Spain during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honour people of national significance.
Stéphanie, Grand Duchess of Baden (Stéphanie Louise Adrienne de Beauharnais; August 28, 1789 – January 29, 1860) was the Grand Duchess consort of Baden by marriage to Karl, Grand Duke of Baden.
Sten Gabriel Bernhard Forshufvud (9 February 1903 – 25 June 1985) was a Swedish dentist and physician, and amateur toxicologist (expert on poisons) who formulated and supported the controversial theory that Napoleon was assassinated by a member of his entourage while in exile.
A stock character is a stereotypical fictional character in a work of art such as a novel, play, or film, whom audiences recognize from frequent recurrences in a particular literary tradition.
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.
A strongman is a political leader who rules by force and runs an authoritarian regime or totalitarian regime.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
During the French Revolutionary Wars, the revolutionary armies marched eastward, enveloping Switzerland in their battles against Austria.
Timothy Blanning is a Professor of history and politics at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom.
Tax law is an area of legal study dealing with the constitutional, common-law, statutory, tax treaty, and regulatory rules that constitute the law applicable to taxation.
The Cabildo was the seat of Spanish colonial city hall of New Orleans, Louisiana, and is now the Louisiana State Museum Cabildo.
The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries is an 1812 painting by Jacques-Louis David.
The French Revolution: A History was written by the Scottish essayist, philosopher, and historian Thomas Carlyle.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
On 9 Thermidor Year II (27 July 1794), the French politician Maximilien Robespierre was denounced by members of the National Convention as "a tyrant", leading to Robespierre and twenty-one associates including Louis Antoine de Saint-Just being arrested that night and beheaded on the following day.
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Napoleon, a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution, was bestowed many titles and honours.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture (9 May 1743 – 7 April 1803), also known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda, was the best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution.
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland.
The Treaty of Amiens (French: la paix d'Amiens) temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and Great Britain during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Treaty of Campo Formio (today Campoformido) was signed on 18 October 1797 (27 Vendémiaire VI) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Philipp von Cobenzl as representatives of the French Republic and the Austrian monarchy, respectively.
The Treaty of Fontainebleau was a secret agreement signed on 27 October 1807 in Fontainebleau, France between King Charles IV of Spain and the French Emperor Napoleon.
The Treaty of Fontainebleau was an agreement established in Fontainebleau, France, on 11 April 1814 between Napoleon I and representatives from the Austrian Empire, Russia and Prussia.
The Treaty of Leoben was a general armistice and preliminary peace agreement between the Holy Roman Empire and the First French Republic that ended the War of the First Coalition.
The Treaty of Lunéville was signed in the Treaty House of Lunéville on 9 February 1801.
The Treaty of Schönbrunn (Traité de Schönbrunn; Friede von Schönbrunn), sometimes known as the Peace of Schönbrunn or Treaty of Vienna, was signed between France and Austria at Schönbrunn Palace near Vienna on 14 October 1809.
The Treaty of Versailles was concluded on May 15, 1768 at Versailles between the Republic of Genoa and France.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The Tuileries Palace (Palais des Tuileries) was a royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.
Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube.
The Ulm Campaign was a series of French and Bavarian military maneuvers and battles to outflank and capture an Austrian army in 1805 during the War of the Third Coalition.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Kingdom of the Netherlands (Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) is the unofficial name given to the Kingdom of the Netherlands as it existed between 1815 and 1839.
The University of North Carolina is a multi-campus public university system composed of all 16 of North Carolina's public universities, as well as the NC School of Science and Mathematics, the nation's first public residential high school for gifted students.
A usurper is an illegitimate or controversial claimant to power, often but not always in a monarchy.
Valence (Valença) is a commune in southeastern France, the capital of the Drôme department and within the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region.
Viaticum is a term used especially in the Catholic Church for the Eucharist (also called Holy Communion) administered, with or without Anointing of the Sick (also called Extreme Unction), to a person who is dying, and is thus a part of the Last Rites.
Victor Davis Hanson (born September 5, 1953) is an American classicist, military historian, columnist, and farmer.
Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861.
Victorien Sardou (5 September 1831 – 8 November 1908) was a French dramatist.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vincent Archibald Patrick Cronin FRSL (24 May 1924 – 25 January 2011) was a British historical, cultural, and biographical writer, best known for his biographies of Louis XIV, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, Catherine the Great, and Napoleon, as well as for his books on the Renaissance.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Walcheren is a region and former island in the Dutch province of Zeeland at the mouth of the Scheldt estuary.
The Walcheren Campaign was an unsuccessful British expedition to the Netherlands in 1809 intended to open another front in the Austrian Empire's struggle with France during the War of the Fifth Coalition.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
The War in the Vendée (1793; Guerre de Vendée) was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution.
The War of the Fifth Coalition was fought in 1809 by a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against Napoleon's French Empire and Bavaria.
The War of the First Coalition (Guerre de la Première Coalition) is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic.
The Fourth Coalition fought against Napoleon's French Empire and was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807.
The War of the Oranges (Guerra das Laranjas; Guerre des Oranges; Guerra de las Naranjas) was a brief conflict in 1801 in which Spanish forces, instigated by the government of France, and ultimately supported by the French military, invaded Portugal.
The War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) was the second war on revolutionary France by the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Naples, various German monarchies and Sweden.
In the War of the Sixth Coalition (March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German states finally defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba.
The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806.
The Western Approaches is an approximately rectangular area of the Atlantic ocean lying immediately to the west of Ireland and parts of Great Britain.
Westphalian sovereignty, or state sovereignty, is the principle of international law that each nation-state has exclusive sovereignty over its territory.
A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Znojmo (Znaim) is a major town in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic, the administrative capital of the Znojmo District.
13 Vendémiaire Year 4 (5 October 1795 in the French Republican Calendar) is the name given to a battle between the French Revolutionary troops and Royalist forces in the streets of Paris.
The 1st Artillery Regiment is a regiment of artillery in the French Army.
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