134 relations: Acetylcarnitine, Acetylcholine, Adolescence, Adverse effect, Agonist, Alcohol, Allele, Alpha motor neuron, Amphetamine, Anemia, Anger, Armodafinil, Atomoxetine, Atony, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmunity, Automatic behavior, Basingstoke, Blinded experiment, Carnitine, Cataplexy, Cathepsin H, Central nervous system, Cerebrospinal fluid, Chromosome 6, Chronic condition, Circadian rhythm, Clarithromycin, Clomipramine, Cystic fibrosis, DbSNP, Department of Health and Social Care, Dextroamphetamine, Diagnosis, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diphenhydramine, DNMT1, Dream, DSM-5, EIF3G, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, European Journal of Human Genetics, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Falling (accident), Fear, Finland, Flumazenil, Food and Drug Administration, ..., GABA receptor, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid, GlaxoSmithKline, Greek language, H3 receptor antagonist, Hallucination, Hampshire, Heart failure, Histamine, HLA-DQB1, Human leukocyte antigen, Hyperpolarization (biology), Hypersomnia, Hypnagogia, Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, Idiopathic hypersomnia, Imipramine, Insomnia, International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Jean-Baptiste-Édouard Gélineau, Kleine–Levin syndrome, Lateral hypothalamus, Laughter, Locus (genetics), Lumbar puncture, Major depressive disorder, Medical Products Agency (Sweden), Methylphenidate, Modafinil, Multiple sclerosis, Multiple Sleep Latency Test, National Health Service (England), National Institute for Health and Welfare (Finland), Nature Genetics, Neural oscillation, Neurological disorder, Neurology, Neuropeptide, Neuropsychopharmacology (journal), Neurotransmitter, Non-rapid eye movement sleep, Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Orexin, Orexin receptor, Orexin-A, OX40 ligand, P2RY11, Palgrave Macmillan, Pandemrix, Parkinson's disease, Pitolisant, Polysomnography, Proprioception, Protriptyline, Psychiatry, Psychological stress, Rapid eye movement sleep, Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, Recreational drug use, Reticular formation, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Skeletal muscle, Sleep, Sleep apnea, Sleep disorder, Sleep hygiene, Sleep medicine, Sleep onset latency, Sleep paralysis, Sleep study, Slow-wave sleep, Sodium oxybate, Stimulant, Supertaster, Suvorexant, The New England Journal of Medicine, TRA (gene), Traffic collision, Tricyclic antidepressant, United States, Vaccine, Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, Weight gain. Expand index (84 more) » « Shrink index
Acetyl-L-carnitine, ALCAR or ALC, is an acetylated form of L-carnitine.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Alpha (α) motor neurons (also called alpha motoneurons), are large, multipolar lower motor neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Anger or wrath is an intense negative emotion.
Armodafinil (trade name Nuvigil) is the enantiopure compound of the eugeroic modafinil (Provigil).
Atomoxetine, sold under the brand name Strattera among others, is a norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor which is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
In medicine, atony (also atonia) is a condition in which a muscle has lost its strength.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
Automatic behavior, from the Greek automatos or self-acting, is the spontaneous production of often purposeless verbal or motor behavior without conscious self-control or self-censorship.
Basingstoke is the largest town in the modern county of Hampshire (Southampton and Portsmouth being cities.) It is situated in south central England, and lies across a valley at the source of the River Loddon.
A blind or blinded-experiment is an experiment in which information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known.
Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them.
Cataplexy is a sudden and transient episode of muscle weakness accompanied by full conscious awareness, typically triggered by emotions such as laughing, crying, or terror.
Cathepsin H is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSH gene.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Clarithromycin, sold under the brand name Biaxin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections.
Clomipramine, sold under the brand name Anafranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database (dbSNP) is a free public archive for genetic variation within and across different species developed and hosted by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in collaboration with the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI).
The Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) is a department of Her Majesty's Government, responsible for government policy on health and adult social care matters in England, along with a few elements of the same matters which are not otherwise devolved to the Scottish Government, Welsh Government or Northern Ireland Executive.
Dextroamphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.
DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups to specific CpG structures in DNA, a process called DNA methylation.
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (eIF3g) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF3G gene.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is a scale intended to measure daytime sleepiness that is measured by use of a very short questionnaire.
The European Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group on behalf of the European Society of Human Genetics.
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even during the day after apparently adequate or even prolonged nighttime sleep.
Falling is the second leading cause of accidental death worldwide and is a major cause of personal injury, especially for the elderly.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Flumazenil (also known as flumazepil, code name Ro 15-1788) is a selective benzodiazepine receptor antagonist available by injection and intranasal.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and a psychoactive drug.
GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
An H3 receptor antagonist is a classification of drugs used to block the action of histamine at the H3 receptor.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Hampshire (abbreviated Hants) is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1, also known as HLA-DQB1, is a human gene and also denotes the genetic locus that contains this gene.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.
Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.
Hypersomnia, or hypersomnolence, is a neurological disorder of excessive time spent sleeping or excessive sleepiness.
Hypnagogia, also referred to as "hypnagogic hallucinations", is the experience of the transitional state from wakefulness to sleep: the hypnagogic state of consciousness, during the onset of sleep.
Orexin receptor type 1 (Ox1R or OX1), also known as hypocretin receptor type 1 (HcrtR1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HCRTR1 gene.
Idiopathic hypersomnia is a neurological disorder which is characterized primarily by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS).
Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used mainly in the treatment of depression.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) is "a primary diagnostic, epidemiological and coding resource for clinicians and researchers in the field of sleep and sleep medicine".
Jean-Baptiste-Édouard Gélineau (23 December 1828 – 2 March 1906) was the French physician who first described narcolepsy.
Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS), also known as Sleeping Beauty syndrome, is a rare sleep disorder characterized by persistent episodic hypersomnia and cognitive or mood changes.
The lateral hypothalamus, also called the lateral hypothalamic area, contains the primary orexinergic nucleus within the hypothalamus that widely projects throughout the nervous system; this system of neurons mediates an array of cognitive and physical processes, such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception, and regulating body temperature, digestive functions, and blood pressure, among many others.
Laughter is a physical reaction in humans consisting typically of rhythmical, often audible contractions of the diaphragm and other parts of the respiratory system.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, most commonly to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
The Medical Products Agency (Läkemedelsverket) is the government agency in Sweden responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and sale of medicinal drugs, medical devices and cosmetics.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) is a sleep disorder diagnostic tool.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded national healthcare system for England and one of the four National Health Services for each constituent country of the United Kingdom.
The National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL, Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos, Institutet för hälsa och välfärd) is a Finnish research and development institute operating under the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.
Nature Genetics is a scientific journal founded as part of the ''Nature'' family of journals in 1992.
Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.
Neuropsychopharmacology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) is, collectively, sleep stages 1–3, previously known as stages 1–4.
A norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI, NERI) or adrenergic reuptake inhibitor (ARI), is a type of drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET).
Orexin, also known as hypocretin, is a neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness, and appetite.
The orexin receptor (also referred to as the hypocretin receptor) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that binds the neuropeptide orexin.
Orexin-A, also known as hypocretin-1, is a naturally occurring neuropeptide and orexin isoform.
OX40L is the ligand for CD134 and is expressed on such cells as DC2s (a subtype of dendritic cells) enabling amplification of Th2 cell differentiation.
P2Y purinoceptor 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RY11 gene.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Pandemrix is an influenza vaccine for influenza pandemics, such as the H1N1 2009 flu pandemic colloquially called the swine flu.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Pitolisant, also known as tiprolisant, and sold under the brand name Wakix, is a potent and selective inverse agonist of the histamine H3 receptor (Ki.
Polysomnography (PSG), a type of sleep study, is a multi-parametric test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
Protriptyline, sold under the brand name Vivactil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), specifically a secondary amine, indicated for the treatment of depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder (more specifically a parasomnia) in which people act out their dreams.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
Sleep hygiene is the recommended behavioral and environmental practice that is intended to promote better quality sleep.
Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders.
In sleep science, sleep onset latency (SOL) is the length of time that it takes to accomplish the transition from full wakefulness to sleep, normally to the lightest of the non-REM sleep stages.
Sleep paralysis is when, during awakening or falling asleep, a person is aware but unable to move or speak.
Sleep studies are tests that record the body activity during sleep.
Slow-wave sleep (SWS), often referred to as deep sleep, consists of stage three (combined stages 3 and 4) of non-rapid eye movement sleep.
Sodium oxybate is a prescription medication used to treat two symptoms of narcolepsy: sudden muscle weakness and excessive daytime sleepiness.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
A supertaster is a person who experiences the sense of taste with far greater intensity than average, with some studies showing an increased sensitivity to bitter tastes.
Suvorexant, sold under the trade name Belsomra, is a medication for the treatment of insomnia.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
T-cell receptor alpha locus is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRA gene, also known as TCRA or TRA@.
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), also known as the intermediate nucleus of the preoptic area (IPA), is a small cluster of neurons situated in the anterior hypothalamus, sitting just above and to the side of the optic chiasm in the brain of humans and other animals.
Weight gain is an increase in body weight.
Always sleeping (narcolepsy), Gelineau disease, Hypnolepsy, Nacrolepsy, Narcalepsy, Narcaleptic, Narcelepsy, Narcolepsie, Narcolepsy without cataplexy, Narcolepsy-Cataplexy, Narcoleptic, Paroxysmal sleep.