262 relations: Acerbo Law, Achille Starace, Adolf Hitler, Africa, Albania, Albanians, Aldo Vidussoni, Alessandro Pavolini, Alfred Haighton, Algeria, Allies of World War I, Anarchism, Ancient Rome, Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, António de Oliveira Salazar, Anti-nationalism, Antonio Salandra, Aristotle Kallis, Arthur Fonjallaz, Augusto Turati, Augustus, Austria-Hungary, Benito Mussolini, Bernd Jürgen Fischer, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, Black, Blackshirts, Brothers of Italy, Cambridge University Press, Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Canton of Grisons, Canton of Ticino, Canton of Valais, Capitoline Wolf, Carlo Scorza, Central Powers, Cesare Maria De Vecchi, Cesare Rossi (politician), Chamber of Deputies (Italy), Chamber of Fasci and Corporations, Chameria, Class collaboration, Class conflict, Concordat, Confederazione Generale del Lavoro, Constantine (departement), Constitution of Italy, Corporatism, Corsica, Coup d'état, ..., Cult of personality, Dalmatia, Death of Benito Mussolini, Declaration of war, Democratic republic, Dino Grandi, Dino Perrone Compagni, Duce, Duchy of Milan, Emilio De Bono, Emperor of the French, Epirus (region), Ernesto Giménez Caballero, Ettore Muti, Falangism, Far-right politics, Fasces, Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, Fascio, Fascism, Fascist Revolutionary Party, Fascist syndicalism, Figurehead, First marshal of the empire, Fourth Council of the Lateran, Francesco Giunta, Free market, French Revolution, Gabriele D'Annunzio, Gaius Marius, Galeazzo Ciano, George Bernard Shaw, Georges Sorel, German Empire, Ghostwriter, Giacomo Matteotti, Gianfranco Fini, Giorgia Meloni, Giovanni Giolitti, Giovanni Giuriati, Giovanni Marinelli, Gioventù Italiana del Littorio, Giovinezza, Giuseppe Bastianini, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Giuseppe Mazzini, Glossary of Fascist Italy, Gotthard Pass, Gran Sasso raid, Grand Council of Fascism, H. A. Sinclair de Rochemont, Hinterrhein District, Holy See, House of Savoy, Hubert Renfro Knickerbocker, Human sexuality, Ideology, Il Popolo d'Italia, Illyrians, Imperialism, Internment, Interwar period, Ionian Islands, Israel, Italian Empire, Italian Fascism, Italian general election, 1921, Italian general election, 1924, Italian general election, 1929, Italian general election, 1934, Italian general election, 1972, Italian general election, 2013, Italian imperialism under Fascism, Italian irredentism, Italian Libya, Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Italian nationalism, Italian Nationalist Association, Italian Peninsula, Italian Regency of Carnaro, Italian Social Movement, Italian Social Republic, Italian Socialist Party, Italian unification, Italianization, Italians, Italiotes, Italo Balbo, Italy, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Joseph de Maistre, Julius Caesar, King of Italy, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Italy under Fascism (1922–1943), Kingdom of Sardinia, Kosovo, Laissez-faire, Lateran Treaty, Liberalism, Libya, Lockout (industry), Luigi Facta, Malta, Maltese language, March on Rome, Marxism, Mediterranean Sea, Mesocco Castle, Michele Bianchi, Milan, Naples, Napoleon III, National Alliance (Italy), National Blocs, National Fascist Movement, National Front (Switzerland), National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement, National List (Italy), National Romanian Fascio, National syndicalism, Nazi Germany, Nazi Party, North Africa, One-party state, Opera Nazionale Balilla, Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro, Organized crime, Palazzo della Farnesina, Palazzo Venezia, Papal States, Paramilitary, Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Petrarch, Philip Rees, Pietro Badoglio, Po (river), Political party, Political science, Pope, Pope Innocent III, Power (social and political), Praxis (process), Prime minister, Prime Minister of Italy, Puberty, Public administration, Quadrumvirs, Reactionary, Renaissance, Republic of Venice, Republican Fascist Party, Republicanism, Right-wing politics, Rijeka, Roberto Farinacci, Roberto Forges Davanzati, Roman Empire, Romanitas, Romansh people, Rome, Russian Fascist Organization, Salò, Sammarinese Fascist Party, San Marino, Savoy, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Sicilian Mafia, Sigmund Freud, Silvio Berlusconi, Simon Wiesenthal Center, Slovenes, Slovenia, Socialism, Socialist mode of production, Sorelianism, South Slavs, Southern Italy, Spazio vitale, Squadrismo, State of emergency, Statuto Albertino, Syncretic politics, Syndicate, Tetrarchy, The Doctrine of Fascism, The Economist, The People of Freedom, Third Position, Third Rome, Thomas Edison, Totalitarianism, Tradition, Traditionalist conservatism, Treaty of London (1915), Treaty of Rapallo (1920), Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919), Triple Alliance (1882), Triple Entente, Triumvirate, Trivulzio, Tunisia, Val Mesolcina, Vatican City, Venetian rule in the Ionian Islands, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Western Alps, Winston Churchill, World War I, World War II, Yad Vashem. Expand index (212 more) » « Shrink index
The Acerbo Law was an Italian electoral law proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo and passed by the Italian Parliament in November 1923.
Achille Starace (18 August 1889 – 29 April 1945) was a prominent leader of Fascist Italy before and during World War II.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Aldo Vidussoni (21 January 1914, in Fogliano Redipuglia, in Gorizia – 30 November 1982, in Cagliari) was an Italian lawyer and Fascist politician.
Alessandro Pavolini (September 27, 1903 – April 28, 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and essayist, notable for his involvement in the Fascist government, during World War II, and also, for his cruelty against the opponents of fascism.
Coenraad Alfred Augustus Haighton (26 October 1896 – 13 April 1943) was a millionaire businessman and the leader of the Netherlands' first fascist movement.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (or Aliança Luso-Britânica, "Luso-British Alliance", also known in Portugal as Aliança Inglesa, "English Alliance"), ratified at the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal, is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force – with the earliest treaty dating back to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373.
António de Oliveira Salazar (28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968.
Anti-nationalism denotes the sentiments associated with an opposition to nationalism.
Antonio Salandra (13 August 1853 – 9 December 1931) was a conservative Italian politician who served as the 33rd Prime Minister of Italy between 1914 and 1916.
Aristotle Kallis is a British historian who specialises in modern European history, with an emphasis on the study of inter-war German and Italian fascism, as well as propaganda in Nazi Germany.
Arthur Fonjallaz (2 January 1875 – 24 January 1944) was a Swiss military figure, publisher and fascist.
Augusto Turati (16 April 1888 – 27 August 1955) was an Italian journalist and Fascist politician.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bernd Jürgen Fischer (born 27 January 1952) is historian and professor of history at Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne.
The Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 is a reference book by Philip Rees, on leading people in the various far right movements since 1890.
Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light.
The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.
Brothers of Italy (Fratelli d'Italia, FdI) is a national-conservative political party in Italy led by Giorgia Meloni.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri (10 August 1810 – 6 June 1861), generally known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.
The canton of (the) Grisons, or canton of Graubünden is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Valais (Kanton Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps.
The Capitoline Wolf (Italian: Lupa Capitolina) is a bronze sculpture of the mythical she-wolf suckling the twins, Romulus and Remus, from the legend of the founding of Rome.
Carlo Scorza (15 June 1897, Paola, Province of Cosenza – 23 December 1988) was a prominent member of the National Fascist Party of Italy during World War II.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Cesare Maria De Vecchi, 1st Conte di Val Cismon (14 November 1884 – 23 June 1959) was an Italian soldier, colonial administrator and Fascist politician.
Cesare Rossi (born 21 September 1887 in Pescia – died 9 August 1967 in Rome) was an Italian fascist leader who later became estranged from the regime.
The Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei deputati) is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy (the other being the Senate of the Republic).
Chamber of Fasci and Corporations (Camera dei Fasci e delle Corporazioni) was the lower house of the legislature of the Kingdom of Italy from March 23, 1939 to August 2, 1943, during the height of the regime of Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party.
Chameria (Çamëria; Τσαμουριά Tsamouriá; Çamlık) is a term used today mostly by Albanians for parts of the coastal region of Epirus in southern Albania and the historical Greek region of Epirus, traditionally associated with an Albanian speaking population called Chams.
Class collaboration is a principle of social organization based upon the belief that the division of society into a hierarchy of social classes is a positive and essential aspect of civilization.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
A concordat is a convention between the Holy See and a sovereign state that defines the relationship between the Catholic Church and the state in matters that concern both,René Metz, "What is Canon Law?" (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1960), pg.
Confederazione Generale del Lavoro (it: General Confederation of Labor, the CGL Rosso, CGdL) was an Italian labor union, founded in 1906, under the initiative of socialist militants.
Constantine is a former French département in Algeria which existed between 1848 and 1962.
The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against.
Corporatism is the organization of a society by corporate groups and agricultural, labour, military or scientific syndicates and guilds on the basis of their common interests.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The death of Benito Mussolini, the deposed Italian fascist dictator, occurred on 28 April 1945, in the final days of World War II in Europe, when he was summarily executed by Italian partisans in the small village of Giulino di Mezzegra in northern Italy.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.
A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy.
Dino Grandi (4 June 1895 – 21 May 1988), 1st Conte di Mordano, was an Italian Fascist politician, minister of justice, minister of foreign affairs and president of parliament.
Marquis Dino Perrone Compagni (born 22 October 1879 in Florence – died 5 January 1950 in Florence) was a leading figure in the early years of Italian fascism.
Duce ("leader") is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux, and cognate with duke.
The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy.
Emilio De Bono (19 March 1866 – 11 January 1944) was an Italian General, fascist activist, Marshal, and member of the Fascist Grand Council (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo).
Emperor of the French (French: Empereur des Français) was the title used by the House of Bonaparte starting when Napoleon Bonaparte was given the title of Emperor on 18 May 1804 by the French Senate and was crowned emperor of the French on 2 December 1804 at the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, in Paris, with the Crown of Napoleon.
Epirus (Ήπειρος, Ípeiros), is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region in northwestern Greece.
Ernesto Giménez Caballero (2 August 1899 in Madrid – 14 May 1988 in Madrid), also known as Gecé, was a Spanish writer, film director, diplomat, and pioneer of Falangism.
Ettore Muti (2 May 1902 – 24 August 1943) was an Italian aviator and Fascist politician.
Falangism (falangismo) was the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and afterwards of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (both known simply as the "Falange") as well as derivatives of it in other countries.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
Fasces ((Fasci,, a plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle") is a bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe with its blade emerging. The fasces had its origin in the Etruscan civilization and was passed on to ancient Rome, where it symbolized a magistrate's power and jurisdiction. The axe originally associated with the symbol, the Labrys (Greek: λάβρυς, lábrys) the double-bitted axe, originally from Crete, is one of the oldest symbols of Greek civilization. To the Romans, it was known as a bipennis. Commonly, the symbol was associated with female deities, from prehistoric through historic times. The image has survived in the modern world as a representation of magisterial or collective power, law and governance. The fasces frequently occurs as a charge in heraldry: it is present on the reverse of the U.S. Mercury dime coin and behind the podium in the United States House of Representatives; and it was the origin of the name of the National Fascist Party in Italy (from which the term fascism is derived). During the first half of the 20th century both the fasces and the swastika (each symbol having its own unique ancient religious and mythological associations) became heavily identified with the authoritarian/fascist political movements of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. During this period the swastika became deeply stigmatized, but the fasces did not undergo a similar process. The fact that the fasces remained in use in many societies after World War II may have been due to the fact that prior to Mussolini the fasces had already been adopted and incorporated within the governmental iconography of many governments outside Italy. As such, its use persists as an accepted form of governmental and other iconography in various contexts. (The swastika remains in common usage in parts of Asia for religious purposes which are also unrelated to early 20th century European fascism.) The fasces is sometimes confused with the related term fess, which in French heraldry is called a fasce.
The Italian Fasci of Combat (Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, FIC), until 1919 called Fasci of Revolutionary Action (Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria, FAR), was an Italian fascio organization, created by Benito Mussolini in 1914.
Fascio (plural fasci) is an Italian word literally meaning "a bundle" or "a sheaf", and figuratively "league", and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Fascist Revolutionary Party (Partito Fascista Rivoluzionario, PFR) was the first political party established by Benito Mussolini, founded in January 1915, as described in his 1933 "The Political and Social Doctrine of Fascism".
Fascist syndicalism (related to national syndicalism) was a trade syndicate movement (syndicat means trade union in French) that rose out of the pre-World War II provenance of the revolutionary syndicalism movement led mostly by Edmondo Rossoni, Sergio Panunzio, A. O. Olivetti, Michele Bianchi, Alceste De Ambris, Paolo Orano, Massimo Rocca, and Guido Pighetti, under the influence of French Marxist Georges Sorel, who was considered the “‘metaphysician’ of syndicalism.” The Fascist Syndicalists differed from other branches of syndicalism in that they generally favored class struggle, worker-controlled factories and hostility to industrialists, which lead historians to portray them as “leftist fascist idealists” who “differed radically from right fascists.” Generally considered one of the more radical Fascist syndicalists in Italy, Rossoni was the “leading exponent of fascist syndicalism.”, and sought to infuse nationalism with “class struggle.”.
In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power.
First Marshal of the Empire (Italian: Primo Maresciallo dell'Impero) was a military rank established by the Italian parliament on March 30, 1938.
The Fourth Council of the Lateran was convoked by Pope Innocent III with the papal bull Vineam domini Sabaoth of 19 April 1213, and the Council gathered at Rome's Lateran Palace beginning 11 November 1215.
Francesco Giunta (21 March 1887 – 8 June 1971) was an Italian Fascist politician.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
General Gabriele D'Annunzio, Prince of Montenevoso, Duke of Gallese (12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938), sometimes spelled d'Annunzio, was an Italian writer, poet, journalist, playwright and soldier during World War I. He occupied a prominent place in Italian literature from 1889 to 1910 and later political life from 1914 to 1924.
Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (18 March 1903 – 11 January 1944) was Foreign Minister of Fascist Italy from 1936 until 1943 and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
Georges Eugène Sorel (2 November 1847 – 29 August 1922) was a French philosopher and theorist of Sorelianism.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
A ghostwriter is hired to write literary or journalistic works, speeches, or other texts that are officially credited to another person as the author.
Giacomo Matteotti (22 May 1885 – 10 June 1924) was an Italian socialist politician.
Gianfranco Fini (born 3 January 1952) is an Italian politician, former President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, former leader of the conservative National Alliance, the post-fascist Italian Social Movement and the center-right Future and Freedom party.
Giorgia Meloni (born 15 January 1977) is an Italian politician and journalist, leader of Brothers of Italy, a national conservative party in Italy.
Giovanni Giolitti (27 October 1842 – 17 July 1928) was an Italian statesman.
Giovanni Giuriati (4 August 1876 – 6 May 1970) was an Italian fascist politician.
Giovanni Marinelli (18 October 1879 – 11 January 1944) was an Italian Fascist political leader.
The Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL) (English: Italian Youth of the Lictor) was the consolidated youth movement of the National Fascist Party of Italy that was established in 1937, to replace the Opera Nazionale Balilla (ONB) It was created to supervise and influence the minds of all youths, that was effectively directed against the influence of the Catholic Church on youths.
"Giovinezza" (Italian for youth) is the official hymn of the Italian National Fascist Party, regime, and army, and was the unofficial national anthem of Italy between 1924 and 1943.
Giuseppe Bastianini (8 March 1899 – 17 December 1961) was an Italian politician and diplomat.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
Giuseppe Mazzini (22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, activist for the unification of Italy and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement.
This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans in the Italian language and Latin language which were specifically used in Fascist Italian monarchy and Italian Social Republic.
The Gotthard Pass or St.
The Gran Sasso raid or Operation Eiche ("Oak") was the rescue of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini by German paratroopers led by Major Otto-Harald Mors and Waffen-SS commandos in September 1943, during World War II.
The Grand Council of Fascism (aka: Fascist Grand Council) was the main body of Mussolini's Fascist government in Italy.
Hugues Alexandre Sinclair de Rochemont (Hilversum, January 6, 1901 – March 13, 1942) was a Dutch fascist and later a collaborator with the Nazis.
Hinterrhein District is a former administrative district in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
Hubert Renfro Knickerbocker (January 31, 1898 – July 12, 1949) was an American journalist and author.
Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
Il Popolo d'Italia ("The People of Italy"), was an Italian newspaper which published editions everyday with the exception for Mondays founded by Benito Mussolini in 1914, after his split from the Italian Socialist Party.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek, Katharevousa: Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi; Isole Ionie) are a group of islands in Greece.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Italian Empire (Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
General elections were held in Italy on 15 May 1921.
General elections were held in Italy on 6 April 1924.
General elections were held in Italy on 24 March 1929.
General elections were held in Italy on 26 March 1934.
General elections were held in Italy on 7 May 1972, to select the Sixth Republican Parliament.
A general election took place on 24–25 February 2013 to determine the 630 members of the Chamber of Deputies and the 315 elective members of the Senate of the Republic for the 17th Parliament of the Italian Republic.
Imperialism, colonialism and irredentism played an important role in the foreign policy of Fascist Italy.
Italian irredentism (irredentismo italiano) was a nationalist movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Italy with irredentist goals which promoted the unification of geographic areas in which indigenous ethnic Italians and Italian-speaking persons formed a majority, or substantial minority, of the population.
Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.
The Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs is the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Italy.
Italian nationalism builds upon the idea that Italians are the ethnic, cultural, and linguistic successors of the ancient Romans who inhabited the Italian Peninsula for over a millennium.
The Italian Nationalist Association (Associazione Nazionalista Italiana, ANI) was Italy's first nationalist political movement founded in 1910, under the influence of Italian nationalists such as Enrico Corradini and Giovanni Papini.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
The Italian Regency of Carnaro (Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro) was a self-proclaimed state in the city of Fiume (now Rijeka, Croatia) led by Gabriele d'Annunzio between 1919 and 1920.
The Italian Social Movement (MSI), later the Italian Social Movement – National Right (Movimento Sociale Italiano – Destra Nazionale, MSI–DN), was a neo-fascist and post-fascist political party in Italy.
The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana,; RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.
The Italian Socialist Party (PSI) was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
Italianization (Italianizzazione; talijanizacija; poitaljančevanje; Italianisierung; Ιταλοποίηση) is the spread of Italian culture, people, or language, either by integration or assimilation.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
The Italiotes (Ἰταλιῶται) were the pre-Roman Greek-speaking inhabitants of the Italian Peninsula, between Naples and Sicily.
Italo Balbo (Ferrara, 6 June 1896 – Tobruk, 28 June 1940) was an Italian Blackshirt (Camicie Nere, or CCNN) leader who served as Italy's Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria), Governor-General of Libya, Commander-in-Chief of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI), and the "heir apparent" to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946), more commonly known as Joachim von Ribbentrop, was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.
Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (1 April 1753 – 26 February 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat, who advocated social hierarchy and monarchy in the period immediately following the French Revolution.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party government from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
The Lateran Treaty (Patti Lateranensi; Pacta Lateranensia) was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the "Roman Question".
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
A lockout is a temporary work stoppage or denial of employment initiated by the management of a company during a labor dispute.
Luigi Facta (16 November 1861 – 5 November 1930) was an Italian politician, journalist and last Prime Minister of Italy before the leadership of Benito Mussolini.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
The March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mesocco Castle is a ruined castle in the municipality of Mesocco of the Canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Michele Bianchi (22 July 1883 – 3 February 1930) was an Italian revolutionary syndicalist leader who took a position in the Unione Italiana del Lavoro (UIL) He was among the founding members of the Fascist movement.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale, AN) was a conservativeLuciano Bardi - Piero Ignazi - Oreste Massari, I partiti italiani, Egea 2007, pp.
The National Blocs (Blocchi Nazionali) was a right-wing coalition of political parties in Italy formed for the 1921 general election.
The National Fascist Movement (Mișcarea Națională Fascistă, MNF) was a Romanian political movement formed in 1923 by the merger of the National Romanian Fascia and the National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement.
The National Front was a far right political party in Switzerland that flourished during the 1930s.
The National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement (Mișcarea Națională Culturală și Economică Italo-Română) or National Italo-Romanian Fascist Movement (Mișcarea Națională Fascistă Italo-Română) was a short-lived Fascist movement active in Romania during the early 1920s.
The National List (Lista Nazionale) also known as Listone (literally "Big List") was a Fascist and nationalist coalition of political parties in Italy put together for the 1924 general election, and led by Benito Mussolini, Prime Minister of Italy and leader of the National Fascist Party.
The National Romanian Fascio (Fascia Națională Română) was a small fascist group that was active in Romania for a short time during the 1920s.
National syndicalism is an adaptation of syndicalism to suit the social agenda of integral nationalism.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Opera Nazionale Balilla (ONB) was an Italian Fascist youth organization functioning between 1926 and 1937, when it was absorbed into the Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL), a youth section of the National Fascist Party.
The National Recreational Club (Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro, or OND) was the Italian Fascist leisure and recreational organization for adults.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
The Palazzo della Farnesina is an Italian government building located between Monte Mario and the Tiber River in the Foro Italico area in Rome, Italy.
The Palazzo Venezia, formerly Palace of St.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
Philip Rees (born 1941) is a British writer and librarian in charge of acquisitions at the J. B. Morrell Library, University of York.
Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa.
The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.
A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Praxis (from translit) is the process by which a theory, lesson, or skill is enacted, embodied, or realized.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Quadrumvirs (quadrumviri) may refer to.
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The Republican Fascist Party (Partito Fascista Repubblicano, PFR) was a political party in Italy led by Benito Mussolini during the German occupation of Central and Northern Italy and was the sole legitimate and ruling party of the Italian Social Republic.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Rijeka (Fiume; Reka; Sankt Veit am Flaum; see other names) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).
Roberto Farinacci (16 October 1892 – 28 April 1945) was a leading Italian Fascist politician, and important member of the National Fascist Party (PNF) before and during World War II, and one of its ardent anti-Semitic proponents; Christopher Hibbert describes him as "slavishly pro-German".
Roberto Forges Davanzati (23 February 1880, Naples1 June 1936, Rome) was an Italian journalist, academic and politician.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romanitas is the collection of political and cultural concepts and practices by which the Romans defined themselves.
The Romansh people (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) are a people and ethnic group of Switzerland, native speakers of the Romansh language.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Russian Fascist Organization (RFO) was the name adopted by a Russian émigré group active in Manchuria before World War II.
Salò is a town and comune in the Province of Brescia in the region of Lombardy (northern Italy) on the banks of Lake Garda, on which it has the longest promenade.
The Sammarinese Fascist Party (Partito Fascista Sammarinese) or PFS was a fascist political party that ruled San Marino from 1923 to 1943.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
The Sicilian Mafia, also known as simply the Mafia and frequently referred to by members as Cosa Nostra (this thing of ours), is a criminal syndicate in Sicily, Italy.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian media tycoon and politician who has served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments.
The Simon Wiesenthal Center (often abbreviated SWC), with headquarters in Los Angeles, California, United States, was established in 1977 and named for Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal.
The Slovenes, also called as Slovenians (Slovenci), are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovenian as their first language.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.
Sorelianism is advocacy for or support of the ideology and thinking of French revolutionary syndicalist Georges Sorel.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
Spazio vitale (living space) was the territorial expansionist concept of Italian Fascism.
Squadrismo consisted of Italian fascist squads, mostly from rural areas, who were led by the ''ras'' from 1918–1924.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
The Statuto Albertino (English: Albertine Statute), was the constitution that Charles Albert of Sardinia conceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia in Italy on 4 March 1848.
Syncretic politics, or spectral-syncretic, refers to politics that combine elements from across the conventional left–right political spectrum.
A syndicate is a self-organizing group of individuals, companies, corporations or entities formed to transact some specific business, to pursue or promote a shared interest.
The term "tetrarchy" (from the τετραρχία, tetrarchia, "leadership of four ") describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.
"The Doctrine of Fascism" ("La dottrina del fascismo") is an essay attributed to Benito Mussolini.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The People of Freedom (Il Popolo della Libertà, PdL) was a centre-right political party in Italy.
Third Position is an ideology that was developed in the late 20th century by political parties including Terza Posizione in Italy and Troisième Voie in France.
Third Rome is the hypothetical successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome").
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
Traditionalist conservatism, also known as classical conservatism and traditional conservatism, is a political philosophy emphasizing the need for the principles of a transcendent moral order, manifested through certain natural laws to which society ought to conform in a prudent manner.
London Pact (Patto di Londra), or more correctly, the Treaty of London, 1915, was a secret pact between the Triple Entente and the Kingdom of Italy.
The Treaty of Rapallo was a treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed Yugoslavia in 1929), signed to solve the dispute over some territories in the former Austrian Littoral in the upper Adriatic, and in Dalmatia.
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the Republic of German-Austria on the other.
The Triple Alliance was a secret agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
A triumvirate (triumvirātus) is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as triumvirs (triumviri).
Trivulzio is an Italian surname, and may refer to: The Trivulzio family, a noble family most closely associated with Milan.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Val Mesolcina, also known as the Valle Mesolcina or Misox, is an alpine valley of the Grisons, Switzerland, stretching from the San Bernardino Pass to Grono where it joins the Calanca Valley.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
The Ionian Islands were an overseas possession of the Republic of Venice from the mid-14th century until the late 18th century.
Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.
The Western Alps are the western part of the Alpine range including the southeastern part of France (i.e. Savoie), the whole of Monaco, the northwestern part of Italy and the southwestern part of Switzerland (i.e. Valais).
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.