152 relations: AD-X2, Advanced Encryption Standard process, Advanced Technology Program, Advisory Committee on Earthquake Hazards Reduction, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Antifreeze, Articles of Confederation, ASM-N-2 Bat, Atomic clock, Atomic force microscopy, Backdoor (computing), Boulder, Colorado, Budget, Caesium, Charlotte Froese Fischer, Charlotte Moore Sitterly, Christopher Monroe, Cleanroom, Collapse of the World Trade Center, Constitution, Cornelius Lanczos, Crown glass (optics), Cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator, Cryptovirology, Dan Shechtman, David J. Wineland, Douglas Hartree, Dual EC DRBG, DYSEAC, Edgar Buckingham, Election Assistance Commission, Electron microscope, Eric Allin Cornell, Extreme ultraviolet lithography, Federal Register, Ferdinand Brickwedde, Fire safety, Fiscal year, Fort Collins, Colorado, Frank W. J. Olver, Gaithersburg, Maryland, General Conference on Weights and Measures, George Washington, Governmental impact on science during World War II, Harry Diamond (engineer), Herbert Hoover, Hugh Latimer Dryden, Identity document, Information technology, Inorganic Crystal Structure Database, ..., Instrument approach, International Bureau of Weights and Measures, International Organization for Standardization, International System of Units, Irene Stegun, ISO/IEC 17025, Jack Edmonds, Jacob Rabinow, James G. Nell, James H. Southard, James S. Albus, John Garand, John L. Hall, John M. Butler (scientist), John Quincy Adams, John W. Cahn, Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Katharine Blodgett Gebbie, Kekaha, Hawaii, Kleptography, Laser cooling, Lithography, Longwave, Lyman James Briggs, Magnus Hestenes, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, Metallurgy, Metric Act of 1866, Metrology, Milton Abramowitz, Nanomanufacturing, Nanotechnology, NASA, National Archives and Records Administration, National Conference on Weights and Measures, National Construction Safety Team Act, National Medal of Science, National Security Agency, National Software Reference Library, Neutron scattering, Neutron source, NIST hash function competition, NIST-F1, Nobel Prize, Norman Bekkedahl, Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act, Philip J. Davis, Physics, Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States, President of the United States, Project Kingfisher, Project Pigeon, Proximity fuze, Pseudorandom number generator, Quality of life, Quasicrystal, Radio propagation, Radio station, Richard J. Saykally, Ronald Collé, Russell A. Kirsch, Samuel Wesley Stratton, SEAC (computer), Second, Secretary of state, Shortwave radio, Smart Grid Interoperability Panel, SWAC (computer), Synchrotron radiation, Technical Guidelines Development Committee, Technical Report Archive & Image Library, Technical standard, Technology, The Guardian, The New York Times, Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, Tim Foecke, Time signal, Ugo Fano, United States Constitution, United States Department of Commerce, United States Department of the Treasury, United States dollar, United States Senate, Virtual Cybernetic Building Testbed, Voluntary Voting System Guidelines, Voting machine, Walter Copan, Ward Plummer, Washington, D.C., Wilfrid Basil Mann, William Clyde Martin Jr., William Coblentz, William Daniel Phillips, William Frederick Meggers, William Stone (caver), World War I, WWV (radio station), WWVB, WWVH, 39th United States Congress. Expand index (102 more) » « Shrink index
AD-X2 was an additive purported to extend lead-acid automotive battery life, marketed by California bulldozer operator Jess M. Ritchie in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the symmetric block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology of the United States (NIST), was chosen using a process lasting from 1997 to 2000 that was markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the Data Encryption Standard (DES).
The NIST Advanced Technology Program (ATP, or NIST ATP) is a United States government (U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology) program designed to stimulate early-stage advanced technology development that would otherwise not be funded.
The 2004 re-authorization of National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) directed that the Director of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) establish the Advisory Committee on Earthquake Hazards Reduction (ACEHR) to assess.
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), nicknamed the Recovery Act, was a stimulus package enacted by the 111th U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama in February 2009.
An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point.
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
The ASM-N-2 Bat was a United States Navy World War II radar-guided glide bomb which was used in combat beginning in April 1944.
An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.
A backdoor is a method, often secret, of bypassing normal authentication or encryption in a computer system, a product, or an embedded device (e.g. a home router), or its embodiment, e.g. as part of a cryptosystem, an algorithm, a chipset, or a "homunculus computer" (such as that as found in Intel's AMT technology).
Boulder is the home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, and the 11th most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado.
A budget is a financial plan for a defined period of time, usually a year.It may also include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Charlotte Froese Fischer (born 1929) is a Canadian-American applied mathematician and computer scientist who gained world recognition for the development and implementation of the Multi-Configurational Hartree–Fock (MCHF) approach to atomic-structure calculations and for her theoretical prediction concerning the existence of the negative calcium ion.
Charlotte Emma Moore Sitterly (September 24, 1898 – March 3, 1990) was an American astronomer.
Christopher Roy Monroe (born October 19, 1965) is an American physicist, an experimentalist in the areas of atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information science.
A cleanroom or clean room is a situation, ordinarily utilized as a part of assembling, including of pharmaceutical items or logical research, and in addition aviation semiconductor building applications with a low level of natural toxins, for example, tiny, airborne organisms, vaporized particles, and concoction vapors.
The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center (WTC) collapsed on September 11, 2001, as a result of being struck by two jet airliners hijacked by 10 terrorists affiliated with al-Qaeda, during the September 11 attacks.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
Cornelius (Cornel) Lanczos (Lánczos Kornél,, born as Kornél Lőwy, until 1906: Löwy (Lőwy) Kornél) was a Jewish Hungarian mathematician and physicist, who was born on February 2, 1893, and died on June 25, 1974.
Crown glass is a type of optical glass used in lenses and other optical components.
A cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generator (CSPRNG) or cryptographic pseudo-random number generator (CPRNG) is a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) with properties that make it suitable for use in cryptography.
Cryptovirology is a field that studies how to use cryptography to design powerful malicious software.
Dan Shechtman (Hebrew: דן שכטמן; born January 24, 1941).
David Jeffrey Wineland (born February 24, 1944) is an American Nobel-laureate physicist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) physics laboratory.
Douglas Rayner Hartree PhD, FRS (27 March 1897 – 12 February 1958) was an English mathematician and physicist most famous for the development of numerical analysis and its application to the Hartree–Fock equations of atomic physics and the construction of a differential analyser using Meccano.
Dual_EC_DRBG (Dual Elliptic Curve Deterministic Random Bit Generator) is an algorithm that was presented as a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (CSPRNG) using methods in elliptic curve cryptography.
DYSEAC was the second Standards Electronic Automatic Computer.
Edgar Buckingham (July 8, 1867 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – April 29, 1940 in Washington DC) was an American physicist.
The Election Assistance Commission (EAC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA).
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is an American physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize the first Bose–Einstein condensate in 1995.
Extreme ultraviolet lithography (also known as EUV or EUVL) is a next-generation lithography technology using an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength, currently expected to be 13.5 nm.
The Federal Register (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices.
Ferdinand Graft Brickwedde (26 March 1903 – 29 March 1989), a physicist at the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology), in 1931 produced the first sample of hydrogen in which the spectrum of its heavy isotope, deuterium, could be observed.
Fire safety is the set of practices intended to reduce the destruction caused by fire.
A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.
Fort Collins is the Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Larimer County, Colorado, United States.
Frank William John Olver (December 15, 1924 – April 23, 2013) was an emeritus professor of mathematics at the Institute for Physical Science and Technology and Department of Mathematics at the University of Maryland who worked on asymptotic analysis, special functions, and numerical analysis.
Gaithersburg, officially the City of Gaithersburg, is a city in Montgomery County, Maryland.
The General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conférence générale des poids et mesures – CGPM) is the supreme authority of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures – BIPM), the inter-governmental organization established in 1875 under the terms of the Metre Convention (Convention du Mètre) through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Governmental impact on science during World War II represents the effect of public administration on technological development that provided many advantages to the armed forces, economies and societies in their strategies during the war.
Harry Diamond (12 February 1900 – 21 June 1948) was an American radio pioneer and inventor, and namesake for Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratories, which later became part of the Army Research Laboratory.
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression.
Hugh Latimer Dryden (July 2, 1898 – December 2, 1965) was an American aeronautical scientist and civil servant.
An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
ICSD (standing for Inorganic Crystal Structure Database) is a database of inorganic crystal structure data.
In aviation, an instrument approach, or instrument approach procedure (IAP), is a series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions from the beginning of the initial approach to a landing or to a point from which a landing may be made visually.
The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures) is an intergovernmental organization established by the Metre Convention, through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
Irene Ann Stegun (February 9, 1919 – January 27, 2008) was a mathematician at the National Bureau of Standards who, with Milton Abramowitz, edited a classic book of mathematical tables called A Handbook of Mathematical Functions, widely known as Abramowitz and Stegun.
ISO/IEC 17025 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories is the main ISO standard used by testing and calibration laboratories.
Jack R. Edmonds (born April 5, 1934) is an American computer scientist, regarded as one of the most important contributors to the field of combinatorial optimization.
Jacob Rabinow (January 8, 1910 – September 11, 1999) was an engineer and inventor.
James G. "Jim" Nell (born 1938) is an American engineer.
James Harding Southard (January 20, 1851 – February 20, 1919) was a U.S. Representative from Ohio.
James Sacra Albus (May 4, 1935 – April 17, 2011) was an American engineer, Senior NIST Fellow and founder and former chief of the Intelligent Systems Division of the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Jean Cantius Garand (January 1, 1888 – February 16, 1974), also known as John C. Garand, was a Canadian-born designer of firearms who created the M1 Garand, a semi-automatic rifle that was widely used by the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps during both World War II and the Korean War.
John Lewis "Jan" Hall (born August 21, 1934) is an American physicist, and Nobel laureate in physics.
John M. Butler is a leading expert on forensic DNA profiling.
John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, and treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative (Congressman) from Massachusetts, and the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829.
John Werner Cahn (January 9, 1928 – March 14, 2016) was an American scientist and recipient of the 1998 National Medal of Science.
The Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology is the flagship peer-reviewed scientific journal of the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Katharine Blodgett Gebbie (July 4, 1932 – August 17, 2016) was an American astrophysicist and civil servant.
Kekaha (literally, "the place" in Hawaiian) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Kauaokinai County, Hawaiokinai, United States.
Kleptography is the study of stealing information securely and subliminally and it was introduced by Adam Young and Moti Yung in the Proceedings of Advances in Cryptology—Crypto '96.
Laser cooling refers to a number of techniques in which atomic and molecular samples are cooled down to near absolute zero.
Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water.
In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave, and commonly abbreviated LW, refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band.
Lyman James Briggs (May 7, 1874 – March 25, 1963) was an American engineer, physicist and administrator.
Magnus Rudolph Hestenes (February 13, 1906 – May 31, 1991) was an American mathematician.
The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award recognizes U.S. organizations in the business, health care, education, and nonprofit sectors for performance excellence.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
The Metric Act of 1866, also known as the Kasson Act, is a piece of United States legislation that legally protected use of the metric system in commerce from lawsuit, and provided an official conversion table from U.S. customary units.
Metrology is the science of measurement.
Milton Abramowitz (1915 in Brooklyn, New York – 5 July 1958) was a mathematician at the National Bureau of Standards who, with Irene Stegun, edited a classic book of mathematical tables called Handbook of Mathematical Functions, widely known as Abramowitz and Stegun.
Nanomanufacturing is both the production of nanoscaled materials, which can be powders or fluids, and the manufacturing of parts "bottom up" from nanoscaled materials or "top down" in smallest steps for high precision, used in several technologies such as laser ablation, etching and others.
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Conference on Weights and Measures (NCWM) is a not-for-profit corporation dedicated to developing and regulating the United States technical standards for weights and measures.
The National Construction Safety Team Act (H.R. 4687), signed into law October 1, 2002, authorizes the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to establish investigative teams to assess building performance and emergency response and evacuation procedures in the wake of any building failure that has resulted in substantial loss of life or that posed significant potential of substantial loss of life.
The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and physics.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
The National Software Reference Library (NSRL), is a project of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) which maintains a repository of known software, file profiles and file signatures for use by law enforcement and other organizations involved with computer forensic investigations.
Neutron scattering, the irregular dispersal of free neutrons by matter, can refer to either the naturally occurring physical process itself or to the man-made experimental techniques that use the natural process for investigating materials.
A neutron source is any device that emits neutrons, irrespective of the mechanism used to produce the neutrons.
The NIST hash function competition was an open competition held by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to develop a new hash function called SHA-3 to complement the older SHA-1 and SHA-2.
NIST-F1 is a cesium fountain clock, a type of atomic clock, in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Boulder, Colorado, and serves as the United States' primary time and frequency standard.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 is an act passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Ronald Reagan.
Philip J. Davis (January 2, 1923 – March 13, 2018) was an American academic applied mathematician.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
The "Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States" was a report submitted to the U.S. House of Representatives on July 13, 1790, by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Project Kingfisher was a weapons-development program initiated by the United States Navy during the latter part of World War II.
During World War II, Project Pigeon (later Project Orcon, for "organic control") was American behaviorist B.F. Skinner's attempt to develop a pigeon-controlled guided bomb.
A proximity fuze is a fuze that detonates an explosive device automatically when the distance to the target becomes smaller than a predetermined value.
A pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), also known as a deterministic random bit generator (DRBG), is an algorithm for generating a sequence of numbers whose properties approximate the properties of sequences of random numbers.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
A quasiperiodic crystal, or quasicrystal, is a structure that is ordered but not periodic.
Radio propagation is the behavior of radio waves as they travel, or are propagated, from one point to another, or into various parts of the atmosphere.
A radio station is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves.
Richard J. Saykally (born 1947) is an American chemist.
Ronald Collé (born February 11, 1946) is a specialist in nuclear and radiochemistry, radionuclidic metrology, and the development of standards.
Russell A. Kirsch (born 1929) is an American former engineer at the National Bureau of Standards who developed the first digital image scanner.
Samuel Wesley Stratton (July 18, 1861 – October 18, 1931) was an administrator in the American government, physicist, and educator.
SEAC (Standards Eastern Automatic Computer or Standards Electronic Automatic Computer) was a first-generation electronic computer, built in 1950 by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and was initially called the National Bureau of Standards Interim Computer, because it was a small-scale computer designed to be built quickly and put into operation while the NBS waited for more powerful computers to be completed (the DYSEAC).
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
The title secretary of state or state secretary is commonly used for senior or mid-level posts in governments around the world.
Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies.
Smart Grid Interoperability Panel or SGIP is an organization that defines requirements for a smarter electric grid by driving interoperability, the use of standard, and collaborating across organizations to address gaps and issue hindering the deployment of smart grid technologies.
The SWAC (Standards Western Automatic Computer) was an early electronic digital computer built in 1950 by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in Los Angeles, California.
Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.
The Technical Guidelines Development Committee (TGDC) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology supports the Election Assistance Commission in the United States by providing recommendations on voluntary standards and guidelines related to voting equipment and technologies.
Technical Report Archive & Image Library (TRAIL) is a national collaborative project initiated by the University of Arizona and the Greater Western Library Alliance (GWLA) and that is now part of the Global Resources Network of the Center for Research Libraries (CRL), in cooperation with more than 50 partner institutions and personal members.
A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Timothy Foecke (born 1963) is an American metallurgist and founder and director of the NIST Center for Automotive Lightweighting at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
A time signal is a visible, audible, mechanical, or electronic signal used as a reference to determine the time of day.
Ugo Fano (July 28, 1912 – February 13, 2001) was an Italian American physicist, notable for contributions to theoretical physics.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The Virtual Cybernetic Building Testbed (VCBT) is a whole building emulator located at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland.
The Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (VVSG) are guidelines adopted by the United States Election Assistance Commission (EAC) for the certification of voting systems.
A voting machine is a machine used to register and tabulate votes.
Walter Copan is an American chemist and government official who currently serves as the Under Secretary of Commerce for Standards and Technology.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wilfrid Basil Mann (4 August 1908 – 29 March 2001) was a radionuclide metrologist.
William Clyde Martin Jr. (November 27, 1929 – September 15, 2013) was an American physicist.
William Weber Coblentz (November 20, 1873 – September 15, 1962) was an American physicist notable for his contributions to infrared radiometry and spectroscopy.
William Daniel Phillips (born November 5, 1948) is an American physicist.
William Frederick Meggers (July 13, 1888 – November 19, 1966) was an American physicist specialising in spectroscopy.
William C. "Bill" Stone (born December 7, 1952) is an American engineer, caver and explorer, known for exploring deep caves, sometimes with autonomous underwater vehicles.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
WWV is the call sign of the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) HF ("shortwave") radio station located near Fort Collins, Colorado.
WWVB is a time signal radio station near Fort Collins, Colorado and is operated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
WWVH is the callsign of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology's shortwave radio time signal station in Kekaha, on the island of Kauai in the state of Hawaii.
The Thirty-ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.
N.I.S.T., NIST, National Bureau of Standards, National Institute Of Standards And Technology, National Institute for Standards and Technology, National Institute of Standards & Technology, National Institutes of Standards and Technology, National institute of standards and technology, Nist, SAMATE, The National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Bureau of Standards, U.S. National Bureau of Standards, United States Bureau of Standards, United States National Bureau of Standards.