466 relations: ABC-CLIO, Advanced Encryption Standard, Advanced Encryption Standard process, Al-Shabaab (militant group), Alberto Gonzales, Alfred Menezes, Algorithm, Allen & Unwin, American City Business Journals, American Civil Liberties Union v. National Security Agency, American Mathematical Society, Angela Merkel, Ann Curry, Anna Diggs Taylor, Annapolis, Maryland, AOL, Apple Inc., Arbuckle, California, ARD (broadcaster), Arlington Hall, Arms industry, AT&T, Augusta, Georgia, Aurora, Colorado, Australian Signals Directorate, Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists, Axis powers, Backdoor (computing), Bad Aibling, Bad Aibling Station, Bald eagle, Baltimore, Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, Baltimore–Washington Parkway, Bangkok, BBC News, Benjamin Spock, Black Chamber, Block cipher, Bobby Ray Inman, Body of Secrets, Boeing, Boston Marathon bombing, Boundless Informant, Brian Snow, Bridging (networking), Buckley Air Force Base, Camp Williams, Carnivore (software), Catawissa, Pennsylvania, ..., CBS, Center for Constitutional Rights, Center for Constitutional Rights v. Bush, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Security Service, CFS Leitrim, Charlie Savage, Child support, Church Committee, Cipher, Civilian, Clandestine human intelligence, Clandestine operation, Class action, Classified information, CNET, CNN, Code (cryptography), Cold War, Columbia, Maryland, Commercial code (communications), Commercial off-the-shelf, Common Criteria, Communications Security Establishment, Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative, Computer and network surveillance, Computer hardware, Computer Sciences Corporation, Computer security, Computerworld, Congressional Research Service, Constellation Energy Group, Counterintelligence, Covert listening device, CRC Press, Cryptanalysis, Crypto (book), Cryptography, Cyberterrorism, Data Encryption Standard, Data mining, David Kahn (writer), Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Security Service, Denver, Deputy Director of the National Security Agency, Der Spiegel, Differential cryptanalysis, Digital signature, Director of National Intelligence, Director of the National Security Agency, Drug Enforcement Administration, Dual EC DRBG, Duncan Campbell (journalist), East Germany, Eavesdropping, ECHELON, Edward Snowden, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Electronic Key Management System, Empire of Japan, Eric Holder, Eric Lichtblau, EternalBlue, European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, Executive order, Executive Order 12333, Executive Order 13470, Export of cryptography from the United States, Extraversion and introversion, Facial recognition system, Fairview (surveillance program), FAPSI, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal government of the United States, Federal Intelligence Service (Germany), Federation of American Scientists, Fidel Castro, Five Eyes, Florida Championship Wrestling, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, Foreign Policy, Fort George G. 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Stimson, Heraldry, Herbert Yardley, Honolulu, House Un-American Activities Committee, Howard Baker, IBM, IBM Notes, Industrial espionage, Information assurance, Inspector general, Intelligence agency, Interdiction, Internal Revenue Service, Internal Security Department (Singapore), International Organization for Standardization, Internet Archive, Internet backbone, Internet service provider, Iraq War, Izvestia, James Bamford, James Clapper, James Comey, James Risen, Jane Fonda, Japanese naval codes, John Ashcroft, John C. Inglis, John F. Kennedy, John Wiley & Sons, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Keith B. 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NSA, Wired (magazine), World War I, World War II, XKeyscore, Yahoo!, Yakima Herald-Republic, Yakima Training Center, 1986 United States bombing of Libya, 1986 West Berlin discotheque bombing. Expand index (416 more) » « Shrink index
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known by its original name Rijndael, is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001.
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the symmetric block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology of the United States (NIST), was chosen using a process lasting from 1997 to 2000 that was markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the Data Encryption Standard (DES).
Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen (HSM; حركة الشباب المجاهدين,; Xarakada Mujaahidiinta Alshabaab, lit. "Mujahideen Youth Movement" or "Movement of Striving Youth"), more commonly known as al-Shabaab (lit), is a jihadist fundamentalist group based in East Africa.
Alberto R. Gonzales (born August 4, 1955) is an American lawyer who served as the 80th United States Attorney General, appointed in February 2005 by President George W. Bush, becoming the highest-ranking Hispanic American in executive government to date.
Alfred Menezes is co-author of several books on cryptography, including the Handbook of Applied Cryptography, and is a professor of mathematics at the University of Waterloo in Canada.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Allen & Unwin is an Australian independent publishing company, established in Australia in 1976 as a subsidiary of the British firm George Allen & Unwin Ltd., which was founded by Sir Stanley Unwin in August 1914 and went on to become one of the leading publishers of the twentieth century.
"." Houston Business Journal.
American Civil Liberties Union v. National Security Agency, 493 F.3d 644 (6th Cir. 2007), is a case decided July 6, 2007, in which the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit held that the plaintiffs in the case did not have standing to bring the suit against the National Security Agency (NSA), because they could not present evidence that they were the targets of the so-called "Terrorist Surveillance Program" (TSP).
The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publications, meetings, advocacy and other programs.
Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.
Ann Curry (born November 19, 1956) is an American journalist, and photojournalist.
Anna Katherine Johnston Diggs Taylor (born Anna Katherine Johnston) (December 9, 1932 – November 4, 2017) was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan.
Annapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County.
AOL (formerly a company known as AOL Inc., originally known as America Online, and stylized as Aol.) is a web portal and online service provider based in New York.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
Arbuckle is a census-designated place (CDP) in Colusa County, California, United States.
ARD (full name: Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – Consortium of public broadcasters in Germany) is a joint organisation of Germany's regional public-service broadcasters.
Arlington Hall (also called Arlington Hall Station) is a historic building in Arlington, Virginia, originally a girls' school and later the headquarters of the United States Army's Signal Intelligence Service (SIS) cryptography effort during World War II.
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas.
Augusta, officially Augusta–Richmond County, is a consolidated city-county on the central eastern border of the U.S. state of Georgia.
Aurora is a Home Rule Municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado, spanning Arapahoe and Adams counties, with the extreme southeastern portion of the city extending into Douglas County.
Australian Signals Directorate (ASD; until 2013: Defence Signals Directorate, DSD) is an Australian government foreign intelligence collection agency responsible for foreign signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information security (INFOSEC).
The Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), Pub. L., codified at 115 Stat. 224 and passed as by the United States Congress on September 14, 2001, authorizes the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the attacks on September 11, 2001 and any "associated forces".
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
A backdoor is a method, often secret, of bypassing normal authentication or encryption in a computer system, a product, or an embedded device (e.g. a home router), or its embodiment, e.g. as part of a cryptosystem, an algorithm, a chipset, or a "homunculus computer" (such as that as found in Intel's AMT technology).
Bad Aibling is a spa town and former district seat in Bavaria on the river Mangfall, located some southeast of Munich.
The Bad Aibling Station (abbreviated BAS, also known as Field station 81, which had an official designation as the 18th United States Army Security Agency Field Station, or as the pseudonym Hortensie III) is a satellite tracking station operated by the German intelligence agency Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) in Bad Aibling, Bavaria.
The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, from Greek ἅλς, hals "sea", αἰετός aietos "eagle", λευκός, leukos "white", κεφαλή, kephalē "head") is a bird of prey found in North America.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
The Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area is a combined statistical area consisting of the overlapping labor market region of the cities of Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, Maryland.
The Baltimore–Washington Parkway (also referred to as the B–W Parkway) is a highway in the U.S. state of Maryland, running southwest from Baltimore to Washington, D.C. The road begins at an interchange with U.S. Route 50 (US 50) near Cheverly in Prince George's County at the D.C. border, and continues northeast as a parkway maintained by the National Park Service (NPS) to MD 175 near Fort Meade, serving many federal institutions.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Benjamin McLane Spock (May 2, 1903 – March 15, 1998) was an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care (1946) is one of the best-sellers of all time.
The Black Chamber, also known as The Cipher Bureau, was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization, and a forerunner of the National Security Agency.
In cryptography, a block cipher is a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called a block, with an unvarying transformation that is specified by a symmetric key.
Bobby Ray Inman (born April 4, 1931) is a retired United States admiral who held several influential positions in the U.S. Intelligence Community.
Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency is a book by James Bamford about the NSA and its operations.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
During the annual Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, two homemade bombs detonated 12 seconds and apart at 2:49 p.m., near the finish line of the race, killing three people and injuring several hundred others, including 16 who lost limbs.
Boundless Informant (stylized as BOUNDLESSINFORMANT) is a big data analysis and data visualization tool used by the United States National Security Agency (NSA).
Brian Snow served in the U.S. National Security Agency from 1971 to 2006, including a six-year term as Technical Director of the Information Assurance Directorate (IAD), which is the defensive arm of the NSA, charged with protecting U.S. information security.
A network bridge is a computer networking device that creates a single aggregate network from multiple communication networks or network segments.
Buckley Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base in Aurora, Colorado, that was established by the U.S. Army in 1942.
Camp W. G. Williams, commonly known as Camp Williams, also known as Army Garrison Camp Williams, is a National Guard training site operated by the Utah National Guard.
Carnivore, later renamed DCS1000, was a system implemented by the Federal Bureau of Investigation that was designed to monitor email and electronic communications.
Catawissa is a borough in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, United States.
CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.
The Center for Constitutional Rights.
CCR v. Bush is a legal action by the Center for Constitutional Rights against the George W. Bush administration, challenging the National Security Agency's (NSA's) surveillance of people within the United States, including the interception of CCR emails without first securing a warrant.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Security Service (CSS) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense, which was established in 1972 to integrate the National Security Agency (NSA) and the Service Cryptologic Elements (SCE) of the United States Armed Forces in the field of signals intelligence, cryptology and information assurance at the tactical level.
Canadian Forces Station Leitrim, also referred to as CFS Leitrim, is a Canadian Forces Station located in the neighbourhood of Leitrim in Ottawa, Ontario.
Charlie Savage is an author and newspaper reporter in Washington, D.C., with The New York Times. In 2007, when employed by The Boston Globe, he was a recipient of the Pulitzer Prize.
In family law and public policy, child support (or child maintenance) is an ongoing, periodic payment made by a parent for the financial benefit of a child (or parent, caregiver, guardian, or state) following the end of a marriage or other relationship.
The Church Committee was the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Idaho Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".
Clandestine human intelligence is intelligence collected from human sources using clandestine espionage methods.
A clandestine operation is an intelligence or military operation carried out in such a way that the operation goes unnoticed by the general population or specific enemy forces.
A class action, class suit, or representative action is a type of lawsuit where one of the parties is a group of people who are represented collectively by a member of that group.
Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.
CNET (stylized as c|net) is an American media website that publishes reviews, news, articles, blogs, podcasts and videos on technology and consumer electronics globally.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Cryptography in simple terms means the use of any alphabet or numerical statement which has a meaning or stores a message.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Columbia is a census-designated place in Howard County, Maryland, United States, and is one of the principal cities of the Baltimore metropolitan area.
In telecommunication, a commercial code is a code once used to save on cablegram costs.
Commercial off-the-shelf or commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) satisfy the needs of the purchasing organization, without the need to commission custom-made, or bespoke, solutions.
The Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation (abbreviated as Common Criteria or CC) is an international standard (ISO/IEC 15408) for computer security certification.
The Communications Security Establishment (CSE; Centre de la sécurité des télécommunications, CST), formerly called the Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC), is the Government of Canada's national cryptologic agency.
The Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI) was established by President George W. Bush in National Security Presidential Directive 54/Homeland Security Presidential Directive 23 (NSPD-54/HSPD-23) in January 2008.
Computer and network surveillance is the monitoring of computer activity and data stored on a hard drive, or data being transferred over computer networks such as the Internet.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) was an American multinational corporation that provided information technology (IT) services and professional services.
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
Computerworld is a publication website and digital magazine for information technology (IT) and business technology professionals.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
Constellation Energy Group (former NYSE ticker symbol CEG), headquartered in Baltimore, Maryland, was an energy producer, trader, and distributor.
Counterintelligence is "an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program against an opposition's intelligence service." It likewise refers to information gathered and activities conducted to counter espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.
A covert listening device, more commonly known as a bug or a wire, is usually a combination of a miniature radio transmitter with a microphone.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.
Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government Saving Privacy in the Digital Age is a book about cryptography written by Steven Levy, published in 2001.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
Cyberterrorism is the use of the Internet to conduct violent acts that result in, or threaten, loss of life or significant bodily harm, in order to achieve political gains through intimidation.
The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a symmetric-key algorithm for the encryption of electronic data.
Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
David Kahn (b. February 7, 1930*) is a US historian, journalist and writer.
The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is an external intelligence service of the United States federal government specializing in defense and military intelligence.
The Defense Security Service (DSS) is a federal security agency of the United States Department of Defense (DoD).
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
The Deputy Director of the National Security Agency is the highest-ranking civilian within the National Security Agency.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions.
A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for presenting the authenticity of digital messages or documents.
The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government Cabinet-level official—subject to the authority, direction, and control of the President of the United States—required by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to.
The Director of the National Security Agency (DIRNSA) is the highest-ranking official of the National Security Agency, which is a Defense Agency within the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.
Dual_EC_DRBG (Dual Elliptic Curve Deterministic Random Bit Generator) is an algorithm that was presented as a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (CSPRNG) using methods in elliptic curve cryptography.
Duncan Campbell (born 1952) is a British freelance investigative journalist, author, and television producer.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Eavesdropping is secretly or stealthily listening to the private conversation or communications of others without their consent.
ECHELON, originally a secret government code name, is a surveillance program (signals intelligence/SIGINT collection and analysis network) operated by the US with the aid of four other signatory nations to the UKUSA Security Agreement Given the 5 dialects that use the terms, UKUSA can be pronounced from "You-Q-SA" to "Oo-Coo-SA", AUSCANNZUKUS can be pronounced from "Oz-Can-Zuke-Us" to "Orse-Can-Zoo-Cuss".
Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 without authorization.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.
The Electronic Key Management System (EKMS) system is a United States National Security Agency led program responsible for Communications Security (COMSEC) key management, accounting, and distribution.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Eric Himpton Holder Jr. (born January 21, 1951) is an American attorney who served as the 82nd Attorney General of the United States from 2009 to 2015.
Eric Lichtblau (born 1965) is an American journalist, recently reporting for The New York Times and the CNN network's investigative news unit.
EternalBlue, sometimes stylized as ETERNALBLUE, is an exploit developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) according to testimony by former NSA employees.
The Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) is a standing committee of the European Parliament that is responsible for protecting civil liberties and human rights, including those of minorities, as listed in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
In the United States, an executive order is a directive issued by the President of the United States that manages operations of the federal government and has the force of law.
Executive Order 12333, signed on December 4, 1981 by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, was an Executive Order intended to extend powers and responsibilities of U.S. intelligence agencies and direct the leaders of U.S. federal agencies to co-operate fully with CIA requests for information.
Executive Order 13470 was issued by US President President Bush on July 30, 2008.
The export of cryptographic technology and devices from the United States was severely restricted by U.S. law until 1992, but was gradually eased until 2000; some restrictions still remain.
The trait of extraversion–introversion is a central dimension of human personality theories.
A facial recognition system is a technology capable of identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source.
Fairview is a secret program under which the National Security Agency cooperates with the American telecommunications company AT&T in order to collect phone, internet and e-mail data mainly of foreign countries' citizens at major cable landing stations and switching stations inside the United States.
FAPSI (ФАПСИ) or Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information (FAGCI) (Федеральное Агентство Правительственной Связи и Информации) was a Russian government agency, which was responsible for signal intelligence and security of governmental communications.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The Federal Intelligence Service (German: Bundesnachrichtendienst;, BND) is the foreign intelligence agency of Germany, directly subordinated to the Chancellor's Office.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The Five Eyes, often abbreviated as FVEY, is an intelligence alliance comprising Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Florida Championship Wrestling (FCW) was a professional wrestling promotion based on the former independent Championship Wrestling from Florida promotion, which operated from 1961 until 1987.
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 ("FISA") is a United States federal law which establishes procedures for the physical and electronic surveillance and collection of "foreign intelligence information" between "foreign powers" and "agents of foreign powers" suspected of espionage or terrorism.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
Fort George G. Meade is a United States Army installation located in Maryland, that includes the Defense Information School, the Defense Media Activity, the United States Army Field Band, and the headquarters of United States Cyber Command, the National Security Agency, the Defense Courier Service, and Defense Information Systems Agency headquarters.
Fort Gordon, formerly known as Camp Gordon, is a United States Army installation established in October 1941.
Fort Knox is a United States Army post in Kentucky, south of Louisville and north of Elizabethtown.
Fort Meade is a census-designated place (CDP) in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, United States.
Fortezza is an information security system that uses the Fortezza Crypto Card, a PC Card-based security token.
The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights that prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frank Forrester Church III (July 25, 1924 – April 7, 1984) was an American lawyer and politician.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
The Free Congress Research and Education Foundation, also known as the Free Congress Foundation or FCF, was an conservative think tank founded by Paul Weyrich.
Freedom of information in the United States refers to the independent bodies of freedom of information legislation at the federal level and in the fifty states.
The Friendship Annex, also known as FANX or FANEX, is a National Security Agency (NSA) facility complex located in Linthicum, Maryland, near the Baltimore Washington International Airport (BWI).
A gag order (also known as a gagging order or suppression order) is an order, typically a legal order by a court or government, restricting information or comment from being made public or passed onto any unauthorized third party.
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
The National Surveillance Unit (NSU) (Aonad Faireacháin Náisiúinta) is the principal clandestine intelligence gathering and surveillance operations unit of the Garda Síochána, the national police force of Ireland.
GCHQ Bude, also known as GCHQ Composite Signals Organisation Station Morwenstow, abbreviated to GCHQ CSO Morwenstow, is a UK Government satellite ground station and eavesdropping centre located on the north Cornwall coast at Cleave Camp, between the small villages of Morwenstow and Coombe.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, general (abbreviated as GEN in the Army or Gen in the Air Force and Marine Corps) is a four-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10.
A general counsel, chief counsel, or chief legal officer (CLO) is the chief lawyer of a legal department, usually in a company or a governmental department.
General Dynamics Mission Systems is a business unit of American defense and aerospace company General Dynamics.
Geolocation is the identification or estimation of the real-world geographic location of an object, such as a radar source, mobile phone, or Internet-connected computer terminal.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Georgetown is a historic neighborhood and a commercial and entertainment district located in northwest Washington, D.C., situated along the Potomac River.
A geosynchronous satellite is a satellite in geosynchronous orbit, with an orbital period the same as the Earth's rotation period.
Geraldton is a coastal city in the Mid West region of Western Australia, north of Perth.
Glenn Edward Greenwald (born March 6, 1967) is an American lawyer, journalist, and author, best known for his role in a series of reports published by The Guardian newspaper beginning in June 2013, detailing the United States and British global surveillance programs, and based on classified documents disclosed by Edward Snowden.
Ongoing news reports in the international media have revealed operational details about the United States National Security Agency (NSA) and its international partners' global surveillance of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.
The Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) (Te Tira Tiaki, formerly Te Tari Whakamau Irirangi) is the public-service department of New Zealand charged with promoting New Zealand's national security by collecting and analysing information of an intelligence nature.
The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the U.S. federal government.
Griesheim is a town in the Darmstadt-Dieburg district, in Hesse, Germany.
The Gulf of Tonkin incident (Sự kiện Vịnh Bắc Bộ), also known as the USS Maddox incident, was an international confrontation that led to the United States engaging more directly in the Vietnam War.
Hamdan v. Rumsfeld,, is a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that military commissions set up by the Bush administration to try detainees at Guantanamo Bay lack "the power to proceed because its structures and procedures violate both the Uniform Code of Military Justice and the four Geneva Conventions signed in 1949." Specifically, the ruling says that Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions was violated.
Harold Thomas Martin III (born November 1964) is a former contractor for Booz Allen Hamilton who has been accused of stealing approximately 50 terabytes of data from the National Security Agency (NSA).
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Heartbleed is a security bug in the OpenSSL cryptography library, which is a widely used implementation of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol.
Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, lawyer and Republican Party politician.
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
Herbert Osborn Yardley (April 13, 1889 – August 7, 1958) was an American cryptologist.
Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Hawaiokinai.
The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC, or House Committee on Un-American Activities, or HCUA) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives.
Howard Henry Baker Jr. (November 15, 1925 June 26, 2014) was an American politician and diplomat who served as a Republican United States Senator from Tennessee, Senate Minority Leader, then Senate Majority Leader.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
IBM Notes (formerly Lotus Notes; see branding, below) and IBM Domino (formerly Lotus Domino) are the client and server, respectively, of a collaborative client-server software platform sold by IBM.
Industrial espionage, economic espionage, corporate spying or corporate espionage is a form of espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of purely national security.
Information assurance (IA) is the practice of assuring information and managing risks related to the use, processing, storage, and transmission of information or data and the systems and processes used for those purposes.
An inspector general is an investigative official in a civil or military organization.
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.
Interdiction is a military term for the act of delaying, disrupting, or destroying enemy forces or supplies en route to the battle area.
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service of the United States federal government.
The Internal Security Department (ISD;; Jabatan Keselamatan Dalam Negeri; உள்நாட்டுப் பாதுகாப்புத் துறை) is a domestic intelligence agency of the Ministry of Home Affairs of Singapore.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
The Internet backbone might be defined by the principal data routes between large, strategically interconnected computer networks and core routers on the Internet.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Izvestia (p) is a long-running high-circulation daily broadsheet newspaper in Russia.
James Robert Clapper Jr. (born March 14, 1941) is a retired lieutenant general in the United States Air Force and is the former Director of National Intelligence.
James Brien Comey Jr. (born December 14, 1960) is an American lawyer who was the 7th Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from 2013 until his dismissal in May 2017.
James Risen (born April 27, 1955) is an American journalist for The Intercept.
Jane Seymour Fonda (born December 21, 1937) is an American actress, writer, political activist, former fashion model and fitness guru.
The vulnerability of Japanese naval codes and ciphers was crucial to the conduct of World War II, and had an important influence on foreign relations between Japan and the west in the years leading up to the war as well.
John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) is an American lawyer and former politician who served as the 79th U.S. Attorney General (2001–2005), in the George W. Bush Administration.
John Chris Inglis, also known as Chris Inglis, is a former Deputy Director of the National Security Agency.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.
Keith Brian Alexander (born December 2, 1951) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army who served as director of the National Security Agency (DIRNSA), chief of the Central Security Service (CHCSS) and commander of the United States Cyber Command.
A key is a device that is used to operate a lock (such as to lock or unlock it).
Key escrow (also known as a “fair” cryptosystem) is an arrangement in which the keys needed to decrypt encrypted data are held in escrow so that, under certain circumstances, an authorized third party may gain access to those keys.
The KG-84A and KG-84C are encryption devices developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) to ensure secure transmission of digital data.
Khon Kaen (ขอนแก่น) is one of the four major cities of Isan, Thailand, also known as the "big four of Isan", the others being Udon Thani, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Ubon Ratchathani.
In cryptography, Khufu and Khafre are two block ciphers designed by Ralph Merkle in 1989 while working at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center.
The TSEC/KL-7 was an off-line non-reciprocal rotor encryption machine.
Korean Air Lines Flight 007 (also known as KAL007 and KE007)KAL 007 was used by air traffic control, while the public flight booking system used KE 007 was a scheduled Korean Air Lines flight from New York City to Seoul via Anchorage, Alaska.
Kunia Camp (also called Kunia) is an unincorporated community on the island of Oahu in Honolulu County, Hawaii, United States.
Kunming is the capital and largest city of Yunnan province in southwest China.
The TSEC/KW-26, code named ROMULUS, (in 1966 the machine based encryption system was not code-named "Romulus," rather the code-name was "Orion," at least in the US Army's variant) was an encryption system used by the U.S. Government and, later, by NATO countries.
The KW-37, code named JASON, was an encryption system developed In the 1950s by the U.S. National Security Agency to protect fleet broadcasts of the U.S. Navy.
The Speech Security Equipment (VINSON), TSEC/KY-57, is a portable, tactical cryptographic device in the VINSON family, designed to provide voice encryption for a range of military communication devices such as radio or telephone.
Lackland Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in Bexar County, Texas.
In online gaming, lag is a noticeable delay between the action of players and the reaction of the server in a video game.
In computing, a legacy system is an old method, technology, computer system, or application program, "of, relating to, or being a previous or outdated computer system." Often a pejorative term, referencing a system as "legacy" means that it paved the way for the standards that would follow it.
Linthicum is a census-designated place (CDP) and unincorporated community in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, United States.
Linus Benedict Torvalds (born December 28, 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator, and historically, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating systems, Android, and Chrome OS.
Linux Journal is a monthly technology magazine published by Linux Journal, LLC.
The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.
This is a list of diplomatic missions of the United States of America.
Named after inventor Charles Litton, Sr., Litton Industries was a large defense contractor in the United States, bought by the Northrop Grumman Corporation in 2001.
The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed "Dragon Lady", is an American single-jet engine, ultra-high altitude reconnaissance aircraft operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
MAINWAY is a database maintained by the United States' National Security Agency (NSA) containing metadata for hundreds of billions of telephone calls made through the four largest telephone carriers in the United States: AT&T, SBC, BellSouth (all three now called AT&T), and Verizon.
Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server or computer network.
MARC (Maryland Area Regional Commuter) Train Service, known prior to 1984 as Maryland Rail Commuter, is a commuter rail system comprising three lines in the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area.
Mark Klein is a former AT&T technician and whistleblower who revealed details of the company's cooperation with the United States National Security Agency in installing network hardware at a site known as Room 641A to monitor, capture and process American telecommunications.
Marshall Sylvester Carter (September 16, 1909 – February 18, 1993) was a lieutenant general in the United States Army.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Mass surveillance is the intricate surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population in order to monitor that group of citizens.
The use of electronic surveillance by the United Kingdom grew from the development of signal intelligence and pioneering code breaking during World War II.
The practice of mass surveillance in the United States dates back to WWI wartime monitoring and censorship of international communications from, to, or which passed through the United States.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data".
Michael Vincent Hayden (born March 17, 1945) is a retired United States Air Force four-star general and former Director of the National Security Agency, Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence, and Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.
is a city located in Aomori Prefecture, Japan.
MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology formed by the 2003 merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
Morwenstow (Logmorwenna) is a civil parish in north Cornwall, England.
The Multiprogram Research Facility (MRF, also known as Building 5300) is a facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Najibullah Zazi (born August 10, 1985) is an Afghan-American who was arrested in September 2009 as part of the 2009 U.S. Al Qaeda group accused of planning suicide bombings on the New York City Subway system, and who pleaded guilty as have two other defendants. U.S. prosecutors said Saleh al-Somali, Al-Qaeda's head of external operations, and Rashid Rauf, an Al-Qaeda operative, ordered the attack. Both were later killed in drone attacks. Zazi underwent weapons and explosives training at an al-Qaeda training camp in Pakistan in 2008. On September 9, 2009, he drove from his home in Aurora, Colorado, to New York City, intending to detonate explosives on the New York City subway during rush hour as one of three coordinated suicide "martyrdom" bombings. Spooked, however, by surveillance by U.S. intelligence, and warned by a local imam that the authorities were inquiring about him, he abruptly flew back to Colorado. He was arrested days later. On February 22, 2010, he pleaded guilty to conspiring to use weapons of mass destruction, conspiring to commit murder in a foreign country, and providing material support to a terrorist organization. He said he was recruited by al-Qaeda in Pakistan for a suicide "martyrdom" attack against the U.S., and that his bombing target was the New York City subway system. Zazi faces a possible life sentence without possibility of parole for the first two counts, and an additional sentence of 15 years for the third count. Sentencing was initially scheduled to take place on June 24, 2011. Two of his high school classmates who had traveled with him to Pakistan, his father, his uncle, and an imam from Queens have also been indicted on related charges. U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder referred to the planned attack as "one of the most serious terrorist threats to our nation since September 11, 2001.".
Narus Inc. was a software company and vendor of big data analytics for cybersecurity.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Cryptologic Museum (NCM) is an American museum of cryptologic history that is affiliated with the National Security Agency (NSA).
The National Cyber Security Division (NCSD) is a division of the Office of Cyber Security & Communications, within the United States Department of Homeland Security's Directorate for National Protection and Programs.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
The National Intelligence Priorities Framework, or NIPF, is a classified national intelligence document used by the top planners of the United States Intelligence Community, such as the President of the United States and the Director of National Intelligence, that summarizes the United States's intelligence gathering priorities.
The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is a member of the United States Intelligence Community and an agency of the United States Department of Defense.
The National Security Agency is a United States government agency.
A National Security Council (NSC) is usually an executive branch governmental body responsible for coordinating policy on national security issues and advising chief executives on matters related to national security.
National security directives are presidential directives issued for the National Security Council (NSC).
The National Security Operations Center (NSOC) is the part of the United States National Security Agency responsible for current operations and time-sensitive signals intelligence (SIGINT) reporting for the United States SIGINT System (USSS).
The National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) is a technical intelligence agency under the National Security Advisor in the Prime Minister's Office, India.
The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
Neal I. Koblitz (born December 24, 1948) is a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Washington.
NESTOR was a family of compatible, tactical, wideband secure voice systems developed by the U.S. National Security Agency and widely deployed during the Vietnam War.
Networking hardware, also known as network equipment or computer networking devices, are physical devices which are required for communication and interaction between devices on a computer network.
New America, formerly the New America Foundation, is a non-partisan think tank in the United States.
The New Hire Registry is a program established in the United States pursuant to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, 42 U.S.C. 653a, which required each state, the District of Columbia, and the Federal Government for its own employees, to establish - or contract with a provider to operate - a system where all new hires by any employer must be reported to a state-established New Hire Registry for that state.
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nicky Hager (born 1958) is a New Zealand investigative journalist.
Nils "Nicke" Torvalds (born 7 August 1945) is a Finnish politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP).
The Non-classified Internet Protocol (IP) Router Network (NIPRNet) is a private IP network used to exchange unclassified information, including information subject to controls on distribution, among the private network's users.
The NIST hash function competition was an open competition held by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to develop a new hash function called SHA-3 to complement the older SHA-1 and SHA-2.
No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State is a 2014 non-fiction book by American investigative journalist Glenn Greenwald.
Norddeutscher Rundfunk (NDR; Northern German Broadcasting) is a public radio and television broadcaster, based in Hamburg.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
Northern Virginia – locally referred to as NOVA – comprises several counties and independent cities in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Notices of the American Mathematical Society is the membership journal of the American Mathematical Society (AMS), published monthly except for the combined June/July issue.
Now on PBS was a Public Broadcasting Service newsmagazine that focused on social and political issues.
NSA is the National Security Agency, a United States governmental agency.
The Hall of Honor is a memorial at the National Security Agency headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland.
NSA Suite A Cryptography is NSA cryptography which "contains classified algorithms that will not be released." "Suite A will be used for the protection of some categories of especially sensitive information (a small percentage of the overall national security-related information assurance market)." Incomplete list of Suite A algorithms.
NSA Suite B Cryptography is a set of cryptographic algorithms promulgated by the National Security Agency as part of its Cryptographic Modernization Program.
Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.
Odenton is a passenger rail station on the Northeast Corridor.
The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) was an office of the United States Congress from 1972 to 1995.
Open Source Summit (formerly LinuxCon) is a name for a series of annual conventions organized each year since 2009 by the Linux Foundation.
Operation Eikonal is a collaboration between the National Security Agency and Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) for the sharing of telephony and internet data captured in Germany.
Operation Ivy Bells was a joint United States Navy, CIA, and National Security Agency (NSA) mission whose objective was to place wire taps on Soviet underwater communication lines during the Cold War.
"Orwellian" is an adjective describing a situation, idea, or societal condition that George Orwell identified as being destructive to the welfare of a free and open society.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
Paltalk is a proprietary video group chat service that enables users to communicate via video, internet chat and voice.
Parallel construction is a law enforcement process of building a parallel—or separate—evidentiary basis for a criminal investigation in order to conceal how an investigation actually began.
The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of Congress signed into law by US President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001.
Title I: Enhancing Domestic Security against Terrorism is the first of ten titles which comprise the USA PATRIOT Act, an anti-terrorism bill passed in the United States after the September 11, 2001 attacks.
The USA PATRIOT Act was passed by the United States Congress in 2001 as a response to the September 11, 2001 attacks.
Title IX: Improved Intelligence is the ninth of ten titles which comprise the USA PATRIOT Act, an anti-terrorism bill passed in the United States after the September 11, 2001 attacks.
Paul Miki Nakasone (born November 19, 1963) is a four-star general in the United States Army who currently serves as the third commander of the United States Cyber Command and the first commander of the same as a unified combatant command.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
In computing, PC Card is a configuration for computer parallel communication peripheral interface, designed for laptop computers.
Louis Alan "Pete" Williams (born February 28, 1952) is an American journalist and former government official.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Pine Gap is the commonly used name for an Australian Earth station approximately south-west of the town of Alice Springs, Northern Territory in the centre of Australia which is operated by both Australia and the United States.
A polygraph, popularly referred to as a lie detector, measures and records several physiological indices such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and skin conductivity while a person is asked and answers a series of questions.
Potton & Burton, formerly Craig Potton Publishing, is a book publishing company based in Nelson, New Zealand.
The presidency of George W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 2001, when George W. Bush was inaugurated as 43rd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2009.
The President's Surveillance Program (PSP) is a collection of secret intelligence activities authorized by the President of the United States George W. Bush after the September 11 attacks in 2001 as part of the War on Terrorism.
PRISM is a code name for a program under which the United States National Security Agency (NSA) collects internet communications from various U.S. internet companies.
Project MINARET was a domestic espionage project operated by the National Security Agency (NSA), which, after intercepting electronic communications that contained the names of predesignated US citizens, passed them to other government law enforcement and intelligence organizations.
ProPublica is an American nonprofit organization based in New York City.
Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.
Royal Air Force Menwith Hill is a Royal Air Force station near Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England, which provides communications and intelligence support services to the United Kingdom and the United States.
The Rainbow Series (sometimes known as the Rainbow Books) is a series of computer security standards and guidelines published by the United States government in the 1980s and 1990s.
Ralph Julian Canine (November 9, 1895 – March 8, 1969) was the first director of the United States' National Security Agency (NSA).
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
Rasmussen Reports is an American polling company, founded in 2003.
The Raytheon Company is a major U.S. defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics.
The Real Time Regional Gateway (RT-RG) is a data processing and data mining system introduced in 2007 by the US National Security Agency (NSA) and deployed during the American military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
The remand court procedure is used by higher courts to send cases back to lower courts for further action.
In computer security or elsewhere, responsible disclosure is a vulnerability disclosure model in which a vulnerability or issue is disclosed only after a period of time that allows for the vulnerability or issue to be patched or mended.
Richard Alan Clarke (born October 27, 1950) is the former National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection and Counter-terrorism for the United States.
Richard J. Leon (born 1946) is a Senior United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Roaring Creek Earth Station is a satellite ground station operated by AT&T and located approximately south of Catawissa, Pennsylvania.
Ronald Lee Wyden (born May 3, 1949) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator for Oregon since 1996.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.
Rubik's Cube is a 3-D combination puzzle invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik.
In cryptography, an S-box (substitution-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms which performs substitution.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.
Salt Creek Earth Station is a satellite ground station located approximately southwest of Arbuckle, California.
Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Utah.
Samuel Alexander Adams (June 14, 1934 – October 10, 1988), known as Sam Adams, was an analyst for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
San Antonio (Spanish for "Saint Anthony"), officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh most populous city in the United States and the second most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States.
Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) is an American company headquartered in Reston, Virginia that provides government services and information technology support.
Scott Shane (born May 22, 1954 in Augusta, Georgia) is an American journalist, currently employed by The New York Times, reporting principally about the United States intelligence community.
The Secure Communications Interoperability Protocol (SCIP) is a multinational standard for secure voice and data communication, for one-to-one connections, not packet-switched networks.
Secure Terminal Equipment (STE) is the U.S. Government's current, encrypted telephone communications system for wired or "landline" communications.
Secure voice (alternatively secure speech or ciphony) is a term in cryptography for the encryption of voice communication over a range of communication types such as radio, telephone or IP.
A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network.
Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a Linux kernel security module that provides a mechanism for supporting access control security policies, including United States Department of Defense–style mandatory access controls (MAC).
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Sensitive compartmented information (SCI) is a type of United States classified information concerning or derived from sensitive intelligence sources, methods, or analytical processes.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
SEXINT is the practice of monitoring and/or indexing the pornographic preferences of internet users in an effort to later use the information for blackmail.
In cryptography, SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm 1) is a cryptographic hash function which takes an input and produces a 160-bit (20-byte) hash value known as a message digest - typically rendered as a hexadecimal number, 40 digits long.
SHA-2 (Secure Hash Algorithm 2) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the United States National Security Agency (NSA).
SHA-3 (Secure Hash Algorithm 3) is the latest member of the Secure Hash Algorithm family of standards, released by NIST on August 5, 2015.
Sherman Kent (December 6, 1903 – March 11, 1986), was a Yale University history professor who, during World War II and through 17 years of Cold War-era service in the Central Intelligence Agency, pioneered many of the methods of intelligence analysis.
The Signal Intelligence Service (SIS) was the United States Army codebreaking division, headquartered at Arlington Hall (former campus of Arlington Hall Junior College for Women, founded 1927 to 1942, on Arlington Boulevard in Arlington, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C.).
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) is a Combat Net Radio (CNR) currently used by U.S. and allied military forces.
The Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNet) is "a system of interconnected computer networks used by the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Department of State to transmit classified information (up to and including information classified SECRET) by packet switching over the 'completely secure' environment".
In cryptography, Skipjack is a block cipher—an algorithm for encryption—developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA).
Skype is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches via the Internet and to regular telephones.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Special Collection Service (SCS), codenamed F6, is a highly classified joint U.S. Central Intelligence Agency–National Security Agency program charged with inserting eavesdropping equipment in difficult-to-reach places, such as foreign embassies, communications centers, and foreign government installations.
The Special Communications and Information Service of the Federal Protective Service of the Russian Federation (Spetssvyaz, Spetssviaz; Служба специальной связи и информации, Спецсвязь России) is a cryptologic intelligence agency of The Federal Protective Service of Russia responsible for the collection and analysis of foreign communications and foreign signals intelligence, as well as protecting Russian government communications and information systems,which involves information security and cryptanalysis/cryptography.
Special Source Operations is a division in the American National Security Agency (NSA) which is responsible for all programs aimed at collecting data from major fiber-optic cables and switches, both inside the US and abroad, and also through corporate partnerships.
Spencer Ackerman is an American national security reporter and blogger.
The Ministry for State Security (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS) or State Security Service (Staatssicherheitsdienst, SSD), commonly known as the Stasi, was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
Steven Levy (born 1951) is an American journalist who has written several books on computers, technology, cryptography, the internet, cybersecurity, and privacy.
STU-III is a family of secure telephones introduced in 1987 by the NSA for use by the United States government, its contractors, and its allies.
Stuxnet is a malicious computer worm, first uncovered in 2010.
Sugar Grove is a small community located in Pendleton County, West Virginia.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
Susan Landau (born June 3, 1954, New York City) is an American mathematician, engineer, cybersecurity policy expert, and Bridge Professor in Cybersecurity and Policy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
A system administrator, or sysadmin, is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems; especially multi-user computers, such as servers.
A TACLANE (short for "Tactical FASTLANE" or Tactical Local Area Network Encryption) is a family of Inline Network Encryptors (INE) developed and manufactured by General Dynamics Mission Systems to meet the National Security Agency (NSA) requirements for High Assurance Internet Protocol Encryptor (HAIPE version 4.1 as of Nov 2013).
The Office of Tailored Access Operations (TAO) is a cyber-warfare intelligence-gathering unit of the National Security Agency (NSA).
Tangimoana is a community in the Manawatu-Wanganui Region of the North Island of New Zealand.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
A telephone company, also known as a telco, telephone service provider, or telecommunications operator, is a kind of communications service provider (CSP) (more precisely a telecommunications service provider or TSP) that provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications access.
Telephone tapping (also wire tapping or wiretapping in American English) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means.
The NSA/CSS Texas Cryptologic Center (TCC), also known as the Texas Cryptology Center, Texas Cryptographic Center or NSA Texas, is a satellite campus at the Medina Annex, Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, operated by the U.S. National Security Agency.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Baltimore Sun is the largest general-circulation daily newspaper based in the American state of Maryland and provides coverage of local and regional news, events, issues, people, and industries.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Codebreakers – The Story of Secret Writing is a book by David Kahn, published in 1967 comprehensively chronicling the history of cryptography from ancient Egypt to the time of its writing.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Hill is an American political newspaper and website published in Washington, D.C. since 1994.
The Jurist: Studies in Church Law and Ministry is the only journal published in the United States devoted to the study and promotion of Catholic canon law or church law.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Progressive is an American monthly magazine of politics, culture and progressivism with a pronounced liberal perspective.
The Puzzle Palace is a book written by James Bamford and published in 1982.
The Shadow Brokers (TSB) is a hacker group who first appeared in the summer of 2016.
The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America is a book on the National Security Agency by author James Bamford.
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the "quality press" market category.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
ThinThread is the name of a project that the United States National Security Agency (NSA) pursued during the 1990s, according to a May 17, 2006 article in The Baltimore Sun.
Tom Bowman is National Public Radio's Pentagon reporter, having been an investigative reporter for the Baltimore Sun for 19 years prior to that.
Tor is free software for enabling anonymous communication.
Trailblazer was a United States National Security Agency (NSA) program intended to develop a capability to analyze data carried on communications networks like the Internet.
Tribune Media, also known as Tribune Media Company and formerly known as the Tribune Company, is an American conglomerate that is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, United States.
Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) is a United States Government Department of Defense (DoD) standard that sets basic requirements for assessing the effectiveness of computer security controls built into a computer system.
Turbulence is a United States National Security Agency (NSA) information-technology project started c. 2005.
The two-man rule, also known as the four-eyes principle, is a control mechanism designed to achieve a high level of security for especially critical material or operations.
In the history of cryptography, "System 97 Typewriter for European Characters" or "Type B Cipher Machine", codenamed Purple by the United States, was a diplomatic cryptographic machine used by the Japanese Foreign Office just before and during World War II.
The United Kingdom – United States of America Agreement (UKUSA) is a multilateral agreement for cooperation in signals intelligence between Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Unit 8200 (יחידה 8200, Yehida Shmoneh-Matayim) is an Israeli Intelligence Corps unit responsible for collecting signal intelligence (SIGINT) and code decryption.
The unitary executive theory is a theory of American constitutional law holding that the President possesses the power to control the entire executive branch.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
United States Army Europe (USAREUR), formally United States Army Europe and Seventh Army, is an Army Service Component Command of the United States Army.
The United States Army Security Agency (ASA) was the United States Army's signals intelligence branch.
The United States Attorney General (A.G.) is the head of the United States Department of Justice per, concerned with all legal affairs, and is the chief lawyer of the United States government.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit (in case citations, 4th Cir.) is a federal court located in Richmond, Virginia, with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (in case citations, 6th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) is one of ten unified commands of the United States Department of Defense.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.
The United States District Court for the District of Maryland (in case citations, D. Md.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Maryland.
The United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC, also called the FISA Court) is a U.S. federal court established and authorized under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) to oversee requests for surveillance warrants against foreign spies inside the United States by federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies.
The U.S. House Committee on Armed Services, commonly known as the House Armed Services Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives.
The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States.
The United States Naval Institute (USNI), based in Annapolis, Maryland, is a private, non-profit, professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense and security issues.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.
The term United States person or U.S. person is used in various contexts in U.S. laws and regulations with different meanings.
The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (sometimes referred to as the Intelligence Committee or SSCI) is dedicated to overseeing the United States Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the federal government of the United States who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches.
United States territory is any extent of region under the sovereign jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States, including all waters (around islands or continental tracts) and all U.S. naval vessels.
The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.
Upstream collection is a term used by the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States for intercepting telephone and Internet traffic from the Internet backbone, i.e. major Internet cables and switches, both domestic and foreign.
The USA Freedom Act is a U.S. law enacted on June 2, 2015 that restored in modified form several provisions of the Patriot Act, which had expired the day before.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
The USS Liberty incident was an attack on a United States Navy technical research ship,, by Israeli Air Force jet fighter aircraft and Israeli Navy motor torpedo boats, on 8 June 1967, during the Six-Day War.
USS Pueblo (AGER-2) is a, attached to Navy intelligence as a spy ship, which was attacked and captured by North Korean forces on 23 January 1968, in what is known today as the "Pueblo incident" or alternatively, as the "Pueblo crisis".
Utah is a state in the western United States.
The Utah Data Center, also known as the Intelligence Community Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative Data Center, is a data storage facility for the United States Intelligence Community that is designed to store data estimated to be on the order of exabytes or larger.
The Venona project was a counterintelligence program initiated by the United States Army's Signal Intelligence Service (later the National Security Agency) that ran from February 1, 1943 until October 1, 1980.
Verizon Communications Inc., or simply Verizon, is an American multinational telecommunications conglomerate and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
Vulnerability assessment is a process of defining, identifying and classifying the security holes in information technology systems.
Walter Ze'ev Laqueur (born 26 May 1921) is an American historian, journalist and political commentator.
The WannaCry ransomware attack was a May 2017 worldwide cyberattack by the WannaCry ransomware cryptoworm, which targeted computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system by encrypting data and demanding ransom payments in the Bitcoin cryptocurrency.
A warrant is generally an order that serves as a specific type of authorization, that is, a writ issued by a competent officer, usually a judge or magistrate, which permits an otherwise illegal act that would violate individual rights and affords the person executing the writ protection from damages if the act is performed.
The Washington metropolitan area is the metropolitan area centered on Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
The Washington Naval Conference, also called the Washington Arms Conference or the Washington Disarmament Conference, was a military conference called by U.S. President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C., from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922.
The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States during the early 1970s, following a break-in by five men at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972, and President Richard Nixon's administration's subsequent attempt to cover up its involvement.
Westdeutscher Rundfunk Köln (WDR, West German Broadcasting Cologne) is a German public-broadcasting institution based in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia with its main office in Cologne.
The Western Union Company is an American financial services and communications company.
A whistleblower (also written as whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.
The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (WMF, or simply Wikimedia) is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California.
Wikimedia Foundation, et al.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
XKeyscore (XKEYSCORE or XKS) is a formerly secret computer system first used by the United States National Security Agency for searching and analyzing global Internet data, which it collects on a daily basis.
Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc..
The Yakima Herald-Republic is a newspaper published in Yakima, Washington, and distributed throughout Yakima, Kittitas and Klickitat counties as well as northwest Benton County.
The Yakima Training Center (YTC) is a United States Army training center, used for maneuver training, Land Warrior system testing and as a live fire exercise area.
The 1986 United States bombing of Libya, code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon, comprised air strikes by the United States against Libya on Tuesday, 15 April 1986.
On 5 April 1986, three people were killed and 229 injured when La Belle discothèque was bombed in the Friedenau district of West Berlin.
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