274 relations: Afrikaans, Albania, Albanian language, Algeria, Alghero, American English, Andorra, Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu, Arabic, Arabic languages, Aranese dialect, Austronesian languages, Balearic Islands, Bangladesh, Basque Country (autonomous community), Bòrd na Gàidhlig, Beijing, Beijing dialect, Bengali language, Berber languages, Borneo–Philippine languages, British English, British Overseas Territories, British people, Bulgaria, Bulgarian language, Canada, Canadian English, Canadian French, Canton of Grisons, Canton of Ticino, Cantonese, Carche, Catalan language, Catalonia, China, Chinese Civil War, Chipewyan language, Conrad Brann, Constitution of Finland, Constitution of India, Constitution of Ireland, Constitution of the Philippines, Court (royal), Cree language, Crown dependencies, Culture of Italy, Damara people, De facto, De jure, ..., Dialect, Djerba, Dnieper, Dogrib language, Dutch language, English Canada, English language, Ethnolect, Federal administration of Switzerland, Filipino language, Finland, Finnish language, First language, First Nations, Foras na Gaeilge, Formosan languages, French Canadians, French language, Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, Galicia (Spain), Galician language, German language, Germany, Global language system, Good Friday Agreement, Greek language, Group cohesiveness, Gujarati language, Gurung people, Gwich’in language, Haitian Creole, Hakka Chinese, Hausa language, Hebrew language, Herero language, High Court of Gujarat, Himba language, Hindi, Historical capitals of China, Home Nations, Igbo language, Ilocano language, Indigenous Australians, Indigenous language, Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indonesian language, Inuinnaqtun, Inuit, Inuktitut, Irish language, Irish language in Northern Ireland, Italian language, Italian unification, Italians, Italy, Japanese language, Javanese language, Jim Inhofe, Kavango people, Khoekhoe language, Khoikhoi, Khoisan languages, Kikuyu language, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, Kingdom of Naples, Kiranti languages, Kosovo, Kuomintang, La Franja, La Union, Language, Language Movement, Language policy, Languages of Africa, Languages of India, Languages of Serbia, Languages of Slovenia, Languages of the Philippines, Languages with official status in India, Lebanese Arabic, Lebanon, Limbu people, Lingua franca, List of endangered languages in Indonesia, List of largest languages without official status, Luo dialect, Luoyang, Luxembourgish, Magar language, Maithili language, Malay language, Malay Singaporeans, Malay trade and creole languages, Malaysia, Maltese language, Mandarin Chinese, Métis in Canada, Māori language, Modern Standard Arabic, Mongolian language, Monolingualism, Montenegro, Namibia, Nandi–Markweta languages, Nanjing, National Language Promotion Department, Nationalism, Navarre, Nepal, Nepali language, New Zealand, New Zealand English, New Zealand Sign Language, Newar language, Nigerian English, Nisga'a, Nisga'a language, Northern Ireland, Northern Sotho language, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Official language, Official Languages Act (Canada), Ojibwe language, Ovambo language, Pakistan, Pakistani English, Peter T. King, Philippine English, Philippines, Pinyin, Portuguese language, Pyrénées-Orientales, Qing dynasty, Quebec French, Quebec nationalism, Regional language, Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of Macedonia, Robert Burns, Romania, Romanian language, Romansh language, Russia, Russian language, Sami languages, San people, Sanskrit, Scotland, Scots language, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish literature, Second language, Serbia, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbian language, Sherpa language, Sign language, Singapore, Singapore English, Slavey language, Slovene language, Slovenia, Sotho language, South Africa, South African English, South African Sign Language, Southern Ndebele language, Spain, Spanish language, Standard Chinese, Standard French, Standard German, Standard language, Standard Spanish, State school, Stateless nation, Swazi language, Swedish language, Switzerland, Tagalog language, Taiwan, Taiwan under Japanese rule, Tamang people, Tamil language, Telugu language, The Hindu, The Philippine Star, Tsonga language, Tswana language, Tunisia, Tunisian Arabic, Turkey, Turkish language, Ukraine, Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster-Scots Agency, United Kingdom, United Kingdom census, 2011, United States, United States Constitution, United States House of Representatives, United States Senate, Urdu, Val d'Aran, Valencia, Valencian Community, Varieties of Chinese, Variety (linguistics), Venda language, Vernacular, Vietnam, Vietnamese language, Wales, Welsh language, Welsh Language Board, West Germanic languages, Working language, Xhosa language, Xi'an, Xinhai Revolution, Yoruba language, Yue Chinese, Zulu language. Expand index (224 more) » « Shrink index
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Alghero (L'Alguer,,; S'Alighèra; La Liéra), is a town of about 44,000 inhabitants in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northwestern Sardinia, next to the Mediterranean Sea.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
The Anti-Hindi imposition agitations of Tamil Nadu were a series of agitations that happened in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu (formerly Madras State and part of Madras Presidency) during both pre- and post-Independence periods.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic language family consists of all of the descendants of Proto-Arabic, including.
Aranese (Aranés) is a standardized form of the Pyrenean Gascon variety of the Occitan language spoken in the Val d'Aran, in northwestern Catalonia close to the Spanish border with France, where it is one of the three official languages beside Catalan and Spanish.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
Bòrd na Gàidhlig is the executive non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government with responsibility for Gaelic.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Beijing dialect, also known as Pekingese, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Borneo–Philippines languages (also known as Outer Hesperonesian or Outer Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a paraphyletic group of the Austronesian languages which includes the languages of the Philippines, much of Borneo, the northern peninsula of Sulawesi, and Madagascar.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
Canadian French (français canadien) refers to a variety of dialects of the French language generally spoken in Canada.
The canton of (the) Grisons, or canton of Graubünden is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Carche (El Carxe) is a mountainous, sparsely populated area in the Region of Murcia, Spain, lying between the municipalities of Jumilla and Yecla.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chipewyan, ethnonym Dënesųłiné, is the language spoken by the Chipewyan people of northwestern Canada.
Conrad Max Benedict Brann (born July 20, 1925 in Rostock, Germany died June 23, 2014) was a German-British linguist.
The Constitution of Finland (Suomen perustuslaki or Finlands grundlag) is the supreme source of national law of Finland.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland.
The Constitution of the Philippines (Filipino: Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas or Konstitusyon ng Pilipinas) is the constitution or supreme law of the Republic of the Philippines.
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.
Cree (also known as Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi) is a dialect continuum of Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Alberta to Labrador.
Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.
Italy is considered the birthplace of Western civilization and a cultural superpower.
The Damara, plural Damaran (Khoekhoegowab: ǂNūkhoen, Black people, Bergdamara, referring to their extended stay in hilly and mountainous sites, also called at various times the Daman or the Damaqua) are an ethnic group who make up 8.5% of Namibia's population.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Djerba (جربة), also transliterated as Jerba or Jarbah, is, at, the largest island of North Africa, located in the Gulf of Gabès, off the coast of Tunisia.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
The Dogrib" language or Tłı̨chǫ Yatıì is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken by the Tłı̨chǫ (Dogrib people) of the Canadian Northwest Territories.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
English Canada is a term referring to one of the following.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An ethnolect is a variety of a language associated with a certain ethnic or cultural subgroup.
The federal administration of Switzerland (Bundesverwaltung, Administration fédérale, Amministrazione federale, Tribunal administrativ federal) is the ensemble of agencies that constitute, together with the Swiss Federal Council, the executive branch of the Swiss federal authorities.
Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.
Foras na Gaeilge ("Irish Institute"; often abbreviated to FnaG) is a public body responsible for the promotion of the Irish language throughout the island of Ireland, including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
"Formosan languages" is a cover term for the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which belong to the Austronesian language family.
French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005 (Achd na Gàidhlig (Alba) 2005) is an Act of the Scottish Parliament passed in 2005, and is the first piece of legislation to give formal recognition to the Scottish Gaelic language.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The global language system is the "ingenious pattern of connections between language groups".
The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Group cohesiveness (also called group cohesion and social cohesion) arises when bonds link members of a social group to one another and to the group as a whole.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Gurung people, also called Tamu, are an ethnic group from different parts of Nepal.
The Gwich’in language (Dinju Zhuh K’yuu) belongs to the Athabaskan language family and is spoken by the Gwich’in First Nation (Canada) / Alaska Native People (United States).
Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen,; créole haïtien) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6–12million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
Herero (Otjiherero) is a language of the Bantu subfamily of the Niger–Congo group.
The Gujarat High Court is the High Court of the state of Gujarat.
Himba (Himbaka), also known as Simba, is a moribund Bantu language of Gabon.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
There are traditionally four historical capitals of China, collectively referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China".
The home nations, refers collectively to England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland (countries of the United Kingdom), and in certain sports (e.g. rugby football) contexts, to England, Scotland, Wales and the whole island of Ireland.
Igbo (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh), is the principal native language of the Igbo people, an ethnic group of southeastern Nigeria.
Ilocano (also Ilokano;; Ilocano: Pagsasao nga Ilokano) is the third most-spoken native language of the Philippines.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.
An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
Indigenous peoples in Canada, also known as Native Canadians or Aboriginal Canadians, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
Inuinnaqtun (natively meaning like the real human beings/peoples), is an indigenous Inuit language of Canada and a dialect of Inuvialuktun.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Inuktitut (syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from inuk, "person" + -titut, "like", "in the manner of"), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The Irish language (also known as Irish Gaelic) (Gaeilge) is a recognised minority language in Northern Ireland.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
James Mountain Inhofe (born November 17, 1934) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Oklahoma, a seat he was first elected to in 1994.
The Kavango people, also known as the vaKavango, are a Bantu ethnic group that resides on the Namibian side of the Namibian–Angolan border along the Kavango River.
The Khoekhoe language, Khoekhoegowab, also known by the ethnic term Nama and formerly as Hottentot, is the most widespread of those non-Bantu languages of southern Africa that contain "click" sounds and have therefore been loosely classified as Khoisan.
The Khoikhoi (updated orthography Khoekhoe, from Khoekhoegowab Khoekhoen; formerly also Hottentots"Hottentot, n. and adj." OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. Nienaber, 'The origin of the name “Hottentot” ', African Studies, 22:2 (1963), 65-90,. See also.) are the traditionally nomadic pastoralist non-Bantu indigenous population of southwestern Africa.
The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.
Kikuyu or Gikuyu (Gĩkũyũ) is a language of the Bantu family spoken primarily by the Kikuyu people (Agĩkũyũ) of Kenya.
The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto, Königreich Lombardo–Venetien; Regnum Langobardiae et Venetiae), commonly called the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, was a constituent land (crown land) of the Austrian Empire.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Kiranti languages are a major family of Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in Nepal, Sikkim and Darjeeling Hills by the Kirati people.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
La Franja ("The Strip") is the area of Catalan-speaking territories of Aragon bordering Catalonia, in Spain.
La Union (Probinsia ti La Union; Luyag na La Union) is a province in the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in the island of Luzon.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The Language Movement (ভাষা আন্দোলন Bhasha Andolôn) was a political movement in former East Bengal (currently Bangladesh) advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of the then-Dominion of Pakistan in order to allow its use in government affairs, the continuation of its use as a medium of education, its use in media, currency and stamps, and to maintain its writing in the Bengali script.
Many countries have a language policy designed to favor or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages.
The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
Serbia has only one nationwide official language, which is Serbian.
Slovenia has been a meeting area of the Slavic, Germanic, Romance, and Uralic linguistic and cultural regions, which makes it the most complex meeting point of languages in Europe.
There are some 120 to 187 languages and dialects in the Philippines, depending on the method of classification.
The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.
Lebanese Arabic or Lebanese is a variety of Levantine Arabic, indigenous to and spoken primarily in Lebanon, with significant linguistic influences borrowed from other Middle Eastern and European languages, and is in some ways unique from other varieties of Arabic.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Limbu (ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ) (exonym) or Yakthung (endonym) are Kirati people indigenous and native to their homeland himalayas, hills, mountainous and plains regions of Limbuwan.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers.
Below is list of languages without any official status (or a minority language) with more than a million speakers, ordered by the number of native speakers.
The Luo dialect, Dholuo (pronounced) or Nilotic Kavirondo (pejorative colonial term), is the eponymous dialect of the Luo group of Nilotic languages, spoken by about 6 million Luo people of Kenya and Tanzania, who occupy parts of the eastern shore of Lake Victoria and areas to the south.
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.
Dhut magar (मगर भाषा Dhut magar bhasa) is a language spoken mainly in Nepal, Southern Bhutan, Darjeeling, India, and Sikkim, India, by the Magar people.
Maithili (Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and is one of the 22 recognised Indian languages.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Malay Singaporeans or Singaporean Malays (Melayu Singapura; Jawi: ملايو سيڠاڤورا) are defined by the Government of Singapore and by intellectuals in the country using the broader concept of the Malay race, including ethnic Malays and related ethnic groups.
In addition to its classical and literary form, Malay had various regional dialects established before the rise of the Malaccan Sultanate.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
The Métis in Canada are a group of peoples in Canada who trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers.
Māori, also known as te reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
Monoglottism (Greek μόνοσ monos, "alone, solitary", + γλώττα glotta, "tongue, language") or, more commonly, monolingualism or unilingualism, is the condition of being able to speak only a single language, as opposed to multilingualism.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The Nandi languages, or Kalenjin proper, are a dialect cluster of the Kalenjin branch of the Nilotic language family.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The National Language Promotion Department (اِدارۀ فروغِ قومی زُبان —), formerly known as the National Language Authority (or Urdu Language Authority) is an autonomous regulatory institution established in 1979 to support the advancement and promotion of Urdu which is the national language of Pakistan.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
New Zealand English (NZE) is the variant of the English language spoken by most English-speaking New Zealanders.
New Zealand Sign Language or NZSL (Te Reo Rotarota) is the main language of the Deaf community in New Zealand.
Newar or Newari, also known as Nepal Bhasa (नेपाल भाषा), is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Newar people, the indigenous inhabitants of Nepal Mandala, which consists of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding regions in Nepal.
Nigerian English, also known as Nigerian Standard English, is a dialect of English spoken in Nigeria.
The Nisga’a, often formerly spelled Nishga and spelled in the Nisga’a language as Nisg̱a’a (pronounced), are an Indigenous people of Canada in British Columbia.
Nisga’a (also Nass, Nisgha, Nisg̱a’a, Nishka, Niska, Nishga, Nisqa’a) is a Tsimshianic language of the Nisga'a people of northwestern British Columbia.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Northern Sotho (Sesotho sa Leboa), also (incorrectly) known by the name of its standardised dialect version Sepedi (or Pedi) is a Bantu language spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Official Languages Act (French: Loi sur les langues officielles) is a Canadian law that came into force on September 9, 1969, which gives French and English equal status in the government of Canada.
Ojibwe, also known as Ojibwa, Ojibway, Chippewa, or Otchipwe,R.
The Ovambo language, Oshiwambo, is a dialect cluster spoken by the Ovambo people in Angola and northern Namibia, of which the written standards are Kwanyama and Ndonga.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistani English or Paklish is the group of English language varieties spoken and written in Pakistan.
Peter Thomas King (born April 5, 1944) is an American politician and current U.S. Representative for.
Philippine English is any variety of English (similar and related to English) native to the Philippines, including those used by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Pyrénées-Orientales (Pirineus Orientals; Pirenèus Orientals; "Eastern Pyrenees") is a department of southern France adjacent to the northern Spanish frontier and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Québec French (français québécois; also known as Québécois French or simply Québécois) is the predominant variety of the French language in Canada, in its formal and informal registers.
Quebec nationalism or Québécois nationalism asserts that the Québécois people are a nation, distinct from the rest of Canada, and promotes the unity of the Québécois people in the province of Quebec.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Sherpa (also Sharpa, Xiaerba, Sherwa) is a language spoken in Nepal and the Indian state of Sikkim, mainly by the Sherpa community.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Singapore English is the English language spoken in Singapore, of which there are two main forms, Standard Singapore English and Singapore Colloquial English (better known as Singlish).
Slavey (also Slave, Slavé) is an Athabaskan language spoken among the Slavey and Sahtu people of Canada in the Northwest Territories where it also has official status.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Sotho (Sesotho; also known as Southern Sotho, or Southern Sesotho, Historically also Suto, or Suthu, Souto, Sisutho, Sutu, or Sesutu, according to the pronunciation of the name.) is a Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects native to South Africans.
South African Sign Language (SASL) is the primary sign language spoken by Deaf in South Africa.
Southern Ndebele, also known as Transvaal Ndebele, isiNdebele, Ndebele or South Ndebele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, spoken by the Ndebele people of South Africa.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Standard French (in French: le français standard, le français normé, le français neutre or le français international, the last being a Quebec invention) is an unofficial term for a standard variety of the French language.
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Standard Spanish is a linguistic variety, or lect, that is considered a correct educated standard for the Spanish language, mainly in its written form.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
A stateless nation is a political term for an ethnic group or nation that does not possess its own stateDictionary Of Public Administration, U.C. Mandal, Sarup & Sons 2007, 505 p. and is not the majority population in any nation state.
The Swazi or Swati language (Swazi: siSwati) is a Bantu language of the Nguni group spoken in Swaziland and South Africa by the Swazi people.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiwan under Japanese rule is the period between 1895 and 1945 in which the island of Taiwan (including the Penghu Islands) was a dependency of the Empire of Japan, after Qing China lost the First Sino-Japanese War to Japan and ceded Taiwan Province in the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
The Tamang (Devnagari: तामाङ; tāmāng) are the largest Tibeto-Burman ethnic group within Nepal and traditionally Buddhist by religion.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Philippine Star (self-styled The Philippine STAR) is a print and digital newspaper in the Philippines and the flagship brand of the PhilStar Media Group.
Tsonga (Xitsonga) is a southern African Bantu language spoken by the Tsonga people.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Tunisian Arabic, or Tunisian, is a set of dialects of Maghrebi Arabic spoken in Tunisia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch), also known as Ullans, is the Scots language as spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.
The Ulster-Scots Agency (Tha Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch) is a cross-border body for Ireland which seeks to "promote the study, conservation and development of Ulster-Scots as a living language, to encourage and develop the full range of its attendant culture, and to promote an understanding of the history of the Ulster-Scots.".
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Aran (previously officially called Val d'Aran) is an administrative entity in Catalonia, Spain, consisting of the Aran Valley, in area, in the Pyrenees mountains, in the northwestern part of the province of Lleida.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Venda, also known as Tshivenḓa or Luvenḓa, is a Bantu language and an official language of South Africa.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
The Welsh Language Board (Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) was a statutory body set up by Her Majesty's Government under the Welsh Language Act 1993.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
A working language (also procedural language) is a language that is given a unique legal status in a supranational company, society, state or other body or organization as its primary means of communication.
Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa.
Yue or Yueh is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.