301 relations: A. C. Grayling, African National Congress, Afrikaners, Albert Einstein, Alsace-Lorraine, American nationalism, American Revolution, Anomie, Anti-individualism, Anti-nationalism, Anti-revisionism, Apartheid, Arab League, Arab nationalism, Arab Spring, Arnold J. Toynbee, Austria-Hungary, Émile Durkheim, Banat, Bačka and Baranja, Bangladesh Awami League, Barry Posen, Battle of Adwa, Belarusians, Benedict Anderson, Benito Mussolini, Benjamin Barber, Bertrand Russell, Black nationalism, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Breakup of Yugoslavia, Brexit, British Empire, Carlton J. H. Hayes, Catholic Church, Central Europe, Centre Party (Germany), Charles Darwin, Charles Taylor (philosopher), Chauvinism, Citizenship, Civic nationalism, Colonialism, Commoner, Commonwealth Games, Communism, Confederation of the Rhine, Congress of Berlin, Congress Poland, Cornwall, Crimea, ..., Croatia, Cuban Revolution, Cultural assimilation, Culture, Culture of Poland, David Miller (philosopher), Decolonization, Donald Trump, Dreyfus affair, Duchy of Warsaw, Egalitarianism, Egypt, Empire-building, Ernest Renan, Ethnic group, Ethnic nationalism, Ethnocentrism, Ethnosymbolism, European Union, Femininity, Feminization (sociology), Ferdinand Tönnies, Fidel Castro, Fordham University, Francesco Crispi, French nationalism, French Revolution, Friedrich Engels, Gellner's theory of nationalism, Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, Gender, George Orwell, George Peabody Gooch, German nationalism, Germans, Global issue, Globalism, Greece, Habsburg Monarchy, Harold Perkin, Harvard Asia Pacific Review, Hegemonic masculinity, Heinrich von Sybel, Heinrich von Treitschke, Henry James Sumner Maine, Herbert Spencer, Heteronormativity, Hindutva, Historiography and nationalism, Historische Zeitschrift, History of Palestine, History of South Africa, Holy Roman Empire, Homeland, Hoover Institution, Ideology, Imagined Communities, Individual and group rights, Industrial Revolution, Ingroups and outgroups, Internationalism (politics), Interpersonal communication, Intersectionality, Iran, Iraq, Iraqi Civil War (2014–present), Isaiah Berlin, Islamic revival, Islamism, Israel, Italian Fascism, Italian unification, January Uprising, Józef Piłsudski, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jeffrey Herbst, Jewish–Roman wars, Jingoism, Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Gustav Droysen, John Arbuthnot, John Bull, John Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, John Tooby, Jordan, Joseph Stalin, Karl Marx, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Kinship, Kosovo, Kresy, Kulturkampf, Kuomintang, Language, Leda Cosmides, Left-wing nationalism, Left-wing politics, Liberalism, Linda Colley, Lingua franca, List of active nationalist parties in Europe, List of figures in nationalism, List of historical separatist movements, List of nationalist organizations, Lists of active separatist movements, Mahatma Gandhi, Marxism, Marxism and the National Question, Marxism–Leninism, Marxists Internet Archive, Masculinity, Max Weber, May Fourth Movement, Means of production, Mebyon Kernow, Michael Walzer, Militarism, Modernism, Monroe Doctrine, Multiculturalism, Napoleon, Nation, Nation state, National anthem, National flag, National identity, National language, National memory, National myth, National Rally (France), National symbol, National-Democratic Party (Poland), Nationalism studies, Nations and Nationalism (journal), Nazi Germany, Nazism, Nelson Mandela, New Culture Movement, New Spain, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nippon Kaigi, November Uprising, Old Serbia, Opposition to immigration, Orientalism, Otto von Bismarck, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Serbia, Oxford University Press, Pacifism, Padanian nationalism, Pakistani nationalism, Pan-Islamism, Pan-Slavism, Paradigm, Partitions of Poland, Patriotism, Pegida, Philippines, Piast Concept, Plaid Cymru, Poland, Polish language, Political freedom, Popular sovereignty, Populism, Primordialism, Principality of Serbia, Prussia, Public sphere, Rabindranath Tagore, Race (human categorization), Rationalism, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Referendum, Refugees of the Syrian Civil War, Religion, Representative democracy, Revanchism, Rodrigo Duterte, Roman Dmowski, Rosa Luxemburg, Rule, Britannia!, Russian Empire, Russo-Japanese War, Sasanian Empire, Saudi Arabia, Self-determination, Self-governance, September 11 attacks, Serbian Revolution, Sexualization, Sinn Féin, Slavs, Social alienation, Social class, Social constructionism, Social contract, Social Darwinism, Socialism, Socialism in One Country, South Slavs, Southern Italy, Sovereignty, Soviet Union, Spanish American wars of independence, Spillover of the Syrian Civil War, State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, Statism, Sun Yat-sen, Syria, Syrian Civil War, Talcott Parsons, Telos (journal), The Oxford Companion to Music, The Saturday Evening Post, Thomas Arne, Thomas Hobbes, Toleration, Tribe, Turkish constitutional referendum, 2017, Two-nation theory, Types of nationalism, UK Independence Party, Ukrainians, Union Jack, United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016, United States presidential election, 2016, University of South Carolina, Vardar Macedonia, Vladimir Lenin, Vladimir Putin, Wales, Walter Bagehot, Warrior, Western Roman Empire, What Is a Nation?, White nationalism, White supremacy, World War I, Xenophobia, Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic group, Young Bosnia, Yugoslavia, Zionism, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 2003 invasion of Iraq, 26th of July Movement. 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Anthony Clifford Grayling (born 3 April 1949), usually known as A. C. Grayling, is a British philosopher and author.
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
American nationalism or United States nationalism is a form of civic nationalism found in the United States.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Anomie is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals".
Anti-individualism (also known as content externalism) is an approach to various areas of thought (both analytic and continental) including philosophy, the philosophy of psychology, French historical studies, literature, phenomenology and linguistics.
Anti-nationalism denotes the sentiments associated with an opposition to nationalism.
Anti-revisionism is a position within Marxism–Leninism which emerged in the 1950s in opposition to the reforms of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
Arnold Joseph Toynbee (14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
Banat, Bačka and Baranja (Serbian: Banat, Bačka i Baranja / Банат, Бачка и Барања) was a de facto province of the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes between November 1918 and 1922.
The Bangladesh Awami League (BAL) (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the two major political parties of Bangladesh.
Barry Ross Posen (born July 13, 1952) is Ford International Professor of Political Science at MIT and the director of MIT's Security Studies Program.
The Battle of Adwa (Amharic: አድዋ; Amharic translated: Adowa, or sometimes by the Italian name Adua) was fought on 1 March 1896 between the Ethiopian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy near the town of Adwa, Ethiopia, in Tigray.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Benedict Richard O'Gorman Anderson (August 26, 1936 – December 13, 2015) was a political scientist and historian, best known for his 1983 book Imagined Communities, which explored the origins of nationalism.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Benjamin R. Barber (August 2, 1939 – April 24, 2017) was an American political theorist and author, perhaps best known for his 1995 bestseller, Jihad vs. McWorld, and for 2013's If Mayors Ruled the World as well as the classic of democratic theory, 1984's Strong Democracy (revised in 2004).
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Black nationalism is a type of nationalism which espouses the belief that black people are a nation and seeks to develop and maintain a black identity.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.
Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Carlton Joseph Huntley Hayes (May 16, 1882 – September 2, 1964) was an American historian, educator, diplomat, devout Catholic and academic.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or just Zentrum) is a lay Catholic political party in Germany, primarily influential during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles Margrave Taylor (born 1931) is a Canadian philosopher from Montreal, Quebec, and professor emeritus at McGill University best known for his contributions to political philosophy, the philosophy of social science, the history of philosophy, and intellectual history.
Chauvinism is a form of extreme patriotism and a belief in national superiority and glory.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Civic nationalism, also known as liberal nationalism, is a form of nationalism identified by political philosophers who believe in an inclusive form of nationalism that adheres with traditional liberal values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy.
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro).
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
The culture of Poland is the product of its geography and its distinct historical evolution which is closely connected to its intricate thousand-year history.
David W. Miller (born 19 August 1942, Watford) is an English philosopher and prominent exponent of critical rationalism.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
The Dreyfus Affair (l'affaire Dreyfus) was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Empire-building is the practice of attempting to obtain greater power and authority within an organization for the purposes of self-aggrandizement, particularly by having extra staff or subordinates.
Joseph Ernest Renan (28 February 1823 – 2 October 1892) was a French expert of Semitic languages and civilizations (philology), philosopher, historian, and writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethno-nationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the nation is defined in terms of ethnicity.
Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.
Ethnosymbolism is a school of thought in the study of nationalism that stresses the importance of symbols, myths, values and traditions in the formation and persistence of the modern nation state.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Femininity (also called girlishness, womanliness or womanhood) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with girls and women.
In sociology, feminization is the shift in gender roles and sex roles in a society, group, or organization towards a focus upon the feminine.
Ferdinand Tönnies (26 July 1855 – 9 April 1936) was a German sociologist and philosopher.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.
Francesco Crispi (4 October 1818 – 12 August 1901) was an Italian patriot and statesman.
French nationalism promotes the cultural unity of the French nation.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Gellner's theory of nationalism was developed by Ernest Gellner over a number of publications from around the early 1960s to his 1995 death.
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, generally translated as "community and society", are categories which were used by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies in order to categorize social ties into two dichotomous sociological types which define each other.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.
George Peabody Gooch (21 October 1873 – 31 August 1968) was a British journalist, historian and Liberal Party politician.
German nationalism is the nationalist idea that Germans are a nation, promotes the unity of Germans and German-speakers into a nation state, and emphasizes and takes pride in the national identity of Germans.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Informally, a global issue is issue that any social, economic, political or environmental problem that adversely affects the global community and our environment, possibly in a catastrophic way.
Globalism is a group of ideologies that advocate the concept of globalization.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Harold James Perkin (11 November 1926 – 16 October 2004) was an English social historian and founder of the Social History Society (1976).
The Harvard Asia Pacific Review is a biannual academic journal covering the Asia-Pacific Region and edited by students at Harvard University.
In gender studies, hegemonic masculinity is part of R.W. Connell's gender order theory, which recognizes multiple masculinities that vary across time, culture and the individual.
Heinrich Karl Ludolf von Sybel (2 December 1817 – 1 August 1895), German historian, came from a Protestant family which had long been established at Soest, in Westphalia.
Heinrich Gotthard von Treitschke (15 September 1834 – 28 April 1896) was a German historian, political writer and National Liberal member of the Reichstag during the time of the German Empire.
Sir Henry James Sumner Maine, (15 August 1822 – 3 February 1888), was a British comparative jurist and historian.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Heteronormativity is the belief that people fall into distinct and complementary genders (male and female) with natural roles in life.
Hindutva ("Hinduness"), a term popularised by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in 1923, is the predominant form of Hindu nationalism in India.
Historiography is the study of how history is written.
Historische Zeitschrift, founded in 1859 by Heinrich von Sybel is considered to be the first and for a time the foremost historical journal.
The history of Palestine is the study of the past in the region of Palestine, generally defined as a geographic region in the Southern Levant between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River (where Israel and Palestine are today), and various adjoining lands.
The first humans are believed to have inhabited South Africa more than 100,000 years ago.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
A homeland (country of origin and native land) is the concept of the place (cultural geography) with which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association – the country in which a particular national identity began.
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism is a book by Benedict Anderson.
Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
In sociology and social psychology, an ingroup is a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member.
Internationalism is a political principle which transcends nationalism and advocates a greater political or economic cooperation among nations and people.
Interpersonal communication is an exchange of information between two or more people.
Intersectionality is an analytic framework which attempts to identify how interlocking systems of power impact those who are most marginalized in society.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraqi Civil War is an armed conflict which began in January 2014.
Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.
Islamic revival (تجديد, lit. "regeneration, renewal"; also الصحوة الإسلامية, "Islamic awakening") refers to a revival of the Islamic religion.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jeffrey I. Herbst is an American political scientist, the former 16th President of Colgate University, and was President and CEO of the Newseum in Washington, D.C. He resigned from his post at the Newseum in 2017 as the museum announced financial issues.
The Jewish–Roman wars were a series of large-scale revolts by the Jews of the Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire between 66 and 136 CE.
Jingoism is nationalism in the form of aggressive foreign policy, such as a country's advocacy for the use of threats or actual force, as opposed to peaceful relations, in efforts to safeguard what it perceives as its national interests.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
Johann Gustav Bernhard Droysen (6 July 180819 June 1884) was a German historian.
John Arbuthnot (baptised 29 April 1667 – 27 February 1735), often known simply as Dr Arbuthnot, was a Scottish physician, satirist and polymath in London.
John Bull is a national personification of the United Kingdom in general and England in particular, especially in political cartoons and similar graphic works.
John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, (10 January 1834 – 19 June 1902), was an English Catholic historian, politician, and writer.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
John Tooby is an American anthropologist, who, together with psychologist wife Leda Cosmides, helped pioneer the field of evolutionary psychology.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
Kulturkampf ("culture struggle") is a German term referring to power struggles between emerging constitutional democratic nation states and the Roman Catholic Church over the place and role of religion in modern polity, usually in connection with secularization campaigns.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Leda Cosmides (born May 1957 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is an American psychologist, who, together with anthropologist husband John Tooby, helped develop the field of evolutionary psychology.
Left-wing nationalism, leftist nationalism or socialist nationalism describes a form of nationalism based upon social equality (not necessary political equality), popular sovereignty and national self-determination.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Linda Colley, CBE, FBA, FRSL, FRHistS (born 13 September 1949 in Chester, England) is a British historian of Britain, empire and nationalism.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Nationalist parties in Europe have been on the rise since the early 2010s due to, according to some, austerity measures and immigration.
This is a list of prominent figures on the topic of nationalism.
This is a list of historical separatist movements around the world.
This is a list of nationalist organizations.
Presented below is a list of lists of active, separatist movements.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Marxism and the National Question (Russian: Марксизм и национальный вопрос) is a short work of Marxist theory written by Joseph Stalin in January 1913 while living in Vienna.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists.org) is a non-profit website that hosts a multilingual library (created in 1990) of the works of Marxist, communist, socialist, and anarchist writers, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Che Guevara, Mikhail Bakunin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, as well as that of writers of related ideologies, and even unrelated ones (for instance, Sun Tzu and Adam Smith).
Masculinity (manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with boys and men.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.
In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.
Mebyon Kernow – The Party for Cornwall (MK; Cornish for Sons of Cornwall) is a Cornish nationalist, centre-left political party in Cornwall, United Kingdom.
Michael Walzer (March 3, 1935) is a prominent American political theorist and public intellectual.
Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values; examples of modern militarist states include the United States, Russia and Turkey.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Monroe Doctrine was a United States policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas beginning in 1823.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.
A national flag is a flag that represents and symbolizes a country.
National identity is one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
National memory is a form of collective memory defined by shared experiences and culture.
A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nation's past.
The National Rally (Rassemblement national, RN), formerly known as the National Front (Front national,; FN) until 2018, is a right-wing populist and nationalist political party in France.
A national symbol is a symbol of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community: the sovereign states but also nations and countries in a state of colonial or other dependence, (con)federal integration, or even an ethnocultural community considered a 'nationality' despite having no political autonomy.
The National-Democratic Party (Stronnictwo Demokratyczno-Narodowe, SDN) was a secret political party created in 1897 in the Russian Partition of Poland by the National League (Liga Narodowa), a conspirational Polish organization active in all three partitions.
Nationalism studies is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of nationalism and related issues.
Nations and Nationalism is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research on nationalism and related issues.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912 to address China’s problems.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
The, Jun 6th 2015, The Economist. is a Japanese nationalist unincorporated association that was established in 1997 and has approximately 38,000 members.
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
Old Serbia (translit) is a term used for the territory which was the core of medieval Serbia.
Opposition to immigration exists in most states with immigration, and has become a significant political issue in many countries.
Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world).
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The territory of what is now the Republic of Serbia was part of the Ottoman Empire throughout the Early Modern period, especially Central Serbia, unlike Vojvodina which has passed to Habsburg rule starting from the end of the 17th century (with several takeovers of Central Serbia as well).
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
Padanian nationalism is an ideology and a regionalist movement demanding more autonomy, or even independence from Italy, for Padania or Northern Italy.
Pakistani nationalism refers to the political, cultural, linguistic, historical, religious and geographical expression of patriotism by the people of Pakistan, of pride in the history, heritage and identity of Pakistan, and visions for its future.
Pan-Islamism (الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state – often a Caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles.
Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples.
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.
Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamisation of the West (Occident) (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes), abbreviated PEGIDA or Pegida, is a German nationalist, anti-Islam, right-wing political movement.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Piast concept is a political idea of Polish state based on its initial territories under the Piast dynasty, and containing mostly Polish population.
Plaid Cymru (officially Plaid Cymru – Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a social-democratic political party in Wales advocating for Welsh independence from the United Kingdom within the European Union.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
Popular sovereignty, or sovereignty of the peoples' rule, is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
Primordialism or perennialism is the argument which contends that nations are ancient, natural phenomena.
The Principality of Serbia (Кнежевина Србија / Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution, which lasted between 1804 and 1817.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The public sphere (German Öffentlichkeit) is an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.
Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
Refugees of the Syrian Civil War or Syrian refugees are citizens and permanent residents of Syrian Arab Republic, who have fled from their country since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and have sought asylum in other parts of the world. In 2016, from an estimated pre-war population of 22 million, the United Nations (UN) identified 13.5 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance, of which more than 6 million are internally displaced within Syria, and around 5 million are refugees outside of Syria. The vast majority of the latter are hosted by countries neighboring Syria. Among countries of the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP), a coordination platform including neighboring countries (with the exception of Israel) and Egypt, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) counted 5,165,502 registered refugees, as of August 2017. Turkey is the largest host country of registered refugees with over 3.5 million Syrian refugees. The UNHCR counted almost 1 million asylum applicants in Europe, as of August 2017. Humanitarian aid to internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria and Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries is planned largely through the UNHCR. By 2016, various nations had made pledges to the UNHCR to permanently resettle 170,000 registered refugees.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Revanchism (from revanche, "revenge") is the political manifestation of the will to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country, often following a war or social movement.
Rodrigo Roa Duterte (born March 28, 1945), also known as Digong and Rody, is a Filipino politician who is the 16th and current President of the Philippines and the first from Mindanao, the southernmost island of the country to hold the office.
Roman Stanisław Dmowski (9 August 1864 – 2 January 1939) was a Polish politician, statesman, and co-founder and chief ideologue of the right-wing National Democracy ("ND": in Polish, "Endecja") political movement.
Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.
"Rule, Britannia!" is a British patriotic song, originating from the poem "Rule, Britannia" by James Thomson and set to music by Thomas Arne in 1740.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The Serbian Revolution was a national uprising and constitutional change in Serbia that took place between 1804 and 1835, during which this territory evolved from an Ottoman province into a rebel territory, a constitutional monarchy and modern Serbia.
Sexualization (or sexualisation) is to make something sexual in character or quality, or to become aware of sexuality, especially in relation to men and women.
Sinn Féin (isbn) is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Social alienation is "a condition in social relationships reflected by a low degree of integration or common values and a high degree of distance or isolation between individuals, or between an individual and a group of people in a community or work environment".
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
The term Social Darwinism is used to refer to various ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Socialism in one country (sotsializm v odnoi strane) was a theory put forth by Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Bukharin in 1924 which was eventually adopted by the Soviet Union as state policy.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, after the French invasion of Spain during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.
The spillover of the Syrian Civil War is the impact of the Syrian Civil War in the Arab world.
The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba/Држава Словенаца, Хрвата и Срба; Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov) was a short-lived entity formed at the end of World War I by Slovenes, Croats and Serbs residing in what were the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
In political science, statism is the belief that the state should control either economic or social policy, or both, to some degree.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition, best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism.
Telos is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal established in May 1968 to provide the New Left with a coherent theoretical perspective.
The Oxford Companion to Music is a music reference book in the series of Oxford Companions produced by the Oxford University Press.
The Saturday Evening Post is an American magazine published six times a year.
Thomas Augustine Arne (12 March 1710, London – 5 March 1778, London) was an English composer.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
A constitutional referendum was held throughout Turkey on 16 April 2017 on whether to approve 18 proposed amendments to the Turkish constitution that were brought forward by the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP).
The two-nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan.
Many scholars argue that there is more than one type of nationalism.
The UK Independence Party (UKIP) is a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum and the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the European Union (EU) under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.
The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.
The University of South Carolina (also referred to as UofSC, USC, SC, South Carolina, or simply Carolina) is a public, co-educational research university in Columbia, South Carolina, United States, with seven satellite campuses.
Vardar Macedonia (Macedonian and Вардарска Македонија, Vardarska Makedonija) was the name given to the territory of Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia roughly corresponding to today's Republic of Macedonia.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877) was a British journalist, businessman, and essayist, who wrote extensively about government, economics, and literature.
A warrior is a person specializing in combat or warfare, especially within the context of a tribal or clan-based warrior culture society that recognizes a separate warrior class or caste.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
"What is a Nation?" ("Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?") is an 1882 lecture by French historian Ernest Renan (1823–1892), known for the statements that a nation is "a daily referendum", and that nations are based as much on what the people jointly forget, as what they remember.
White nationalism is a type of nationalism or pan-nationalism which holds the belief that white people are a raceHeidi Beirich and Kevin Hicks.
White supremacy or white supremacism is a racist ideology based upon the belief that white people are superior in many ways to people of other races and that therefore white people should be dominant over other races.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.
The various ethnolinguistic groups found in the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and/or South Asia demonstrate differing rates of particular Y-DNA haplogroups.
Young Bosnia (Mlada Bosna/Млада Босна) was a revolutionary movement active in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina before World War I. The members were predominantly school students, primarily Bosnian Serbs, but also Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 26th of July Movement (Movimiento 26 de Julio; M-26-7) was a vanguard revolutionary organization then a party led by Fidel Castro that in 1959 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista dictatorship in Cuba.
Age of Nationalism, Anti-colonial nationalism, Criticisms of nationalism, Gendered nationalism, Hypernationalism, Muscular nationalism, National Ideologies, National ideology, National sentiment, National sentiments, National unity, Nationalicism, Nationalisme, Nationalisms, Nationalist, Nationalist ethos, Nationalistic, Nationalistic aspirations, Nationalistic extremism, Nationalists, Proto-nationalism, Proto-nationalist, Protonationalism, Radical nationalism, Right-wing nationalism, Risorgimento nationalism, Sports nationalism, Ultra nationalist, Ultra-nationalistic, Ultra-nationalists.