251 relations: Acid, Air conditioning, Alkane, Amine gas treating, Ammonia, Anaerobic digestion, Anaerobic lagoon, Argentina, Asphalt, Associated petroleum gas, Aviat, Bakersfield, California, Barbecue grill, Becquerel, Belarus, Biomass, Black & Veatch, Bog, Brazil, Brine, Browse LNG, Butane, Car, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon monoxide detector, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Cattle, Central heating, Chemical industry, Chemical substance, Chiller, China, Clothes dryer, CNG carrier, Coal, Coal gas, Coal tar, Coalbed methane, Cogeneration, Coke (fuel), Combined cycle, Compressed natural gas, Compression ratio, Consumer, Cornell University, Cryogenics, Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering, Dekatherm, Desalination, ..., Diesel fuel, Eastern Europe, Effervescence, Electricity, Electricity generation, Emission standard, Energy Information Administration, Engine-generator, Enhanced oil recovery, Enteric fermentation, Enzyme, Ethane, European Union, Explosion, Fertilizer, Fischer–Tropsch process, Floating liquefied natural gas, Fossil fuel, Fredonia, New York, Front-end loading, Fuel, Fuel cell, Furnace, Futures contract, Gas, Gas flare, Gas leak, Gas meter, Gas oil ratio, Gas to liquids, Gas turbine, Gasification, Gasoline, Gazprom, Giant oil and gas fields, Glass, Global warming, Global warming potential, Green waste, Greenhouse gas, Haber process, Heat, Heat of combustion, Helium, Heptane, Hertfordshire, HVAC, Hydraulic fracturing, Hydrocarbon, Hydroelectricity, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrogen vehicle, Inch of water, India, Intercooler, International System of Units, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Iran, Joule, Joule–Thomson effect, Kerosene, Kilowatt hour, Landfill, Landfill gas, Lead, Leak, Liquefaction of gases, Liquefied natural gas, Liquefied natural gas terminal, Liquefied petroleum gas, List of natural gas pipelines, LNG carrier, Load profile, Lyon, Manure, Marsh, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MENA, Mercury (element), Methane, Methane clathrate, Methane emissions, Methanogen, Methylococcus capsulatus, Natural gas by country, Natural Gas Choice, Natural gas field, Natural gas prices, Natural gas vehicle, Natural-gas condensate, Natural-gas processing, Near East, New Scientist, New York Mercantile Exchange, Nitrogen, Nitrogen oxide, Nitrous oxide, Non-renewable resource, North Africa, Octane rating, Odorizer, Oil field, Oil well, OMERS, Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan, Organic compound, Organic matter, Oxygen, Paint, Pakistan, Particulates, Peak gas, Peaking power plant, Pentane, Pentanes, Permafrost, Petroleum, Petroleum industry, Petroleum reservoir, Petronas, Pipeline transport, Plastic, Plumbing, Pollutant, Polonium, Power-to-gas, Prelude FLNG, Pressure regulator, Process flow diagram, Produced water, Propane, Public utility, Qatar, Radon, Renewable energy, Renewable natural gas, Residential Customer Equivalent, Retrograde condensation, Royal Dutch Shell, Ruminant, Rural area, Russia, Russian ruble, Salt dome, Salt in Chinese history, Samsung Heavy Industries, Saudi Arabia, Sewage, Sewage treatment, SGN (company), Shale, Shale gas, Siberia, Sichuan, Siloxane, Sludge, Solar energy, Sour gas, South Pars/North Dome Gas-Condensate field, Sovereign wealth fund, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Standard cubic foot, Steam reforming, Steam turbine, Steel, Stranded gas reserve, Subsidence, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Supercritical fluid, Swamp, Syngas to gasoline plus, Tank truck, Termite, Tert-Butylthiol, Tetrahydrothiophene, Textile, Therm, Tight gas, Tonne, Toxicity, Tupolev, Tupolev Tu-204, Tupolev Tu-330, Tupolev Tu-334, Ukraine, Unconventional gas, Unconventional oil, United States customary units, United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Water cycle, Water heating, Water pollution, Water vapor, Wellhead, Western Europe, World Bank, World energy consumption, Ziliujing District. Expand index (201 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
Amine gas treating, also known as amine scrubbing, gas sweetening and acid gas removal, refers to a group of processes that use aqueous solutions of various alkylamines (commonly referred to simply as amines) to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from gases.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.
An anaerobic lagoon or manure lagoon is a man-made outdoor earthen basin filled with animal waste that undergoes anaerobic respiration as part of a system designed to manage and treat refuse created by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Associated petroleum gas (APG), or associated gas, is a form of natural gas which is found with deposits of petroleum, either dissolved in the oil or as a free "gas cap" above the oil in the reservoir.
Aviat Aircraft Inc. is an American manufacturer of sport and utility aircraft based in Afton, Wyoming.
Bakersfield is a city in and the county seat of Kern County, California, United States.
A barbecue grill is a device that cooks food by applying heat from below.
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Black & Veatch is a global engineering, procurement, construction (EPC) and consulting company specializing in infrastructure development in power, oil and gas, water, telecommunications, government, mining, data centers, smart cities and banking and finance markets.
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
The Browse LNG was a liquefied natural gas plant project proposed for construction at James Price Point, north of Broome on the Dampier Peninsula, Western Australia.
Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
A carbon monoxide detector or CO detector is a device that detects the presence of the carbon monoxide (CO) gas in order to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning.
Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
A central heating system provides warmth to the whole interior of a building (or portion of a building) from one point to multiple rooms.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycle.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A clothes dryer, tumble dryer, drying machine or dryer is a powered household appliance that is used to remove moisture from a load of clothing, bedding and other textiles, usually shortly after they are washed in a washing machine.
Compressed natural gas (CNG) carrier ships are designed for transportation of natural gas under high pressure.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system.
Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal.
Coalbed methane (CBM or coal-bed methane), coalbed gas, coal seam gas (CSG), or coal-mine methane (CMM) is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds.
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
In electric power generation a combined cycle is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem from the same source of heat, converting it into mechanical energy, which in turn usually drives electrical generators.
Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at high pressure) is a fuel which can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG.
The static compression ratio of an internal combustion engine or external combustion engine is a value that represents the ratio of the volume of its combustion chamber from its largest capacity to its smallest capacity.
A consumer is a person or organization that use economic services or commodities.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co., Ltd (DSME) (Korean: 대우조선해양, 大宇造船海洋) is one of the "Big Three" shipbuilders of South Korea (including Hyundai and Samsung).
A dekatherm (dth) is a unit of energy used primarily to measure natural gas, developed in about 1972 by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation, a natural gas pipeline company.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing that results from that release.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
Emission standards are the legal requirements governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
An engine-generator or portable generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of equipment.
Enhanced oil recovery (abbreviated EOR) is the implementation of various techniques for increasing the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field.
Enteric fermentation is a digestive process by which carbohydrates are broken down by microorganisms into simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream of an animal.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.
Floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) refers to water-based liquefied natural gas (LNG) operations employing technologies designed to enable the development of offshore natural gas resources.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Fredonia is a village in Chautauqua County, New York, United States.
Front-end loading (FEL), also referred to as pre-project planning (PPP), front-end engineering design (FEED), feasibility analysis, conceptual planning, programming/schematic design and early project planning, is the process for conceptual development of projects in processing industries such as upstream, petrochemical, refining and pharmaceutical.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating.
In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
A gas flare, alternatively known as a flare stack, is a gas combustion device used in industrial plants such as petroleum refineries, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants as well as at oil or gas production sites having oil wells, gas wells, offshore oil and gas rigs and landfills.
A gas leak refers to a leak of natural gas or other gaseous product from a pipeline or other containment into any area where the gas should not be present.
A gas meter is a specialized flow meter, used to measure the volume of fuel gases such as natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas.
When oil is brought to surface conditions it is usual for some natural gas to come out of solution.
Gas to liquids (GTL) is a refinery process to convert natural gas or other gaseous hydrocarbons into longer-chain hydrocarbons, such as gasoline or diesel fuel.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
Gasification is a process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (Публи́чное акционе́рное о́бщество «Газпром», Publichnoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo Gazprom, abbreviated PAO Gazprom, ПАО «Газпром») is a large Russian company founded in 1989, which carries on the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of natural gas.
The world's 932 giant oil and gas fields are considered those with of ultimately recoverable oil or gas equivalent.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Global warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere.
Green waste also called agricultural waste is supposed to be biodegradable waste that can be composed of garden or park waste, such as grass or flower cuttings and hedge trimmings, as well as domestic and commercial food waste.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
n-Heptane is the straight-chain alkane with the chemical formula H3C(CH2)5CH3 or C7H16.
Hertfordshire (often abbreviated Herts) is a county in southern England, bordered by Bedfordshire to the north, Cambridgeshire to the north-east, Essex to the east, Buckinghamshire to the west and Greater London to the south.
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort.
Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power.
Inches of water, inches of water gauge (iwg or in.w.g.), inches water column (inch wc or just wc), inAq, Aq, or inHO is a non-SI unit for pressure.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An intercooler is any mechanical device used to cool a fluid, including liquids or gases, between stages of a multi-stage compression process, typically a heat exchanger that removes waste heat in a gas compressor.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
Climate Change 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the fourth in a series of reports intended to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information concerning climate change, its potential effects, and options for adaptation and mitigation.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
In thermodynamics, the Joule–Thomson effect (also known as the Joule–Kelvin effect, Kelvin–Joule effect, or Joule–Thomson expansion) describes the temperature change of a real gas or liquid (as differentiated from an ideal gas) when it is forced through a valve or porous plug while keeping them insulated so that no heat is exchanged with the environment.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
Landfill gas is a complex mix of different gases created by the action of microorganisms within a landfill.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A leak is a way (usually an opening) for fluid to escape a container or fluid-containing system, such as a tank or a ship's hull, through which the contents of the container can escape or outside matter can enter the container.
Liquefaction of gases is physical conversion of a gas into a liquid state (condensation).
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been converted to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.
Liquefied natural gas terminal is a structure for liquefied natural gas to store.
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.
This is a list of pipelines used to transport natural gas.
An LNG carrier is a tank ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG).
In electrical engineering, a load profile is a graph of the variation in the electrical load versus time.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
MENA is an English-language acronym referring to the Middle East and North Africa region.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.
Global methane emissions are major part of the global greenhouse gas emissions.
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
Methylococcus capsulatus is an obligately methanotrophic gram-negative, non-motile coccoid bacterium.
This article includes a chart representing proven reserves, production, consumption, exports and imports of natural gas by country.
Natural Gas Choice programs in United States of America allow residential consumers and other small volume gas users to purchase natural gas from someone other than their traditional utility company.
Natural gas originates by the same geological thermal cracking process that converts kerogen to petroleum.
Natural gas prices, as with other commodity prices, are mainly driven by supply and demand fundamentals.
A natural gas vehicle (NGV) is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG).
Natural-gas condensate is a low-density mixture of hydrocarbon liquids that are present as gaseous components in the raw natural gas produced from many natural gas fields.
Natural-gas processing is a complex industrial process designed to clean raw natural gas by separating impurities and various non-methane hydrocarbons and fluids to produce what is known as pipeline quality dry natural gas.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is a commodity futures exchange owned and operated by CME Group of Chicago.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
A non-renewable resource (also called a finite resource) is a resource that does not renew itself at a sufficient rate for sustainable economic extraction in meaningful human time-frames.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel.
An odorizer is a device that adds an odorant to a gas.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.
OMERS, officially the Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System, is a pension fund created by statute in 1962 to handle the retirement benefits of local government employees in the Canadian province of Ontario.
The Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan Board (Ontario Teachers'; French: Régime de retraite des enseignantes et des enseignants de l'Ontario or RREO), is an independent organization responsible for administering defined-benefit pensions for school teachers of the Canadian province of Ontario.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
According to M. King Hubbert's Hubbert peak theory, peak gas is the point in time at which the maximum global natural gas (fossil gas) production rate will be reached, after which the rate of production will enter its terminal decline.
Peaking power plants, also known as peaker plants, and occasionally just "peakers", are power plants that generally run only when there is a high demand, known as peak demand, for electricity.
Pentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms.
The pentanes are a group of alkanes with five carbon atoms with the formula C5H12.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
A petroleum reservoir or oil and gas reservoir is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations.
PETRONAS, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad (National Petroleum, Limited), is a Malaysian oil and gas company that was founded on 17 August 1974.
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Power-to-gas (often abbreviated P2G) is a technology that converts electrical power to a gas fuel.
Prelude FLNG is the world's second floating liquefied natural gas platform as well as the largest offshore facility ever constructed.
A pressure regulator is a control valve that reduces the input pressure of a fluid to a desired value at its output.
A process flow diagram (PFD) is a diagram commonly used in chemical and process engineering to indicate the general flow of plant processes and equipment.
Produced water is a term used in the oil industry to describe water that is produced as a byproduct along with the oil and gas.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
A public utility (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure).
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Renewable Natural Gas (RNG), also known as Sustainable Natural Gas (SNG) or biomethane, is a biogas which has been upgraded to a quality similar to fossil natural gas and having a methane concentration of 90% or greater.
Residential Customer Equivalent (RCE) is a unit of measures used by the energy industry to denote the typical annual commodity consumption by a single-family residential customer.
Retrograde condensation occurs when gas in a tube is compressed beyond the point of condensation with the effect that the liquid evaporates again.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
A salt dome is a type of structural dome formed when a thick bed of evaporite minerals (mainly salt, or halite) found at depth intrudes vertically into surrounding rock strata, forming a diapir.
Salt, salt production, and salt taxes played key roles in Chinese history, economic development, and relations between state and society.
Samsung Heavy Industries or SHI (Korean: 삼성중공업) is one of the largest shipbuilders in the world and one of the "Big Three" shipbuilders of South Korea (including Hyundai and Daewoo).
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
SGN (previously known as Scotia Gas Networks) is a UK gas distribution company which manages the network that distributes natural and green gas to 5.9 million homes and businesses across Scotland and the south of England.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
A siloxane is a functional group in organosilicon chemistry with the Si–O–Si linkage.
Sludge is a semi-solid slurry and can be produced as sewage sludge from wastewater treatment processes or as a settled suspension obtained from conventional drinking water treatment and numerous other industrial processes.
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.
Sour gas is natural gas or any other gas containing significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
The South Pars/North Dome field is a natural-gas condensate field located in the Persian Gulf.
A sovereign wealth fund (SWF) or sovereign investment fund is a state-owned investment fund that invests in real and financial assets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, precious metals, or in alternative investments such as private equity fund or hedge funds.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
A standard cubic foot (scf) is a unit used both in the natural gas industry to represent an amount of natural gas and in other industries where other gases are used.
Steam reforming is a method for producing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or other useful products from hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas.
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A stranded gas reserve is a natural gas field that has been discovered, but remains unusable for either physical or economic reasons.
Subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea level.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist.
A swamp is a wetland that is forested.
Syngas to gasoline plus (STG+) is a thermochemical process to convert natural gas, other gaseous hydrocarbons or gasified biomass into drop-in fuels, such as gasoline, diesel fuel or jet fuel, and organic solvents.
A tank truck or tanker truck (United States usage) or tanker (United Kingdom usage), is a motor vehicle designed to carry liquefied loads, dry bulk cargo or gases on roads.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
tert-Butylthiol, also known as 2-methylpropane-2-thiol, 2-methyl-2-propanethiol, tert-butyl mercaptan (TBM), and t-BuSH, is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)3CSH.
Tetrahydrothiophene is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH2)4S.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The therm (symbol, thm) is a non-SI unit of heat energy equal to British thermal units (Btu).
Tight gas is natural gas produced from reservoir rocks with such low permeability that massive hydraulic fracturing is necessary to produce the well at economic rates.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Tupolev (Ту́полев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.
The Tupolev Tu-204 (Туполев Ту-204) is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association.
The Tupolev Tu-330 is a proposed modern medium-transport aircraft from the Russian airplane manufacturer Tupolev PSC.
The Tupolev Tu-334 (Туполев Ту-334) was a Russian short-to-medium range airliner project that was developed to replace the ageing Tu-134s and Yak-42s in service around the world.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Unconventional gas is natural gas obtained from sources of production that are, in a given era and location, considered to be new and different.
Unconventional oil is petroleum produced or extracted using techniques other than the conventional (oil well) method.
United States customary units are a system of measurements commonly used in the United States.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
Water heating is a heat transfer process that uses an energy source to heat water above its initial temperature.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
A wellhead is the component at the surface of an oil or gas well that provides the structural and pressure-containing interface for the drilling and production equipment.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
World energy consumption is the total energy used by the entire human civilization.
Ziliujing District, formerly romanized as Tzuliutsing, is a district of Zigong in Sichuan Province, China.