117 relations: Active hexose correlated compound, Adaptive immune system, Adaptive NK cells, Allele, Alpha defensin, Antibody, Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Apoptosis, B cell, B-cell receptor, BALB/c, Bone marrow, C57BL/6, CCL5, CD16, CD3 (immunology), CD94/NKG2, Cell membrane, Chikungunya, Cytokine, Cytoplasm, Cytotoxic T cell, Cytotoxicity, Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, Dendritic cell, Disulfide, Epstein–Barr virus, Eva Klein, Evolution, Fas ligand, Fragment crystallizable region, Graft-versus-host disease, Granulocyte, Granzyme, Haematopoiesis, Hepatitis, HIV, HIV/AIDS, HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-E, HLA-G, Human cytomegalovirus, Human leukocyte antigen, Humoral immunity, Immune system, Immune tolerance in pregnancy, Immunoglobulin G, Immunological memory, ..., Immunology, Infection, Innate immune system, Innate lymphoid cell, Interferon gamma, Interleukin, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 12, Interleukin 15, Interleukin 18, Interleukin 2, K562 cells, Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, KIR2DL4, Klas Kärre, KLRA1, Lectin, Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Lymphoblast, Lymphocyte, Lymphoma, Lysis, Macrophage, Major histocompatibility complex, MHC class I, MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A, Microorganism, Monoclonal antibody, Mouse, Natural killer T cell, Nature Reviews Microbiology, NCR1, Neoplasm, Neural cell adhesion molecule, Neutrophil, NK-92, NKG2D, Ofatumumab, Opsonin, Orthohantavirus, Pathogen, Perforin, Pregnancy, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Prostate cancer, Protease, Proteasome, Protein dimer, Pseudogene, Receptor (biochemistry), Recurrent miscarriage, Rituximab, Ronald B. Herberman, Signal peptide peptidase, Spleen, Stress (biology), T cell, T helper cell, T-cell receptor, Thymus, Tonsil, Transforming growth factor beta, Trophoblast, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Virus, White blood cell. Expand index (67 more) » « Shrink index
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is an alpha-glucan (.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Adaptive natural killer (NK) cells is a sub-population of natural killer cells, a cell type of the innate immune system.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Alpha defensins are a family of mammalian defensin peptides.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
The B-cell receptor or BCR is composed of immunoglobulin molecules that form a type 1 transmembrane receptor protein usually located on the outer surface of a lymphocyte type known as B cells.
BALB/c is an albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
C57BL/6, often referred to as "C57 black 6", "C57" or "black 6" (standard abbreviation: B6), is a common inbred strain of laboratory mouse.
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene.
CD16, also known as FcγRIII, is a cluster of differentiation molecule found on the surface of natural killer cells, neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes and macrophages.
In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T cell co-receptor helps to activate both the cytotoxic T cell (CD8+ naive T cells) and also T helper cells (CD4+ naive T cells).
CD94/NKG2 is a family of C-type lectin receptors which are expressed predominantly on the surface of NK cells and a subset of CD8+ T-lymphocyte.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Chikungunya is an infection caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV).
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.
Dana–Farber Cancer Institute is a comprehensive cancer treatment and research center in Boston, Massachusetts.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans.
Eva Klein (born Eva Fischer; January 22, 1925) is a Hungarian-Swedish scientist best known for leading the discovery of natural killer cells and developing Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines in the 1960s.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Fas ligand (FasL or CD95L) is a type-II transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family.
The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is the tail region of an antibody that interacts with cell surface receptors called Fc receptors and some proteins of the complement system.
Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a medical complication following the receipt of transplanted tissue from a genetically different person.
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.
Granzymes are serine proteases that are released by cytoplasmic granules within cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells.
Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
HLA-A is a group of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) that are coded for by the HLA-A locus, which is located at human chromosome 6p21.3.
HLA-B (major histocompatibility complex, class I, B) is a human gene that provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system.
HLA-C belongs to the MHC (human.
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain E (HLA-E) also known as MHC class I antigen E is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-E gene.
HLA-G histocompatibility antigen, class I, G, also known as human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-G gene.
Human cytomegalovirus is a species of the virus genus Cytomegalovirus, which in turn is a member of the viral family known as Herpesviridae or herpesviruses.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.
Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immune tolerance in pregnancy or gestational/maternal immune tolerance is the absence of a maternal immune response against (in other words, immune tolerance towards) the fetus and placenta during pregnancy, which thus may be viewed as unusually successful allografts, since they genetically differ from the mother.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody.
Immunological memory is the ability of the immune system to quickly and specifically recognize an antigen that the body has previously encountered and initiate a corresponding immune response.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of innate immune cells that are derived from common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) and belong to the lymphoid lineage.
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.
Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes).
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an interleukin that is naturally produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and human B-lymphoblastoid cells (NC-37) in response to antigenic stimulation.
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a cytokine with structural similarity to Interleukin-2 (IL-2).
Interleukin-18 (IL18, also known as interferon-gamma inducing factor) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the IL18 gene.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
K562 cells were the first human immortalised myelogenous leukemia cell line to be established.
Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), are a family of type I transmembrane glycoproteins expressed on the plasma membrane of natural killer (NK) cells and a minority of T cells.
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIR2DL4 gene.
Klas Kärre (born January 12, 1954 in Strasbourg, France) is a Swedish immunologist.
Ly-49 receptors or killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily A (KLRA), are a class of natural killer cell receptor.
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are highly specific for sugar moieties of other molecules.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
A lymphoblast is a modified naive lymphocyte that also looks completely different.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.
MHC class I molecules are one of two primary classes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (the other being MHC class II) and are found on the cell surface of all nucleated cells in the bodies of jawed vertebrates.
MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA) is a cell surface glycoprotein encoded by the MICA gene located within MHC locus.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and natural killer cells.
Nature Reviews Microbiology is a peer-reviewed review journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
Natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCR1 gene.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), also called CD56, is a homophilic binding glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons, glia and skeletal muscle.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
NK-92 is a continuously growing cell line that has features and characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells that every person has circulating in the blood.
NKG2D is a transmembrane protein belonging to the CD94/NKG2 family of C-type lectin-like receptors.
Ofatumumab (trade name Arzerra, also known as HuMax-CD20) is a fully human monoclonal antibody (for the CD20 protein) which appears to inhibit early-stage B lymphocyte activation.
An opsonin (from the Greek opsōneîn, to prepare for eating) is any molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking an antigen for an immune response or marking dead cells for recycling (i.e., causes the phagocyte to "relish" the marked cell).
Orthohantaviruses (or hantaviruses) are single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA viruses in the Hantaviridae family of the order Bunyavirales, which normally infect rodents where they do not cause disease.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Perforin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRF1 gene and the Prf1 gene in mice.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA clamp that acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ in eukaryotic cells and is essential for replication.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Recurrent miscarriage, habitual abortion, or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is three or more consecutive pregnancy losses.
Rituximab, sold under the brand name Rituxan among others, is a medication used to treat certain autoimmune diseases and types of cancer.
Ronald B. Herberman (? 1940 – June 1, 2013) was a physician, immunologist, oncologist, researcher, and professor of medicine and pathology who founded the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI), a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated Comprehensive Care Center in 1984.
In molecular biology, the Signal Peptide Peptidase (SPP) is a type of protein that specifically cleaves parts of other proteins.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
Tonsils are collections of lymphoid tissue facing into the aerodigestive tract.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.
Trophoblasts (from Greek trephein: to feed, and blastos: germinator) are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
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