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Natural philosophy

Index Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. [1]

162 relations: A History of Western Philosophy, Air (classical element), Alchemy, Alfred North Whitehead, Allegory of the Cave, Anaximander, Anaximenes of Miletus, Ancient Greek philosophy, Anecdotal evidence, Angel, Anti-realism, Aristotelian physics, Aristotle, Astronomy, Atomism, Baconian method, Bertrand Russell, Brian David Ellis, Causality, Charles Thaxton, Charmides (dialogue), Chemical element, Chemistry, Chimera (mythology), Cicero, Cosmology, David S. Oderberg, David Snoke, Day, Demiurge, Democritus, Determinism, Disease, Dover Publications, Earth (classical element), Edmund Husserl, Edwin Arthur Burtt, Empedocles, Environmental philosophy, Epicurus, Ernst Mayr, Essence, Essentialism, Etiology, Experiment, Fire (classical element), Firmament, Fluid, Four causes, Francis Bacon, ..., Free will, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Galileo Galilei, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Santayana, German philosophy, God, Gulliver's Travels, Hans Jonas, Heraclitus, Hesiod, History of science, Human nature, Immune system, Independent scientist, Indeterminism, Infinity, Isaac Newton, Jacob Klein (philosopher), Jacopo Zabarella, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Dupré, John Locke, Latin, Leucippus, Life, List of Greek mythological figures, Martin Heidegger, Matter, Mechanics, Metaphysics, Metaphysics (Aristotle), Michel Weber, Middle Ages, Milesian school, Mind–body dualism, Modernity, Moritz Schlick, Mother Nature, Motion (physics), Myth, Nancy Cartwright (philosopher), Nancy Pearcey, Natura naturans, Natural environment, Natural history, Natural kind, Natural science, Natural theology, Naturalism (philosophy), Nature, Nature (philosophy), Nicholas Maxwell, Night, Observation, Occam's razor, Ontology, Parmenides, Peter Tait (physicist), Phenomenon, Philip Kitcher, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Philosophy, Philosophy of motion, Philosophy of science, Philosophy of space and time, Phoenix (mythology), Physician, Physics, Physics (Aristotle), Physiology, Physis, Plato, Positivism, Potentiality and actuality, Process and Reality, Process philosophy, Property (philosophy), Protoscience, Qualitative property, Quality (philosophy), Quantity, Quiddity, René Descartes, René Thom, Respiration (physiology), Robert Boyle, Royal Society, Scholasticism, Scientific method, Scientist, Sextus Empiricus, Spirit, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stoicism, Substance theory, Teleological argument, Teleology, Thales of Miletus, Theory of forms, Thomas Aquinas, Treatise on Natural Philosophy, Triangle, Troglodytae, Universe, University, University of Oxford, University of Padua, Unmoved mover, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, William Whewell, World view. Expand index (112 more) »

A History of Western Philosophy

A History of Western Philosophy is a 1945 book by philosopher Bertrand Russell.

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Air (classical element)

Air is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and in Western alchemy.

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Alchemy

Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.

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Alfred North Whitehead

Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.

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Allegory of the Cave

The Allegory of the Cave, or Plato's Cave, was presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work Republic (514a–520a) to compare "the effect of education (παιδεία) and the lack of it on our nature".

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Anaximander

Anaximander (Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus,"Anaximander" in Chambers's Encyclopædia.

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Anaximenes of Miletus

Anaximenes of Miletus (Ἀναξιμένης ὁ Μιλήσιος; c. 585 – c. 528 BC) was an Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher active in the latter half of the 6th century BC.

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Ancient Greek philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.

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Anecdotal evidence

Anecdotal evidence is evidence from anecdotes, i.e., evidence collected in a casual or informal manner and relying heavily or entirely on personal testimony.

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Angel

An angel is generally a supernatural being found in various religions and mythologies.

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Anti-realism

In analytic philosophy, anti-realism is an epistemological position first articulated by British philosopher Michael Dummett.

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Aristotelian physics

Aristotelian physics is a form of natural science described in the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–).

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Atomism

Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.

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Baconian method

The Baconian method is the investigative method developed by Sir Francis Bacon.

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Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.

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Brian David Ellis

Brian Ellis (born 1929) is an Emeritus Professor in the philosophy department at La Trobe University in Victoria, Australia.

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Causality

Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

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Charles Thaxton

Charles B. Thaxton (born 1939) is a proponent of Special Creation who went on to become one of the first intelligent design authors, and Fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture.

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Charmides (dialogue)

The Charmides (Χαρμίδης) is a dialogue of Plato, in which Socrates engages a handsome and popular boy in a conversation about the meaning of sophrosyne, a Greek word usually translated into English as "temperance", "self-control", or "restraint".

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chimera (mythology)

The Chimera (or, also Chimaera (Chimæra); Greek: Χίμαιρα, Chímaira "she-goat") was, according to Greek mythology, a monstrous fire-breathing hybrid creature of Lycia in Asia Minor, composed of the parts of more than one animal.

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Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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Cosmology

Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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David S. Oderberg

Professor David S. Oderberg (born 1963) is an Australian philosopher of metaphysics and ethics based in Britain since 1987.

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David Snoke

David W. Snoke is a physics professor at the University of Pittsburgh in the Department of Physics and Astronomy.

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Day

A day, a unit of time, is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun (solar day).

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Demiurge

In the Platonic, Neopythagorean, Middle Platonic, and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy, the demiurge is an artisan-like figure responsible for fashioning and maintaining the physical universe.

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Democritus

Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.

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Determinism

Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.

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Disease

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Dover Publications

Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.

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Earth (classical element)

Earth is one of the classical elements, in some systems numbering four along with air, fire, and water.

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Edmund Husserl

Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.

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Edwin Arthur Burtt

Edwin Arthur Burtt (October 11, 1892 – September 6, 1989), usually cited as E. A. Burtt, was an American philosopher who wrote extensively on the philosophy of religion.

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Empedocles

Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.

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Environmental philosophy

Environmental philosophy is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the natural environment and humans' place within it.

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Epicurus

Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.

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Ernst Mayr

Ernst Walter Mayr (5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005) was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists.

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Essence

In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.

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Essentialism

Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.

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Etiology

Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.

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Experiment

An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

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Fire (classical element)

Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.

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Firmament

In Biblical cosmology, the firmament is the structure above the atmosphere of Earth, conceived as a vast solid dome.

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Fluid

In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.

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Four causes

The "four causes" are elements of an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby explanations of change or movement are classified into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?".

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Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

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Free will

Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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George Santayana

Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (December 16, 1863September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.

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German philosophy

German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy in the German language or (2) philosophy by Germans, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz through Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein to contemporary philosophers.

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God

In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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Gulliver's Travels

Gulliver's Travels, or Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World.

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Hans Jonas

Hans Jonas (10 May 1903 – 5 February 1993) was a German-born American Jewish philosopher, from 1955 to 1976 the Alvin Johnson Professor of Philosophy at the New School for Social Research in New York City.

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Heraclitus

Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.

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Hesiod

Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.

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History of science

The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.

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Human nature

Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Independent scientist

An independent scientist (historically also known as gentleman scientist) is a financially independent scientist who pursues scientific study without direct affiliation to a public institution such as a university or government-run research and development body.

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Indeterminism

Indeterminism is the idea that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically.

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Infinity

Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Jacob Klein (philosopher)

Jacob Klein (March 3, 1899 – July 16, 1978) was a Russian-American philosopher and interpreter of Plato, who worked extensively on the nature and historical origin of modern symbolic mathematics.

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Jacopo Zabarella

Giacomo (or Jacopo) Zabarella (5 September 1533 – 15 October 1589) was an Italian Aristotelian philosopher and logician.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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John Dupré

John A. Dupré (born 1952) is a professional philosopher of science.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leucippus

Leucippus (Λεύκιππος, Leúkippos; fl. 5th cent. BCE) is reported in some ancient sources to have been a philosopher who was the earliest Greek to develop the theory of atomism—the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms.

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Life

Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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List of Greek mythological figures

The following is a list of gods, goddesses and many other divine and semi-divine figures from Ancient Greek mythology and Ancient Greek religion.

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Martin Heidegger

Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".

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Matter

In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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Mechanics

Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

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Metaphysics

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Metaphysics (Aristotle)

Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.

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Michel Weber

Michel Weber is a Belgian philosopher, born in Brussels in 1963.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Milesian school

The Milesian school was a school of thought founded in the 6th century BC.

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Mind–body dualism

Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.

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Modernity

Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".

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Moritz Schlick

Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882 – June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher, physicist, and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle.

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Mother Nature

Mother Nature (sometimes known as Mother Earth or the Earth-Mother) is a common personification of nature that focuses on the life-giving and nurturing aspects of nature by embodying it, in the form of the mother.

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Motion (physics)

In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.

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Myth

Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in society, such as foundational tales.

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Nancy Cartwright (philosopher)

Nancy Cartwright, Lady Hampshire, (born 24 January 1944) is a philosopher of science and is professor of philosophy at the University of California at San Diego and the University of Durham.

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Nancy Pearcey

Nancy Randolph Pearcey (born 1952) is an American evangelical author on the Christian worldview.

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Natura naturans

Natura naturans is a Latin tag coined during the Middle Ages, meaning "Nature naturing", or more loosely, "nature doing what nature does".

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Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

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Natural history

Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.

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Natural kind

In analytic philosophy, the term natural kind identifies a grouping of singular objects that always share particular qualities, whether or not humans know either the objects or qualities.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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Natural theology

Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.

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Naturalism (philosophy)

In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

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Nature

Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

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Nature (philosophy)

Nature has two inter-related meanings in philosophy.

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Nicholas Maxwell

Nicholas Maxwell (born 3 July 1937) is a philosopher who has devoted much of his working life to arguing that there is an urgent need to bring about a revolution in academia so that it seeks and promotes wisdom and does not just acquire knowledge.

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Night

Night or nighttime (sp. night-time or night time) is the period of time between sunset and sunrise, when the Sun is below the horizon.

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Observation

Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.

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Occam's razor

Occam's razor (also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, the simplest explanation tends to be the right one.

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Ontology

Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Parmenides

Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).

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Peter Tait (physicist)

Peter Guthrie Tait FRSE (28 April 1831 – 4 July 1901) was a Scottish mathematical physicist and early pioneer in thermodynamics.

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Phenomenon

A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.

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Philip Kitcher

Philip Stuart Kitcher (born 20 February 1947) is a British philosophy professor who specialises in the philosophy of science, the philosophy of biology, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of literature, and, more recently, pragmatism.

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Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.

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Philosophy

Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophy of motion

Philosophy of motion is a branch of philosophy concerned with exploring questions on the existence and nature of motion.

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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

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Philosophy of space and time

Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time.

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Phoenix (mythology)

In Greek mythology, a phoenix (φοῖνιξ, phoînix) is a long-lived bird that cyclically regenerates or is otherwise born again.

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Physician

A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Physics (Aristotle)

The Physics (Greek: Φυσικὴ ἀκρόασις Phusike akroasis; Latin: Physica, or Naturalis Auscultationes, possibly meaning "lectures on nature") is a named text, written in ancient Greek, collated from a collection of surviving manuscripts known as the Corpus Aristotelicum because attributed to the 4th-century BC philosopher, teacher, and mentor of Macedonian rulers, Aristotle.

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Physiology

Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Physis

Physis (Greek: italic phusis) is a Greek theological, philosophical, and scientific term usually translated into English as "nature".

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Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Positivism

Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.

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Potentiality and actuality

In philosophy, potentiality and actuality are principles of a dichotomy which Aristotle used to analyze motion, causality, ethics, and physiology in his Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics and De Anima, which is about the human psyche.

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Process and Reality

Process and Reality is a book by Alfred North Whitehead, in which Whitehead propounds a philosophy of organism, also called process philosophy.

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Process philosophy

Process philosophy — also ontology of becoming, processism, or philosophy of organism — identifies metaphysical reality with change and development.

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Property (philosophy)

In philosophy, mathematics, and logic, a property is a characteristic of an object; a red object is said to have the property of redness.

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Protoscience

In the philosophy of science, there are several definitions of protoscience.

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Qualitative property

Qualitative properties are properties that are observed and can generally not be measured with a numerical result.

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Quality (philosophy)

In philosophy, a quality is an attribute or a property characteristic of an object.

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Quantity

Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude.

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Quiddity

In scholastic philosophy, "quiddity" (Latin: quidditas) was another term for the essence of an object, literally its "whatness" or "what it is".

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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René Thom

René Frédéric Thom (2 September 1923 – 25 October 2002) was a French mathematician.

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Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

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Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Scholasticism

Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Scientist

A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.

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Sextus Empiricus

Sextus Empiricus (Σέξτος Ἐμπειρικός; c. 160 – c. 210 CE, n.b., dates uncertain), was a physician and philosopher, who likely lived in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens.

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Spirit

A spirit is a supernatural being, often but not exclusively a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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Stoicism

Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.

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Substance theory

Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.

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Teleological argument

The teleological or physico-theological argument, also known as the argument from design, or intelligent design argument is an argument for the existence of God or, more generally, for an intelligent creator based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural world.

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Teleology

Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.

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Thales of Miletus

Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).

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Theory of forms

The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.

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Thomas Aquinas

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.

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Treatise on Natural Philosophy

Treatise on Natural Philosophy was an 1867 text book by William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) and Peter Guthrie Tait, published by Oxford University Press.

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Triangle

A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.

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Troglodytae

The Troglodytae (Τρωγλοδύται), or Troglodyti (literally "cave goers"), were a people mentioned in various locations by many ancient Greek and Roman geographers and historians, including Herodotus (5th century BCE), Agatharchides (2nd century BCE), Diodorus Siculus (1st century BCE), Strabo (64/63 BCE – c.  24 CE), Pliny (1st century CE), Josephus (37 – c. 100 CE), Tacitus (c. 56 – after 117 CE), etc.

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Universe

The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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University

A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of Padua

The University of Padua (Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is a premier Italian university located in the city of Padua, Italy.

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Unmoved mover

The unmoved mover (that which moves without being moved) or prime mover (primum movens) is a concept advanced by Aristotle as a primary cause or "mover" of all the motion in the universe.

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William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.

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William Whewell

William Whewell (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.

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World view

A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.

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Natural Philosopher, Natural Philosophy, Natural philosopher, Natural philosophers, Principles of Natural Philosophy, Principles of natural philosophy.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_philosophy

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